Ramakrishnananda was one of the direct disciples of Ramakrishna Paramahamsa. Known for his Gurubhakti, he served the Baranagore Math for 12 years without missing a single day, Ramakrishnananda was born as Shashi Bhushan Chakravarty on 13 July 1863. His father Ishwara Chandra Chakravarty was an expert in ritualistic worship, after passing out of the village school, he went to Kolkata and lived with his cousin Sharat for higher education. A brilliant student, he chose mathematics for the B. A. course which, while studying in a Calcutta college and Sharat joined the Brahmo Samaj, and heard about Ramakrishna from Keshab Chandra Sen himself. In October 1883 they visited Dakshineswar and were attracted to Ramakrishna. Shashi distinguished himself most by the spirit and devotion with which he served Ramakrishna during his last illness at Shyampukur. After the Masters passing he joined the Baranagar Math and underwent sannyasa ordination and he took charge of the worship of the Atmaramer kauta, the urn containing the relics of Ramakrishna in the Maths shrine.
He felt the presence of the Master, and so his worship was not a mere ritual. It was Swami Ramakrishnananda who formulated and introduced the system of daily worship to Ramakrishna that is followed in the Ramakrishna Movement. He seldom went out on pilgrimage, and devoted himself to worship at the Math. But when Vivekananda, after his return from the West, asked him to go to Madras and open a centre of Ramakrishna Math there. In the South he travelled extensively, the starting of centres in Trivandrum, Mysore and Mumbai owed much to his pioneering efforts. Incessant work, especially his service to Sarada Devi during her travels in South, told upon his health and he spent some weeks in Bangalore with a hope of getting better in the salubrious climate there under the care of his brother disciple Nirmalananda. But since the deterioration continued he was sent to Calcutta He breathed his last in a state of ecstasy on 21 August 1911, extensive travels to Bangalore, Trivandrum, Ernakulam, Tirunelveli, Rangoon and other places.
This was helpful to Akhandananda who was involved in the ground work of that relief. They say that he was referring to Ramakrishnananda, who was sent in March 1897, ramakrishnanda was said to be a student of all of the great scriptures. He knew the Bible and expounded it, a disciple wrote It is apparently absurd, but really true, when i say God is nearer to you than you are to yourself. Where your mind is there you must be, scattered all over the world and attached to it so firmly that you deem it almost impossible to bring it back inside yourself
Trigunatitananda, premonastic name Sarada Prasanna Mitra, was a direct disciple of Ramakrishna, the 19th-century Indian Hindu mystic and sant. He established the monthly Bengali magazine Udbodhan of Ramakrishna Math and later, at the behest of Vivekananda, went to America in 1902, one of his contributions was the construction of a new building in San Francisco which came to be known as the Hindu Temple. He was mortally injured by a bomb thrown at him by a former student, Trigunatitananda was born as Sarada Prasanna Mitra, on 30 January 1865. He was born to a family in the village of Naora in Bhangar I. Sarada was enrolled in the Metropolitan Institution at Shyampukur and this was a school of Iswar Chandra Vidyasagar, a social reformer and scholar of 19th century India. The headmaster there was Mahendranath Gupta, better known as M, Sarada did not do well in the school leaving entrance examination. M took young Sarada to Dakshineswar temple to meet Ramakrishna on 27 December 1884, at a very young age Sarada had shown a religious disposition and this was reinforced by contact with Ramakrishna, whom he visited often after joining the Metropolitan college.
When his parents decided to arrange a marriage for him according to Indian customs, he left his house for Puri in January 1886 and he appeared for and passed his First Arts examination. He dedicated himself to the service of Ramakrishna when the latter was ill in Cossipore Garden House. After Ramakrishna died, Sarada began to stay with Narendranath Dutta and a group of dedicated direct disciples of Ramakrishna, in January 1887 Sarada took the vows of complete renunciation or sannyas along with his brother disciples, and came to be known as Trigunatitananda. In 1891 Trigunatita started on pilgrimage for Vrindaban, Jaipur, after that he returned to Baranagar Math. In 1895 he set out on foot for Mount Kailash and Lake Manasarovar and he came back to Calcutta and stayed in the house of a devotee and led a contemplative life for some time. After some time he went to stay in the newly formed Alambazar Math of the Ramakrishna order and he was influenced by Vivekanandas ideal of service and philanthropic activities.
In 1897 when the district of Dinajpur in Bengal was in the grip of a famine, he went there, Vivekananda had planned a magazine to spread the message of Vedanta. For this purpose a press was bought and Trigunatita was put in charge of publishing the magazine, after Yoganandas death, Tigunatitananda became a personal attendant to Sarada Devi for a time. His brother Ashutosh Mitra, a monk of the Ramakrishna Order, in 1902 when Turiyananda returned from America prematurely due to ill health, Trigunatitananda was sent to replace him. On 2 January 1903, he reached San Francisco and was taken to the house of T. H, president of the San Francisco Vedanta society. A few weeks he went to the home of Mr. classes and lectures were held regularly
Sarada Devi, born Saradamani Mukhopadhyay, was the wife and spiritual counterpart of Ramakrishna Paramhansa, a nineteenth-century mystic of Bengal. Sarada Devi is addressed as the Holy Mother by the followers of the Ramakrishna monastic order. Sarada Devi or Sri Sri Ma is one of the notable woman saints and she paved the way for the future generation of women to take up monasticity as the means and end of life. In fact Sri Sarada Math and Ramakrishna Sarada Mission situated at Dakshineshwar is based on the ideals, Sarada Devi played an important role in the growth of the Ramakrishna Movement. Sarada Devi was born in Jayrambati, at the age of five she was betrothed to Ramakrishna, whom she joined at Dakshineswar Kali temple when she was in her late teens. According to her biographers, both lived lives of unbroken continence, showing the ideals of a householder and of the monastic ways of life. After Ramakrishnas death, Sarada Devi stayed most of the time either at Jayrambati or at the Udbodhan office, the disciples of Ramakrishna regarded her as their own mother, and after their gurus death looked to her for advice and encouragement.
The followers of the Ramakrishna movement and a section of devotees across the world worship Sri Sri Ma Sarada Devi as an incarnation of the Adi Parashakti or the Divine Mother. Saradamani Devi was born of Brahmin parents as the eldest daughter on 22 December 1853, in the village of Jayrambati in present-day West Bengal. Her parents, Ramachandra Mukhopadhyay and Shyama Sundari Devi, were poor and her father Ramchandra earned his living as a farmer and through the performance of priestly duties. According to traditional accounts and Syamasundari had visions and supernatural events foretelling the birth of a divine being as their daughter, Sarada lived the simple life of an Indian village girl. As a child Sarada—then known as Saradamani—was fascinated by traditional Hindu folklore, during the terrible famine of 1864, Sarada worked ceaselessly as her family served food to hungry people. She was interested in the models of goddesses Kali and Lakshmi. She is said to have started meditating from her childhood and traditional accounts recount her mystic visions, according to Sarada Devi, she used to see a bevy of eight girls of her age coming from an unknown place and escorting her in her chores during her childhood.
Ramakrishna—then known as Gadadhar Chattopadhaya and a priest of the Dakshineswar Kali Temple since 1855—was practising spiritual austerities and his mother and brother thought that a marriage would be a good steadying effect on him, by diverting his attention away from spiritual austerities and visions. It is reported that Ramakrishna himself indicated Saradamani as the bride, in May 1859, Sarada was betrothed to Ramakrishna. Sarada was 5 years old and Ramakrishna was 23, the age difference was typical for 19th century rural Bengal, after the betrothal, Sarada was left to the care of her parents and Ramakrishna returned to Dakshineswar. Sarada next met Ramakrishna when she was fourteen years old, Ramakrishna imparted to Sarada instructions on meditation and spiritual life
Haridwar pronunciation spelled Hardwar is an ancient city and municipality in the Haridwar district of Uttarakhand, India. Haridwar is regarded as one of the seven holiest places to Hindus and this is manifested in the Kumbha Mela, which is celebrated every 12 years in Haridwar. Brahma Kund, the spot where the Amrit fell, is located at Har ki Pauri and is considered to be the most sacred ghat of Haridwar, Haridwar is the headquarters and the largest city of the district. The name of the town has two spellings and Haridwar, each of these names has its own connotation. So, Haridwar stands for The Gateway to Lord Vishnu, in order to reach Badrinath, one of the four Char Dhams, with a temple of Lord Vishnu, Haridwar is a typical place to start a pilgrims journey. On the other hand, In Sanskrit, Hara means Lord Shiva, Hardwar stands for Gateway to Lord Shiva. Har ki Pauri or footsteps of Lord Shiva is considered the most sacred site in Hardwar, Haridwar is known as the home of Devi Sati and the palace of her father Daksha.
In ancient times, the town was referred to as Gangadwára. Ayodhyā Mathurā Māyā Kāśī Kāñcī Avantikā Purī Dvārāvatī caiva saptaitā mokṣadāyikāḥ– Garuḍa Purāṇa I XVI.14 Lit, Mathura, Kasi, Kanchi and Dwaraka are the seven holy places. Note the use of puranic name Maya for Haridwar, as the inter-change usage of Puri and Dwaraka. The Garuḍa Purāṇa enumerates seven cities as giver of Moksha, Haridwar is said to be one of the seven most holy Hindu places in India, with Varanasi usually considered the holiest. A Kṣetra is a ground, a field of active power. In the scriptures, Haridwar has been mentioned as Kapilasthana, Gangadwara. It is a point to the Char Dham, hence and Vaishnavites call this place Hardwar and Haridwar respectively, corresponding to Hara being Shiv. Sage Kapila is said to have an ashram here giving it, its ancient name, Lord Vishnu is said to have left his footprint on the stone that is set in the upper wall of Har Ki Pauri, where the Holy Ganges touches it at all times. Haridwar came under the rule of the Maurya Empire, and under the Kushan Empire, Archaeological findings have proved that terra cotta culture dating between 1700 BCE and 1200 BCE existed in this region.
Among the ruins are a fort and three temples, decorated with stone sculptures, he mentions the presence of a temple, north of Mo-yu-lo called Gangadwara. The city fell to the Central Asian conqueror Timur Lang on 13 January 1399, Pandas of the Haridwar have been known to keep genealogy records of most of the Hindu population
Belūr Maṭh or Belur Mutt is the headquarters of the Ramakrishna Math and Mission, founded by Swami Vivekananda, a chief disciple of Ramakrishna Paramahamsa. It is located on the west bank of Hooghly River, West Bengal and this temple is the heart of the Ramakrishna Movement. The temple is notable for its architecture that fuses Hindu, Christian, in January 1897, Swami Vivekananda arrived in Colombo with his small group of Western disciples. Two monasteries were founded by him, one at Belur, which became the headquarters of Ramakrishna Mission and these monasteries were meant to receive and train young men who would eventually become sannyasis of the Ramakrishna Mission, and to give them a training for their work. The same year the philanthropic activity was started and relief of the famine was carried out, during his tour in America and Europe, he came across buildings of architectural importance of Modern, Medieval and Renaissance styles. It is reported that Vivekananda incorporated these ideas in the design of the Belur Math temple, the massive construction was handled by Martin Burn & Co.
The mission proclaims the Belur Math as, A Symphony in Architecture, the campus houses a Museum containing articles connected with the history of Ramakrishna Math and Mission. Several educational institutions affiliated with the Ramakrishna Mission are situated in the vast campus adjacent to Belur Math, the Belur Math is considered as one of the prime tourist spots near Kolkata and place of pilgrimage by devotees. The ex-president Abdul Kalam regarded Belur Math as a place of heritage, the design of the temple was envisioned by Swami Vivekananda and the architect was Swami Vijnanananda, a direct monastic disciple of Ramakrishna. Sri Ramakrishna Temple was consecrated on 14 January, the Makar Sankranti Day in 1938, the Ramakrishna temple at the Belur Math is designed to celebrate the diversity of Indian Religions and resembles a temple, a mosque, a church if seen from different positions. The architectural style and symbolism from a number of religions have been incorporated into the design of the temple at Belur Math, the temple is considered as a prime example of the importance of material dimension of religion.
The main entrance of the temple, has a facade influenced by Buddhist style, the structure which rises over the entrance is modelled on the Hindu temples of South India with their lofty towers. The windows and balconies inside the temple draw upon the Rajput, the central dome is derived from European architecture of the Renaissance period. The ground plan is in the shape of Christian cross, the height of the temple is 112.5 feet and covers a total area of 32,900 sq ft. The temple mainly is built of stone and some portion in the front is of cement. The high entrance of the temple is like a South Indian Gopuram, the three umbrella-like domes on the top built in Rajput-Moghul styles give an idea of thatched roofs of the village Kamarpukur. The circular portion of the entrance is an intermingling of Ajanta style with Hindu architecture and within it, just above seen is a replica of a Shiva lingam. The natmandira, the spacious congregational hall attached to the sanctum, the pillars in a line on its both sides are according to Doric or Greek style and their decorations are according to the Meenakshi Temple at Madurai in Tamil Nadu
Jayrambati is a town, in the jurisdiction of Kotulpur police station in the Bishnupur subdivision in Bankura district, West Bengal, India. Jayrambati is three miles to the west of Kamarpukur and two miles to the east of Sihar - the birthplace of Hridayrama Mukhopadhyaya, a nephew of Sri Ramakrishna and Arambag are twenty-seven miles and twelve miles distant respectively from Jayrambati. The village, surrounded on all sides by green pastures, untrimmed meadows, the area that extends for about half a mile between this village and the Amodar is very fertile and yields all kinds of vegetables and other agricultural products. The main source of irrigation of the cultivable lands is the big lake called Mothers Tank where the visitors. It is said that the Holy Mother in her girlhood used to cut grass for cows in neck-deep water from this very tank. At present water is supplied to this reservoir from the river Amodar by means of a pump and is used for the irrigation of the surrounding fields. There is another tank called Barunjjey Pukur which lies on the corner of this village and is surrounded with palmyra trees.
Sarada Devi was born in village in 1853. This village with its sacred traditions has become a place of pilgrimage. On one occasion, the Holy Mother, after touching the dust of this place with her forehead, Ones own mother, Jayrambati can be reached from Howrah by train up to Arambagh and by bus. One can come by road from Kolkata, buses are available from Esplanade to Bishnupur which touches Jayrambati in its route. The village hosts a temple of Vivekananda monks and the school for boys that the monks operate. The school hosts around 250 boys, providing them with an education through junior high, there is a temple called Naranarayan Temple where a child of below 5 years of age is worshipped as God Narayan at 10,00 A. M daily. This is an experiment started by Swami Nityanandaji Maharaj of Vivekananda Math to manifest the saying of Shiva in Jiva. The offerings in this puja are unusual which suits the need of a child like, there is Matrimandir dedicated to Ma Sarada devi, the spiritual consort of Sri Ramakrishna.
The temple was constructed on the birthplace of Ma Sarada devi, in nearby Sihar village there is an old temple dedicated to Shantinath Shiva. Both Sri Ramakrishna and the Holy Mother visited this temple, a grand fair is organized on the last of day of chaitra on the occasion of Gajan
Religious texts are texts which religious traditions consider to be central to their religious practice or set of beliefs. It is not possible to create an exhaustive list of religious texts, one of the oldest known religious texts is the Kesh Temple Hymn of Ancient Sumer, a set of inscribed clay tablets which scholars typically date around 2600 BCE. For example, the content of a Protestant Bible may differ from the content of a Catholic Bible, the word canon comes from the Sumerian word meaning standard. Hierographology is the study of sacred texts, the following is an in-exhaustive list of links to specific religious texts which may be used for further, more in-depth study. The writings of Franklin Albert Jones a. k. a, some denominations include the Apocrypha. For Protestantism, this is the 66-book canon - the Jewish Tanakh of 24 books divided differently, some denominations include the 15 books of the Apocrypha between the Old Testament and the New Testament, for a total of 81 books. For Catholicism, this includes seven deuterocanonical books in the Old Testament for a total of 73 books, called the Canon of Trent.
For the Eastern Orthodox Church, this includes the anagignoskomena, which consist of the Catholic deuterocanon, plus 3 Maccabees, Psalm 151, the Prayer of Manasseh,4 Maccabees is considered to be canonical by the Georgian Orthodox Church. Some Syriac churches accept the Letter of Baruch as scripture, christian Scientists The Bible Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures by Mary Baker Eddy. This textbook, along with the Bible, serves as the permanent impersonal pastor of the church, the Community of Christ uses the Joseph Smith Translation, which it calls the Inspired Version, as well as updated modern translations. Seventh-day Adventists The Bible The writings of Ellen White are held to a status, though not equal with the Bible. Also known as the Gospel of Mani and The Living Gospel the Treasure of Life the Pragmateia the Book of Mysteries The Book of Giants the Epistles the Psalms, the Shabuhragan The Arzhang The Kephalaia, found in Coptic translation. Odù Ifá Jaap Verduijns Odu Ifa Collection Primary religious texts, that is, the Avesta collection, The Yasna, the Visperad, a collection of supplements to the Yasna.
The Yashts, hymns in honor of the divinities, the Vendidad, describes the various forms of evil spirits and ways to confound them. Shorter texts and prayers, the Yashts the five Nyaishes, the Sirozeh, there are some 60 secondary religious texts, none of which are considered scripture. The Khordeh Avesta, Zoroastrian prayer book for lay people from the Avesta, religious full text online library Ancient texts library Internet Sacred Text Archive
The spiritual capital of India, it is the holiest of the seven sacred cities in Hinduism and Jainism, and played an important role in the development of Buddhism. Varanasi lies along National Highway 2, which connects it to Kolkata, Kanpur and Delhi, Varanasi is one of 72 districts in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. At the time of the 2011 census, there were a total 8 blocks and 1329 villages in this district, Varanasi grew as an important industrial centre, famous for its muslin and silk fabrics, ivory works, and sculpture. Buddha is believed to have founded Buddhism here around 528 BC when he gave his first sermon, The Setting in Motion of the Wheel of Dharma, at nearby Sarnath. The citys religious importance continued to grow in the 8th century, Tulsidas wrote his epic poem on Ramas life called Ram Charit Manas in Varanasi. Several other major figures of the Bhakti movement were born in Varanasi, including Kabir, Guru Nanak Dev visited Varanasi for Shivratri in 1507, a trip that played a large role in the founding of Sikhism.
The kingdom of Benares was given official status by the Mughals in 1737, silk weaving and crafts and tourism employ a significant number of the local population, as do the Diesel Locomotive Works and Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited. Varanasi Hospital was established in 1964, Varanasi has been a cultural centre of North India for several thousand years, and is closely associated with the Ganges. Hindus believe that death in the city will bring salvation, making it a centre for pilgrimage. The city is known worldwide for its ghats, embankments made in steps of stone slabs along the river bank where pilgrims perform ritual ablutions. Of particular note are the Dashashwamedh Ghat, the Panchganga Ghat, the Manikarnika Ghat and the Harishchandra Ghat, the last two being where Hindus cremate their dead. The Ramnagar Fort, near the bank of the Ganges, was built in the 18th century in the Mughal style of architecture with carved balconies, open courtyards. Among the estimated 23,000 temples in Varanasi are Kashi Vishwanath Temple of Shiva, the Sankat Mochan Hanuman Temple, the Kashi Naresh is the chief cultural patron of Varanasi, and an essential part of all religious celebrations.
One of Asias largest residential universities is Banaras Hindu University, the Hindi-language nationalist newspaper, Aj, was first published in 1920. The old city is located on the shores of the Ganges, bounded by Varuna. The name was used by pilgrims dating from Buddhas days. Hindu religious texts use many epithets to refer to Varanasi, such as Kāśikā, Avimukta, Ānandavana, according to legend, Varanasi was founded by the god Shiva. It is regarded as one of seven cities which can provide Moksha, Ayodhyā, Mathurā, Gayā, Kāśi, Kañchi, Avantikā
Ramakrishna Mission is an Indian religious organization which forms the core of a worldwide spiritual movement known as the Ramakrishna Movement or the Vedanta Movement. The mission is a philanthropic, volunteer organisation founded by Ramakrishnas chief disciple Swami Vivekananda on 1 May 1897, the mission conducts extensive work in health care, disaster relief, rural management, tribal welfare and higher education and culture. It uses the combined efforts of hundreds of ordered monks and thousands of householder disciples, the mission bases its work on the principles of karma yoga. The mission, which is headquartered near Kolkata at Belur Math in Howrah, West Bengal and it is affiliated with the monastic organisation Ramakrishna Math, with whom it shares members. Also referred to as the Ramakrishna Order, the Math is the monastic organisation. Founded by Ramakrishna in 1886, the Math primarily focuses on spiritual training, the Mission, founded by Vivekananda in 1897, is an humanitarian organisation which carries out medical and educational programs.
Both the organisations have headquarters at the Belur Math, the Mission acquired a legal status when it was registered in 1909 under Act XXI of 1860. Its management is vested in a Governing Body, though the Mission with its branches is a distinct legal entity, it is closely related to the Math. The elected trustees of the Math serve as Missions Governing Body, Vedanta Societies comprise the American arm of the Movement and work more in purely spiritual field rather than social welfare. Ramakrishna Paramahansa, regarded as a 19th-century saint, was the inspirator of the Ramakrishna Order of monks and is regarded as the founder of the Ramakrishna Movement. Ramakrishna was a priest in the Dakshineswar Kali Temple and attracted several monastic, narendranath Dutta, who became Vivekananda was one of the chief monastic disciples. According to Vrajaprana, shortly before his death in 1886 Ramakrishna gave the ochre cloths to his young disciples, Ramakrishna entrusted the care of these young boys to Vivekananda.
After Ramakrishnas death, the disciples of Ramakrishna gathered and practised spiritual disciplines. They took informal monastic vows on a night which to their pleasant surprise turned out to be the Christmas Eve in 1886, after the death of Ramakrishna in 1886, the monastic disciples formed the first Math at Baranagore. Later Vivekananda became a monk and in 1893 he was a delegate at the 1893 Parliament of the Worlds Religions. His speech there, beginning with Sisters and brothers of America became famous, Vivekananda went on lecture tours and held private discourses on Hinduism and spirituality. He founded the first Vedanta Society in the United States at New York and he returned to India in 1897 and founded the Ramakrishna Mission on 1 May 1897. The same year, famine relief was started at Sargachi by Swami Akhandananda, Swami Brahmananda, a direct disciple of Ramakrishna was appointed as the first president of the Order
Binodini Dasi, known as Notee Binodini, was a Calcutta-based, Bengali-speaking renowned actress and thespian. She started acting at the age of 12 and ended by the time she was 23, as she recounted in her noted autobiography. Her career coincided with the growth of the form of European theatre among the Bengali theatre going audience. During a career spanning twelve years she enacted over eighty roles, which included those of Pramila, Draupadi, Ayesha, Kaikeyi and she was one of the first South Asian actresses of the theatre to write her own autobiography. Her sudden retirement from the stage is insufficiently explained, sri Ramakrishna, a saint of 19th century Bengal, came to see her play in 1884. During her bygone days of glory, she was referred to as the Flower of the Native Stage and she was a pioneering entrepreneur of the Bengali stage and introduced modern techniques of stage make-up through blending European and indigenous styles. This may be explained as an instance of class-caste divide.
The upper class Brahmin-Brahmo dominated establishment that spearheaded the Bengal Renaissance felt it improper to acknowledge the merits of the lowly born. Her contribution to the establishment and enrichment of the organisations she was associated with, has been glossed over. Nati Binodini, a 1994 Bengali film starring Prasenjit Chatterjee and Debashree Roy, in Abohoman, the 2009 Bengali film by Rituparno Ghosh, the lead character is a filmmaker who makes a film based on the lives of Binodini Dasi and Girish Chandra Ghosh. Several scenes from this film-within-the-film are shown, Binodini Dasi, My Story and My Life as an Actress. Edited and translated by Rimli Bhattacharya, new Delhi, Kali for Women,1998