The Yuba River is a tributary of the Feather River in the Sierra Nevada and eastern Sacramento Valley, in the U. S. state of California. The main stem of the river is about 40 miles long, its headwaters are split into three major forks; the Yuba River proper is formed at the confluence of the North Yuba and Middle Yuba Rivers, with the South Yuba joining a short distance downstream. Measured to the head of the North Yuba River, the Yuba River is just over 100 miles long; the river drains 1,345 square miles in the western slope and foothills of the Sierra Nevada. The average runoff of the Yuba River basin is 2,303,000 acre feet per year, providing about one-third of the flow of the Feather River, 10 percent of the flow of the Sacramento River, which the Feather drains into. Since the early 20th century, the river's flow has been reduced by irrigation and hydropower diversion projects; the river's name comes from a Maidu village, spelled in early records as Yubu and applied to the river by 1844.
Some claim the name is a variant of Spanish uba or uva, referring to grapes found growing along the banks of the river. The North Yuba River, 61.1 miles long, rises at Yuba Pass along California State Route 49, near the eastern boundary of the Tahoe National Forest. It flows southwest west through a 3,000-foot-deep canyon past the communities of Downieville and Goodyears Bar, its main tributaries, Canyon Creek and Slate Creek, join from the north shortly downstream of there. The river turns south near Clipper Mills and flows into the 4,800-acre New Bullards Bar Reservoir, impounded by 645-foot -high New Bullards Bar Dam. About 5 miles below New Bullards Bar Dam, it joins with the Middle Yuba River to form the Yuba River. Originating in a bowl-shaped valley in Moscove Meadow, the 55.4-mile-long Middle Yuba River flows north into Jackson Meadows Reservoir turns west, soon entering a steep gorge. The majority of the river demarcates the boundary of Sierra County in the north and Nevada County in the south.
It receives Kanaka Creek from the north and is interrupted by the Our House Diversion Dam, which diverts water from the Middle Fork to the North Fork at New Bullards Bar Reservoir. Below the dam, it continues flowing west, receives Oregon Creek from the north and intersects California State Route 49 about 2 miles northwest of North San Juan. About 7 miles downstream; the 65.3-mile-long South Yuba River originates at Lake Angela in Nevada County about three quarters of a mile north of Donner Pass, about three miles east of the town of Soda Springs. After passing through Lake Van Norden with Upper Castle Creek entering from the right, it gathers numerous snow-fed tributaries running west through a marshy, lake-filled valley, crossing Interstate 80 several times; the river enters Placer County before flowing back north into Nevada County flows into Lake Spaulding, where much of its water is diverted south to the Bear River drainage. The remainder of the river turns northward into a gorge near Emigrant Gap before continuing west.
It receives Canyon Creek from the right receives Poorman Creek from the right near Washington. The river continues west into the foothills and into South Yuba River State Park where it is bridged by State Route 49, it joins the Yuba River at the upper end of Englebright Lake. From the joining of the North Yuba River and Middle Yuba River, it flows southwards southwest, through the Sierra Nevada foothills, forming the Yuba-Nevada County border; the river widens into upper Englebright Lake near French Bar, is joined by the South Yuba within the reservoir. It passes through the Englebright Dam near Lake Wildwood and is joined by Deer Creek on the left; the Yuba River bed widens as it flows out into the Sacramento Valley near the Yuba Goldfields, a section of the Yuba River valley consisting of dredged sediments washed down by hydraulic mining in the 19th century. The river turns southwest, flowing through irrigated farmland, it skirts the south side of Marysville and empties into the Feather River between the cities of Marysville, Yuba City and Linda.
The Yuba River valley was one of the most densely populated Native American areas in California. Historians divide indigenous peoples living in the Yuba River area into several groups – the Konkow, Maidu and Miwok; these groups did not function as large tribes. Like other indigenous people of the Sierra Nevada foothill region, their staple food were acorns, but they hunted and gathered for other foods including abundant salmon runs in the Yuba River. In the 1850s, the California Gold Rush brought large numbers of European-American settlers into the area, followed by many Mexican and Chinese immigrants; these settlers brought diseases to which the Native Americans had no immunity. Within a few years, these diseases wiped out most of the native population; the Yuba River and its forks were one of the richest parts of the Mother Lode, miners poured to the region in great numbers. Although gold was first extracted by simple methods such as panning and sluicing, large-scale industrial hydraulic mining left a much greater impact.
About 25 million cubic yards of hydraulic mining debris was carried down the Yuba River. This raised stream beds up to 50 ft in places, buried riverside land under sediment, increased the risk of flooding; the practice was banned i
The Smithsonian Institution, founded on August 10, 1846 "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge," is a group of museums and research centers administered by the Government of the United States. The institution is named after British scientist James Smithson. Organized as the "United States National Museum," that name ceased to exist as an administrative entity in 1967. Termed "the nation's attic" for its eclectic holdings of 154 million items, the Institution's nineteen museums, nine research centers, zoo include historical and architectural landmarks located in the District of Columbia. Additional facilities are located in Arizona, Massachusetts, New York City, Texas and Panama. More than 200 institutions and museums in 45 states, Puerto Rico, Panama are Smithsonian Affiliates; the Institution's thirty million annual visitors are admitted without charge. Its annual budget is around $1.2 billion with two-thirds coming from annual federal appropriations. Other funding comes from the Institution's endowment and corporate contributions, membership dues, earned retail and licensing revenue.
Institution publications include Air & Space magazines. The British scientist James Smithson left most of his wealth to his nephew Henry James Hungerford; when Hungerford died childless in 1835, the estate passed "to the United States of America, to found at Washington, under the name of the Smithsonian Institution, an Establishment for the increase & diffusion of knowledge among men", in accordance with Smithson's will. Congress accepted the legacy bequeathed to the nation, pledged the faith of the United States to the charitable trust on July 1, 1836; the American diplomat Richard Rush was dispatched to England by President Andrew Jackson to collect the bequest. Rush returned in August 1838 with 105 sacks containing 104,960 gold sovereigns. Once the money was in hand, eight years of Congressional haggling ensued over how to interpret Smithson's rather vague mandate "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge." The money was invested by the US Treasury in bonds issued by the state of Arkansas, which soon defaulted.
After heated debate, Massachusetts Representative John Quincy Adams persuaded Congress to restore the lost funds with interest and, despite designs on the money for other purposes, convinced his colleagues to preserve it for an institution of science and learning. On August 10, 1846, President James K. Polk signed the legislation that established the Smithsonian Institution as a trust instrumentality of the United States, to be administered by a Board of Regents and a Secretary of the Smithsonian. Though the Smithsonian's first Secretary, Joseph Henry, wanted the Institution to be a center for scientific research, it became the depository for various Washington and U. S. government collections. The United States Exploring Expedition by the U. S. Navy circumnavigated the globe between 1838 and 1842; the voyage amassed thousands of animal specimens, an herbarium of 50,000 plant specimens, diverse shells and minerals, tropical birds, jars of seawater, ethnographic artifacts from the South Pacific Ocean.
These specimens and artifacts became part of the Smithsonian collections, as did those collected by several military and civilian surveys of the American West, including the Mexican Boundary Survey and Pacific Railroad Surveys, which assembled many Native American artifacts and natural history specimens. In 1846, the regents developed a plan for weather observation; the Institution became a magnet for young scientists from 1857 to 1866, who formed a group called the Megatherium Club. The Smithsonian played a critical role as the U. S. partner institution in early bilateral scientific exchanges with the Academy of Sciences of Cuba. Construction began on the Smithsonian Institution Building in 1849. Designed by architect James Renwick Jr. its interiors were completed by general contractor Gilbert Cameron. The building opened in 1855; the Smithsonian's first expansion came with construction of the Arts and Industries Building in 1881. Congress had promised to build a new structure for the museum if the 1876 Philadelphia Centennial Exposition generated enough income.
It did, the building was designed by architects Adolf Cluss and Paul Schulze, based on original plans developed by Major General Montgomery C. Meigs of the United States Army Corps of Engineers, it opened in 1881. The National Zoological Park opened in 1889 to accommodate the Smithsonian's Department of Living Animals; the park was designed by landscape architect Frederick Law Olmsted. The National Museum of Natural History opened in June 1911 to accommodate the Smithsonian's United States National Museum, housed in the Castle and the Arts and Industries Building; this structure was designed by the D. C. architectural firm of Hornblower & Marshall. When Detroit philanthropist Charles Lang Freer donated his private collection to the Smithsonian and funds to build the museum to hold it, it was among the Smithsonian's first major donations from a private individual; the gallery opened in 1923. More than 40 years would pass before the next museum, the Museum of History and Technology, opened in 1964.
It was designed by the world-renowned firm of Mead & White. The Anacostia Community Museum, an "experimental store-front" museum created at the initiative of Smithsonian Secretary S. Dillon Ripley, opened in the Anacostia neighborhood of
Native Americans in the United States
Native Americans known as American Indians, Indigenous Americans and other terms, are the indigenous peoples of the United States, except Hawaii. There are over 500 federally recognized tribes within the US, about half of which are associated with Indian reservations; the term "American Indian" excludes Native Hawaiians and some Alaska Natives, while Native Americans are American Indians, plus Alaska Natives of all ethnicities. Native Hawaiians are not counted as Native Americans by the US Census, instead being included in the Census grouping of "Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander"; the ancestors of modern Native Americans arrived in what is now the United States at least 15,000 years ago much earlier, from Asia via Beringia. A vast variety of peoples and cultures subsequently developed. Native Americans were affected by the European colonization of the Americas, which began in 1492, their population declined precipitously due to introduced diseases as well as warfare, territorial confiscation and slavery.
After the founding of the United States, many Native American peoples were subjected to warfare and one-sided treaties, they continued to suffer from discriminatory government policies into the 20th century. Since the 1960s, Native American self-determination movements have resulted in changes to the lives of Native Americans, though there are still many contemporary issues faced by Native Americans. Today, there are over five million Native Americans in the United States, 78% of whom live outside reservations; when the United States was created, established Native American tribes were considered semi-independent nations, as they lived in communities separate from British settlers. The federal government signed treaties at a government-to-government level until the Indian Appropriations Act of 1871 ended recognition of independent native nations, started treating them as "domestic dependent nations" subject to federal law; this law did preserve the rights and privileges agreed to under the treaties, including a large degree of tribal sovereignty.
For this reason, many Native American reservations are still independent of state law and actions of tribal citizens on these reservations are subject only to tribal courts and federal law. The Indian Citizenship Act of 1924 granted U. S. citizenship to all Native Americans born in the United States. This emptied the "Indians not taxed" category established by the United States Constitution, allowed natives to vote in state and federal elections, extended the Fourteenth Amendment protections granted to people "subject to the jurisdiction" of the United States. However, some states continued to deny Native Americans voting rights for several decades. Bill of Rights protections do not apply to tribal governments, except for those mandated by the Indian Civil Rights Act of 1968. Since the end of the 15th century, the migration of Europeans to the Americas has led to centuries of population and agricultural transfer and adjustment between Old and New World societies, a process known as the Columbian exchange.
As most Native American groups had preserved their histories by oral traditions and artwork, the first written sources of the conflict were written by Europeans. Ethnographers classify the indigenous peoples of North America into ten geographical regions with shared cultural traits, called cultural areas; some scholars combine the Plateau and Great Basin regions into the Intermontane West, some separate Prairie peoples from Great Plains peoples, while some separate Great Lakes tribes from the Northeastern Woodlands. The ten cultural areas are as follows: Arctic, including Aleut and Yupik peoples Subarctic Northeastern Woodlands Southeastern Woodlands Great Plains Great Basin Northwest Plateau Northwest Coast California Southwest At the time of the first contact, the indigenous cultures were quite different from those of the proto-industrial and Christian immigrants; some Northeastern and Southwestern cultures, in particular, were matrilineal and operated on a more collective basis than that with which Europeans were familiar.
The majority of Indigenous American tribes maintained their hunting grounds and agricultural lands for use of the entire tribe. Europeans at that time had patriarchal cultures and had developed concepts of individual property rights with respect to land that were different; the differences in cultures between the established Native Americans and immigrant Europeans, as well as shifting alliances among different nations in times of war, caused extensive political tension, ethnic violence, social disruption. Before the European settlement of what is now the United States, Native Americans suffered high fatalities from contact with new European diseases, to which they had not yet acquired immunity. Smallpox epidemics are thought to have caused the greatest loss of life for indigenous populations. William M Denevan, noted author and Professor Emeritus of Geography at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, said on this subject in his essay "The Pristine Myth: The Landscape of the Americas in 1492".
Old World diseases were the primary killer. In many regions the tropical lowlands, populations fell by 90 percent or more in the first century after the contact. "Estimates of the pre-Columbian population of what today constitutes the U. S. vary ranging from William M Denevan's 3.8 million in his 1992 w
The Miwok are members of four linguistically related Native American groups indigenous to what is now Northern California, who traditionally spoke one of the Miwok languages in the Utian family. The word Miwok means people in the Miwok language. Anthropologists divide the Miwok into four geographically and culturally diverse ethnic subgroups; these distinctions were not used among the Miwok before European contact. Plains and Sierra Miwok: from the western slope and foothills of the Sierra Nevada, the Sacramento Valley, San Joaquin Valley and the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta Coast Miwok: from present day location of Marin County and southern Sonoma County Lake Miwok: from Clear Lake basin of Lake County Bay Miwok: from present-day location of Contra Costa County The United States Bureau of Indian Affairs recognizes eleven tribes of Miwok descent in California, they are as follows: Buena Vista Rancheria of Me-Wuk Indians California Valley Miwok Tribe known as the Sheep Ranch Rancheria of Me-Wuk Indians Chicken Ranch Rancheria of Me-Wuk Indians Federated Indians of Graton Rancheria known as the Federated Coast Miwok Ione Band of Miwok Indians, of Ione, California Jackson Rancheria of Me-Wuk Indians Middletown Rancheria Shingle Springs Band of Miwok Indians, Shingle Springs Rancheria Tuolumne Band of Me-Wuk Indians of the Tuolumne Rancheria United Auburn Indian Community of Auburn Rancheria Wilton Rancheria Indian Tribe Miwok Tribe of the El Dorado Rancheria Nashville-Eldorado Miwok Tribe Colfax-Todds Valley Consolidated Tribe of the Colfax Rancheria Southern Sierra Miwuk Nation Calaveras Band of Mi-Wuk Indians Miwok of Buena Vista Rancheria River Valley Miwok Indians, formally known as Historical Families of Wilton Rancheria The predominant theory regarding the settlement of the Americas date the original migrations from Asia to around 20,000 years ago across the Bering Strait land bridge, but one anthropologist claims that the Miwok and some other northern California tribes descend from Siberians who arrived in California by sea around 3,000 years ago.
The Miwok lived in small bands without centralized political authority before contact with European Americans in 1769. They were otherwise hunter-gatherers; the Sierra Miwok harvested acorns from the California Black Oak. In fact, the modern-day extent of the California Black Oak forests in some areas of Yosemite National Park is due to cultivation by Miwok tribes, they burned understory vegetation to reduce the fraction of Ponderosa Pine. Nearly every other kind of edible vegetable matter was used as a food source, including bulbs and fungi. Animals were hunted depending on the species and the situation. Grasshoppers were a prized food source, as were mussels for those groups adjacent to the Stanislaus River; the Miwok ate meals according to appetite rather than at regular times. They stored food for consumption in flat-bottomed baskets. Miwok mythology and narratives tend to be similar to those of other natives of Northern California. Miwok had totem animals, identified with one of two moieties, which were in turn associated with land and water.
These totem animals were not thought of as literal ancestors of humans, but rather as predecessors. Miwok people played athletic games on a 110-yard playing field called poscoi a we’a. A unique game was played with young women. To soccer, the object was to put an elk hide ball through the goalpost; the girls were allowed to do anything, including kicking the ball and picking it up and running with it. The boys were only allowed to use their feet, but if a girl was holding it he could pick her up and carry her towards his goal. In 1770, there were an estimated 500 Lake Miwok, 1,500 Coast Miwok, 9,000 Plains and Sierra Miwok, totaling about 11,000 people, according to historian Alfred L. Kroeber, although this may be a serious undercount; the 1910 Census reported only 671 Miwok total, the 1930 Census, 491. See history of each Miwok group for more information. Today there are about 3,500 Miwok in total; the Star Wars films feature a fictional species of forest-dwelling creatures known as Ewoks, who are ostensibly named after the Miwok.
However, the historical Northern-California footprint of the Miwok people may have caused the Ewoks' name to be retconned to enhance the marketability of the 1983 film. The Miwok people are encountered in The Years of Rice and Salt. In an alternate history scenario depicted in the book they are the first group of Native Americans encountered by the first Chinese to discover the continent. Kule Loklo Saklan Lucy Telles Utian languages Access Genealogy: Indian Tribal records, Miwok Indian Tribe. Retrieved on 2006-08-01. Main source of "authenticated village" names and locations. Barrett, S. A. and Gifford, E. W. Miwok Material Culture: Indian Life of the Yosemite Region. Yosemite Association, Yosemite National Park, California, 1933. ISBN 0-939666-12-X Cook, Sherburne; the Conflict Between the California White Civilization. Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press, 1976. ISBN 0-520-03143-1. Kroeber, Alfred L. 1925. Handbook of the Indians of California. Washington, D. C: Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin No. 78..
Silliman, Stephen. Lost Laborers in Colonial California, Native Americans and the Archaeology of Rancho Petaluma. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona Press
The American River is a 120-mile-long river in California that runs from the Sierra Nevada mountain range to its confluence with the Sacramento River in the Sacramento Valley. Via the Sacramento River, it is part of the San Francisco Bay watershed; this river is fed by the melting snowpack of the Sierra Nevada and its many headwaters and tributaries, including the North Fork American River, the Middle Fork American River, the South Fork American River. The American river is known for the discovery of gold at Coloma in 1848 that started the California Gold Rush and contributed to the initial large-scale settlement of California by European immigrants. Today, the river still has high quality water, it is the main source of drinking water for Sacramento; this river is dammed extensively for irrigation, flood control, hydroelectric power. The American River watershed supports Mediterranean and montane ecosystems, it is the home of a diverse array of fish and wildlife; the Maidu, Miwok and Wintun peoples inhabited the American River in Sacramento for at least 5,000 years before Spaniards and Americans settled the region, although human habitation in Northern California is believed to date back as much as 12,000 years.
They utilized the vast amount of resources of the American River for shelter, clothes and other goods before Europeans arrived in the late 18th century. The Nisenan called the river Kum Mayo, meaning "roundhouse river". Spanish explorer Gabriel Moraga named the river "Rio de las Llagas" when he passed through the area in the early 1800s due to hostile relations with local native peoples. Another member of the expedition recorded the name as "Rio de los Lagos" which may or may not have been an error, as in those times the area of the Central Valley surrounding the American River was home to vast marshes, which would have given the river the appearance of a series of lakes. During the 1820s, Jedediah Smith led an expedition to the American River with the goal of finding a safe route across the Sierra Nevada. After a failed attempt to cross the mountains via the South Fork of the American River, Smith's group managed to cross via Ebbetts Pass on the headwaters of the Stanislaus River, becoming the first non-Native Americans to do so.
In Smith's honor the Spanish settlers and Native Americans named the river "Rio de los Americanos", American River. During this time, Alta California was part of New Spain. In the 1830s fur trappers of the Hudson's Bay Company visited the area to trap otter. During one of these expeditions, smallpox or malaria were accidentally introduced to the local Native Americans, who had no natural immunity to Old World diseases; some accounts suggest. The surviving natives became hostile to European settlers and traders for quite some time, prevented the HBC from establishing a permanent outpost here. In 1839, Swiss immigrant John Sutter established the New Helvetia settlement on the American River, near the present-day location of central Sacramento. In 1848, following the Mexican–American War, California was ceded to the United States in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. Just weeks James W. Marshall, an employee of Sutter, discovered gold on the South Fork, starting the California Gold Rush. Although miners looking for gold worked all three forks of the American River, the South Fork held the richest deposits.
However, as the accessible placer gold was played out, large companies used hydraulic mining to access gold buried deeper in the soil. This large and extensive mining practice washed away entire mountainsides and polluted all the waterways, including the American River. During the Great Flood of 1862 the American River flooded massively, putting much of Sacramento under water for three months. Newly elected Governor Leland Stanford had to travel to his inauguration by rowboat. A significant contributor to the flood damage was the debris washed down by hydraulic mining, which had choked the river channel and reduced its capacity to drain floodwaters. In response, the city of Sacramento undertook a massive project to raise its streets and buildings as much as 9.5 feet. Many of original sidewalks and the first floors of buildings remain as subterranean spaces underneath today's streets; the lower American River has been one of seven California rivers to achieve the designation "Recreational River" under both the California Wild and Scenic Rivers Act and the National Wild and Scenic Rivers Act.
This status provides state and national recognition to protect the river's outstanding scenic and wildlife, historic and recreational values. The American River is fed by its North and South forks, which are located in El Dorado County, Placer County, Sacramento County; the river's three forks originate in the Eldorado National Forests. The North and Middle Forks join near Auburn, continue downstream as the North Fork, although the Middle Fork carries a higher volume of water; the North and South Forks join in Folsom Lake. All three forks are known for their verdant canyons, forested ridges, massive rock formations, backcountry winter adventuring among snowy peaks and white water rafting. There are various fish species that live within the American River such as Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Trout; the American River headwaters lie along about 50 miles along the Sierra Crest from Mount Lincoln in the north where it adjoins the watersheds of the South Yu
The Washoe are a Great Basin tribe of Native Americans, living near Lake Tahoe at the border between California and Nevada. The name "Washoe" is derived from the autonym waashiw meaning "people from here" in the Washo language. Washoe people have lived in the Great Basin and the eastern Sierra Nevada mountains for at least the last 6,000 years. Prior to contact with Europeans, the territory of the Washoe people was bounded by the southern shore of Honey Lake in the north, the west fork of the Walker River in the south, the Sierra Nevada crest in the west, the first range east of the Sierra Nevada in the east; the Washoe would spend the summer in the Sierra Nevada at Lake Tahoe. Washoe people are the only Great Basin tribe whose language is not Numic, so they are believed to have inhabited the region prior to neighboring tribes; the Kings Beach Complex that emerged about 500 CE around Lake Tahoe and the northern Sierra Nevadas are regarded as early Washoe culture. The Martis complex may have overlapped with the Kings Beach culture, Martis pit houses gave way to conical bark slab houses of historic Washoe culture.
The Washoe people and the neighboring Northern Paiute people were culturally and linguistically different, they sometimes came into conflict and were enslaved by them. Washoe people may have made contact with Spanish explorers in the early 19th century, but the Washoe did not sustain contact with people of European culture until the 1848 California Gold Rush. Washoe resistance to incursions on their lands proved futile, the last armed conflict with the Washoes and non-Indians was the Potato War of 1857, when starving Washoes were killed for gathering potatoes from a European-American farm near Honey Lake in California. Loss of the valley hunting grounds to farms and the piñon pine groves to feed Virginia City's demand for lumber and charcoal drove most Washoe to dependency on jobs on white ranches and farms and in cities; the areas where they settled became known as Indian colonies. Piñon pine nuts gathered in the fall provided much of the food eaten in the winter. Roots, seeds and game provided much of the food eaten during the rest of the year.
The Washoe people were deeply knowledgeable about their land and where resources were plentiful. This included an understanding of the seasonal cycles of both animals. Wašiw people were dependent on fishing at Lake Tahoe and the surrounding streams. Fishing was a huge part of Wašiw life; the Pine Nut Dance and girls' puberty rites remain important ceremonies. The Wašiw people once relied on medicine men and their innate knowledge of medicinal plants and ceremonies. Much of this knowledge and activity has been lost due to contact with the Western world; the Washoe language has been regarded as a language isolate, However, it is sometimes tentatively regarded as part of the controversial Hokan language family. The language is written in the Latin script; the Wašiw language is now considered a moribund language as only a handful of fluent elder speakers use the language. There has been a recent revival of the culture within the Tribe. "Wašiw Wagayay Maŋal" was the first attempt by the Wašiw people to renew their language for the future generations.
The tribe relies on the tribal Cultural Resource Department to provide language classes to the community. However, there has been a pedagogical shift within the tribe, the youth have become the focal point of language and culture programs, because they are the future. Reno-Sparks Indian Colony Susanville Indian Rancheria Washoe Tribe of Nevada and CaliforniaUnder the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934, the colonies in the Carson Valley area of Nevada and California gained federal recognition as the Washoe Tribe of Nevada and California; the colony in Reno, which had a substantial Paiute and Shoshoni population, gained separate recognition as the Reno-Sparks Indian Colony. There is evidence; the Susanville Rancheria includes Washoe members, as well as Northern Paiute, Northeastern Maidu and Atsugewi members. Dangberg, Grace. 1968. Washo Tales: Three Original Washo Indian Legends. Nevada State Museum Occasional Paper Number 1. Carson City, Nevada. D'Azevedo, Warren L.. "Washoe" in Great Basin, Warren L. d'Azevedo, ed. pp. 466–498.
Volume 11 in Handbook of North American Indians, William C. Sturtevant, general editor. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution. ISBN 0-16-004578-9/0160045754. Nevers, Jo Ann. 1976. Wa She Shu: A Washo Tribal History. Inter-Tribal Council of Nevada: University of Utah Printing Service. Pritzker, Barry M. A Native American Encyclopedia: History and Peoples. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000. ISBN 978-0-19-513877-1. Barett, Samuel Alfred; the Washo Indians. Pub. by order of the Trustees. Retrieved 24 August 2012. Washo Bibliography, from California Indian Library Collections Project Washoe Tribe of Nevada and California, official website Reno-Sparks Indian Colony, official website Susanville Indian Rancheria, official website A Guide to the Washo research notes, 98-17. Special Collections, University Libraries, University of Nevada, Reno; these papers represent the research carried out by Anita Spring during her anthropological summer field studies in 1965
Elk Grove, California
Elk Grove is a city in Sacramento County, located just south of the state capital of Sacramento. It is part of the Sacramento–Arden-Arcade–Roseville Metropolitan Statistical Area; as of 2018, the population of the city was estimated at 173,702. The second-largest city in Sacramento County, Elk Grove was the fastest growing city in the U. S. between July 1, 2004, July 1, 2005. The City of Elk Grove incorporated on July 1, 2000, it is a general law city with a council/manager form of government. One of Elk Grove's most significant aspects is the Elk Grove Unified School District, the city's largest employer. Spanish explorer Gabriel Moraga entered the region in 1808, naming the valley "Sacramento Valley" in honor of Sacramento, the Holy Sacrament in Spanish, giving the northerly city of Sacramento its name. A writer on Moraga's expedition wrote of the region: "Canopies of oaks and cottonwoods, many festooned with grapevines, overhung both sides of the blue current. Birds chattered in the trees and big fish darted through the pellucid depths.
The air was like champagne, drank deep of it, drank in the beauty around them."Elk Grove was founded in 1850 as a stage stop for travelers coming from Sacramento and the San Francisco Bay Area, when the Elk Grove Hotel and Stage Stop was opened by James Hall and the town was named after it. In 1868 the Western Division of the Central Pacific Railroad came through about a mile east of Elk Grove. At this new location another hotel was built to accommodate travelers and was named the Elk Grove Hotel. In the following decades, Elk Grove remained a small farming community with little urban development. In the late 1980s, suburban development projects began to spring up around the community in the north near Sacramento; this was meant to serve Sacramento's population as well as San Francisco commuters seeking a community near the San Francisco Bay Area which they could settle in and still commute from. This triggered a period of rapid growth. On July 1, 2000, Elk Grove incorporated as a city; the growth peaked in 2004 and 2005 when Elk Grove was declared the fastest growing city in the US.
Apple Inc. manufactured its iMac line in Elk Grove as late as 2002. After many of those tasks were offshored, the facility was converted into an AppleCare call centre. In 2008 Elk Grove suffered from the subprime mortgage crisis due to its suburban nature; the Elk Grove Unified School District is the fifth largest school district in California and one of the fastest growing school districts in the nation. Located in southern Sacramento County, the district covers 320 square miles, one-third of the county. For the 2002-03 school year, the district served more than 52,500 students, grew to 62,767 students in the 2016-2017 school year; those students attend 40 elementary schools, 9 middle schools, 9 high schools and 7 alternative high schools. There are several private schools in town. A local community college, Cosumnes River College, offers both career training and a transfer program to four-year universities. Located nearby are California State University and the University of California, Davis.
Elk Grove is the home of the private six-year Universalist college Quest Seminary. In 2013, California Northstate University College of Pharmacy that offers a Doctor of Pharmacy degree program relocated to Elk Grove; the new Elk Grove Public Library is located at 8900 Elk Grove Blvd in a modern two-story building. It moved to this location in 2008 from its old building one block east; the library is part of the broader Sacramento Public Library system. The Elk Grove Library serves neighboring communities such as Vineyard, Wilton and Rancho Murieta. Additional local libraries supplement neighborhoods, such as the public Franklin High Library. Elk Grove parks are serviced by the Cosumnes Community Services District. Elk Grove hosts recreational and competitive level sports clubs, including: Elk Grove Aquatics Club - EGAC Elk Grove Piranhas Swim Team - EGP Elk Grove Soccer Elk Grove United Rugby Club Elk Grove Youth Baseball Elk Grove Youth Lacrosse Club Laguna Creek Gators Piranhas Aquatics Club - PAC Beginning in 2012, voters elect the mayor for a two-year term.
Prior to 2012, the mayor's position was chosen by the city council. The remaining four positions on the city council are elected by districts to four-year terms. On November 8, 2016, Steve Ly became the second directly elected mayor following Gary Davis, the first Hmong mayor in the United States; the remaining councilmembers are Pat Hume, Steve Detrick and Stephanie Nguyen. Elk Grove is in California's 7th congressional district, represented by Democrat Ami Bera; the Elk Grove Police Department provides policing services for the city while the Cosumnes Community Services District runs the fire department. Other companies based in Elk Grove include Citizens Telecommunications Company of California and Frontier Communications of the Southwest. Elk Grove is serviced by a fared bus system called e-Tran that drives on many of the city's main routes. Elk Grove is a sister city of Concepción de Ataco in El Salvador. Arik Armstead, linebacker for NFL's San Francisco 49ers Armond Armstead, defensive tackle for CFL's Toronto Argonauts Ami Bera, physician.
S. Representative, 7th district, California Scott Boras, baseball sports agent, named "Most Powerful Sports Agent" in 2013 by Forbes Lance Briggs, linebacker for NFL's Chicago Bears Bill Cartwright