Aomori Station is a railway station in the city of Aomori, Aomori Prefecture, jointly operated by East Japan Railway Company and the third-sector railway operator Aoimori Railway. Aomori Station is served by the following lines: Ōu Main Line Tsugaru-Kaikyō Line Aoimori Railway Line Aomori Station has three island platforms connected to the station building by a footbridge; the station has a View Plaza travel agency. Super Hakucho and Hakucho services reverse through the Ōu Main Line to terminate at Shin-Aomori; the following Limited express services stop at Aomori Station: Hakuchō Tsugaru The following overnight sleeping car services used to operate to and from Aomori Station. Akebono Nihonkai The station opened on 1 September 1891. With the privatization of Japanese National Railways on 1 April 1987, the station came under the control of JR East. Aomori Bay Bridge Aomori Station building "Lovina" A-Factory Station square building "Auga" Aomori Citizens Library Aomori station square police box JR Bus Tohoku Aomori office Odashima Building Towada Kanko Bus Aomori ticket counter Aomori Prefectural Office Aomori City Hall Buses serving the station are operated by the following operators.
Aomori City Bus Kōnan Bus Company JR Bus Tohoku Company Towada-Kanko Electric Railway Shimokita Kotsu Asunaro. List of railway stations in Japan JR East station information Aoimori Railway station information
Misawa Station is a railway station in the city of Misawa, Aomori Prefecture, operated by the third sector railway operator Aoimori Railway Company. Misawa Station is served by the Aoimori Railway Line, is 46.9 kilometers from the terminus of the line at Aomori Station. It is 664.2 kilometers from Tokyo Station. Misawa Station has one ground-level island platform and one ground-level side platform serving three tracks with an elevated station building built over the tracks; the station is staffed The station building has a ticket office, as well as automatic ticket machines. Misawa Station was opened on April 1896 as the Furumaki Station on the Nippon Railway, it became a station on the Tōhoku Main Line of Japanese Government Railways, the pre-war predecessor to the Japanese National Railways, when the Nippon Railway was nationalized on July 1, 1906. On September 4, 1922 it became a joint station, when the Towada Railway connected Furumaki with Towadashi Station; the Tōtetsu Furumaki Station was relocated 120 meters away on October 1, 1926 and a new station building was completed on January 1, 1959.
The Tōtetsu station was renamed Misawa Station on March 1, 1961 and the JNR station followed on March 20 of the same year. With the privatization of the JNR on April 1, 1987, the JNR Misawa Station came under the operational control of East Japan Railway Company and Japan Freight Railway Company. Freight services were discontinued in June 2006; the control of the Tōhoku Main Line was transferred to Aoimori Railway on December 4, 2010, the day the Tōhoku Shinkansen was extended to Shin-Aomori. On April 1, 2012 Towada Kankō Electric Railway discontinued its railway business; until the operational change in 2010, the JR station was served by the limited express trains Tsugaru, Hakuchō and Super Hakuchō. Aomori Prefectural Misawa Commercial High School Komaki Onsen Misawa Station Post Office List of Railway Stations in Japan JTB Timetable December 2010 issue Aoimori Railway station information page
Hachinohe Station is a railway station operated by the East Japan Railway Company in Hachinohe, Japan. Hachinohe Station is served by the high-speed Tohoku Shinkansen line between Tokyo and Shin-Aomori, forms the starting point of the Hachinohe Line to Kuji. Local services are operated by the third sector Aoimori Railway on the section of the former JR Tōhoku Main Line between Metoki and Aomori. Hachinohe is an elevated station with one side platform and two island platforms serving five tracks for regular services, two island platforms serving four tracks for Tōhoku Shinkansen services; the station has a Midori no Madoguchi staffed ticket office. The station began operation as Shiriuchi Station on the Nippon Railway on September 1, 1891. Construction of a railroad close to the coast was opposed by the Imperial Japanese Army for defensive purposes, so the station was constructed at a considerable distance inland from the town center; the Hachinohe Line began operations on January 1894 from Hachinohe Station.
The Nippon Railway was nationalized on November 1, 1906, Shiriuchi Station became a station on the Japanese Government Railways, which became the Japanese National Railways after World War II. From 1929 to 1969, the now-defunct Nambu Railway had its terminus at Shiriuchi Station. On April 1, 1971, Shiriuchi Station was renamed Hachinohe Station; the station named Hachinohe Station was renamed Hon-Hachinohe Station. Freight operations were transferred to the Hachinohe Freight Terminal that year, were discontinued from 1986. With the privatization of JNR on April 1, 1987, the station came under the operational control of JR East. A new station building was opened on July 1, 2002, Tōhoku Shinkansen services began operation from December 12, 2002, with operations of the Tōhoku Main Line from Hachinohe to the border of Iwate Prefecture transferred to the new Aoimori Railway. Following the opening of the Tōhoku Shinkansen extension to Shin-Aomori on December 4, 2010, all Tōhoku Main Line local services through the station were transferred to the Aoimori Railway.
In fiscal 2015, the JR East portion of the station was used by an average of 4,491 passengers daily. JR Bus Tōhoku For Lake Towada Nanbu Bus For Gonohe For Konakano Bus Center via Yōka-machi Towada Kanko Bus For Towada via Shimoda and Rokunohe For Mikka-machi Hachonohe City Bus For Asahigaoka Bus office via Mikka-machi Sirius.
Hiranai is a town located in Aomori Prefecture, Japan. As of 1 March 2019, the town had an estimated population of 11,074 in 4,969 households, a population density of 51 persons per km², it is the most populated town in Higashitsugaru District. The total area of the town is 217.08 km2. The name Hiranai is thought to have originated from the Ainu who inhabited the area; the Ainu words for pira and nay are said to be the original name of the area, due to its geography as a river valley in the interior of the mountainous Natsudomari Peninsula. However, the current Japanese pronunciation and meaning of the town's name, Hiranai is descriptive of the valley, but is based on the flat area inside of the mountains or the bay that surrounds it. During the Edo period, Hiranai was a village. On September 17, 1656, the village became part of Kuroishi Domain controlled by the Tsugaru clan. In July 1871, with the abolition of the han system, Kuroishi Domain became Kuroishi Prefecture, was merged into the newly created Aomori Prefecture in September 1871.
During the cadastral reform of 1889, Natsudomari Peninsula was divided into the three villages of Naka-Hiranai, Nishi-Hiranai, Higashi-Hiranai. On October 1, 1928, Naka-Hiranai became a town. Nishi-Hiranai village's train station, Nishi-Hiranai Station opened in 1939; the station was built to provide access to the Aomori Sanatorium, a facility to treat the soldiers who were injured during the Pacific War. The climate of Natsudomari Peninsula and the proximity to Asamushi Onsen was of benefit to the wounded soldiers. After the war's conclusion, the sanatorium was closed. On 15 July 1945, four sea planes of the Imperial Japanese Army's Giretsu Kuteitai docked off the east coast of Natsudomari Peninsula were bombed. Off the northern coast of the peninsula a ship was sunk, leaving 9 injured. On the 9th and 10th of August of the same year Grumman TBF Avengers bombed the entirety of the town and a troop transport ship, the Hanasaki Maru, was sunk. One person was wounded. On March 31, 1955, Kominato merged with Higashi-Hiranai to form the town, Hiranai.
On May 20, 1963, Emperor Shōwa and Empress Kōjun visited Hiranai to plant a Japanese red pine in the Yogoshiyama Forest Park for the 14th Annual Tree Planting Event and National Greening Convention. In 2012, Hiranai won a competition amongst towns and cities in Aomori Prefecture for who could produce the best advertisement film for their town; the film was titled, It's not "The Town that Nobody Knows"! as a play on the pronunciation of the town's name and that the town isn't well known. The commercial features a child looking for the town, but nobody knows where that is, she is told that she is looking for Hiranai and that it's not a town that nobody knows. This phrase from the film is well-known by the town's citizens. Per Japanese census data, the population of Hiranai has decreased by 29.5% over the past 40 years. Hiranai occupies the Natsudomari Peninsula, the northern end of the Ōu Mountain Range that juts into central Mutsu Bay; the town's population is concentrated near the Japan National Route 4 passing through the east and west of the town and the Aoimori Railway Line.
The town office is in the settlement of Kominato, the central part of Hiranai centered around the valley of the Kominato River. The Kominato River begins in the mountains in the south of Hiranai, flows north through the mountains until it reaches the flat land the town is situated on. After passing through Kominato, it joins the Morita River, which empties into Mutsu Bay shortly after their confluence; the southern part of Hiranai is mountainous. The edges of the town make up the bulk of the Asamushi-Natsudomari Prefectural Natural Park; the town has a cold humid continental climate characterized by warm short summers and long cold winters with heavy snowfall. The average annual temperature in Hiranai is 9.8 °C. The average annual rainfall is 1262 mm with September as the wettest month; the temperatures are highest on average in August, at around 22.8 °C, lowest in January, at around -2.0 °C. Aomori Noheji Tōhoku Shichinohe The economy of Hiranai is dependent on commercial fishing; some of the locally caught seafood include sea urchin roe, sea cucumber, scallops and squid.
Tourism plays a role in the economy, with beaches in close proximity to the city of Aomori in summer, ski resorts in winter, onsen all year drawing tourists. Hiranai has three public elementary schools and three public middle schools operated by the town government, it has one public high school operated by the Aomori Prefectural Board of Education, although it is scheduled to be closed in 2021. The town has one private high school. Aoimori Railway Company - Aoimori Railway Line Nishi-Hiranai - Kominato - Shimizugawa - Karibasawa National Route 4 Aomori Prefecture Route 9 Aomori Prefecture Route 123 Aomori Prefecture Route 206 Aomori Prefecture Route 207 Aomori Prefecture Route 209 Aomori Prefecture Route 210 Aomori Prefecture Route 215 Aomori Prefecture Route 269 Shimokita Kōtsū Kōnan Bus Company Aomori City Bus Yogoshiyama Forest Park is run by the town featuring multiple attractions, with more than 3,000 kinds of succulent plants grouped in a large greenhouse of 990 square meters from different parts of the world, including the Americas and Africa.
Cacti and flowers of tropical origin bloom year-round. The park has ski and snowboarding facilities, including a ski lift; the Kominato shallow shore or swan nesting area (浅所海岸, asadok
Mutsu-Ichikawa Station is a railway station on the Aoimori Railway Line in the city of Hachinohe, Aomori Prefecture, operated by the third sector railway operator Aoimori Railway Company. Must Ichikawa Station is served by the Aoimori Railway Line, is 32.8 kilometers from the terminus of the line at Metoki Station. It is 650.1 kilometers from Tokyo Station. Mutsu Ichikawa Station has a one ground-level island platform and one ground-level side platform serving three tracks connected to the station building by a footbridge. However, only tracks 1 and 3 are in use, the rails for track 2 have been pulled up, giving the station an effective structure of two opposed side platforms; the small station building is unmanned. Mutsu-Ichikawa Station was opened on November 5, 1926 as the Todoroki Signal on the Tōhoku Main Line, it was elevated in status to a full station on the Japanese Government Railways, the pre-war predecssor to the Japan National Railways, on November 11, 1944 and given its present name at the same time.
Scheduled freight services were discontinued in October 1971, the station has been managed from Hachinohe Station since February 1985. With the privatization of the JNR on April 1, 1987, it came under the operational control of East Japan Railway Company; the section of the Tōhoku Main Line including this station was transferred to Aoimori Railway on December 4, 2010. The station has been unattended since 1999. JGSDF Camp Hachinohe JMSDF Hachinohe Air Base List of Railway Stations in Japan JTB Timetable December 2010 issue Official website
A public–private partnership is a cooperative arrangement between two or more public and private sectors of a long-term nature. Governments have used such a mix of private endeavors throughout history. However, the late 20th century and early 21st century have seen a clear trend towards governments across the globe making greater use of various PPP arrangements. PPPs are best seen as a special kind of contract involved in infrastructure provision, such as the building and equipping of schools, transport systems and sewerage systems. There is no consensus about how to define a PPP. PPPs can be understood of both as a language game; when understood as a language game, or brand, the PPP phrase can cover hundreds of different types of long term contracts with a wide range of risk allocations, funding arrangements and transparency requirements. And as a brand, the PPP concept is closely related to concepts such as privatization and the contracting out of government services; when understood as a governance mechanism the PPP concept encompasses at least five families of potential arrangements, one of, the long term infrastructure contract in the model of the UK's Private Finance Initiative.
Particular types of arrangements have been favored in different countries at different times. Infrastructure PPPs as a phenomenon can be understood at five different levels: as a particular project or activity, as a form of project delivery, as a statement of government policy, as a tool of government, or as a wider cultural phenomenon. Different disciplines emphasize different aspects of the PPP phenomena; the engineering and economics professions take a utilitarian, functional focus emphasising concerns such as project delivery and relative value-for-money compared to the traditional ways of delivering large infrastructure projects. In contrast, public administrators and political scientists tend to view PPPs more as a policy brand, as a useful tool for governments to achieve their objectives. Common themes of PPPs are the sharing of risk and the development of innovative, a way of financing over a long-term for the public and private sectors; the use of private finance is another key dimension of many PPPs those influenced by the UK PFI model, although this aspect has waned since the global financial crisis of 2008.
The PPP phenomenon has been controversial. The lack of a shared understanding of what a PPP is makes the process of evaluating whether PPPs have been successful complex. Evidence of PPP performance in terms of VfM and efficiency, for example, is mixed and unavailable. According to Weimer and Vining, "A P3 involves a private entity financing, constructing, or managing a project in return for a promised stream of payments directly from government or indirectly from users over the projected life of the project or some other specified period of time"; because P3s are directly responsible for a variety of activities, as indicated by Weimer and Vining, P3s can evolve into monopolies motivated by rent-seeking behavior. PPPs involve a contract between a public sector authority and a private party, in which the private party provides a public service or project and assumes substantial financial and operational risk in the project. In some types of PPP, the cost of using the service is borne by the users of the service and not by the taxpayer.
In other types, capital investment is made by the private sector on the basis of a contract with government to provide agreed services and the cost of providing the service is borne wholly or in part by the government. Government contributions to a PPP may be in kind. In projects that are aimed at creating public goods like in the infrastructure sector, the government may provide a capital subsidy in the form of a one-time grant, so as to make the project economically viable. In some other cases, the government may support the project by providing revenue subsidies, including tax breaks or by guaranteed annual revenues for a fixed time period. In all cases, the partnerships include a transfer of significant risks to the private sector in an integrated and holistic way, minimizing interfaces for the public entity. An optimal risk allocation is the main value generator for this model of delivering public service. There are many drivers for PPPs. One common driver involves the claim that PPPs enable the public sector to harness the expertise and efficiencies that the private sector can bring to the delivery of certain facilities and services traditionally procured and delivered by the public sector.
Another common driver is that PPPs may be structured so that the public sector body seeking to make a capital investment does not incur any borrowing. Rather, the PPP borrowing is incurred by the private sector vehicle implementing the project. On PPP projects where the cost of using the service is intended to be borne by the end user, the PPP is, from the public sector's perspective, an "off-balance sheet" method of financing the delivery of new or refurbished public sector assets. On PPP projects where the public sector intends to compensate the private sector through availability payments once the facility is established or renewed, the financing is, from the public sector's perspective, "on-balance sheet". Financing costs will be higher for a PPP than for a traditional public financing, because of the private sector higher cost of capital. However, extra financing costs can be offset by private sector efficiency, savings resulting from a holistic approach to delivering the project or se
Kogawara Station is a railway station in the town of Tōhoku, Aomori Prefecture, operated by the third sector railway operator Aoimori Railway Company. Kogawara Station is served by the Aoimori Railway Line, is 53.5 kilometers from the terminus of the line at Aomori Station. It is 670.8 kilometers from Tokyo Station. Kogawara Station has two opposed side platforms serving two tracks connected by a footbridge. There is no station building, but only a small shelter on one of the platforms, the platforms are not numbered; the station is unattended. Kogawara Station was opened on August 1944 as Kogawara Signal Stop on the Tōhoku Main Line, it was elevated to the status of a full station on June 10, 1953. The station has been unattended since August 1971. With the privatization of the Japan National Railways on April 1, 1987, it came under the operational control of East Japan Railway Company; the section of the Tōhoku Main Line including this station was transferred to Aoimori Railway on December 4, 2010.
Lake Ogawara Kogawara Post Office List of Railway Stations in Japan JTB Timetable December 2010 issue Aoimori Railway station information