Gurbani is a Sikh term commonly used by Sikhs to refer to various compositions by the Sikh Gurus and other writers of Guru Granth Sahib. In general, hymns in the central text of the Sikhs, the Guru Granth Sahib, are called Gurbani. Among Amrit dhari Sikhs, a few texts from Dasam Granth which are read as Nitnem, like Tav-Prasad Savaiye and Chaupai, are considered Gurbani. In Adi Granth, Gurbani is a sound which comes directly from the Supreme and the text is a written form of the same in worldly language and scripts, it is called Gun Bani. Gurbani are explanations of qualities of the Primal Lord and Soul which a Sikh should comprehend and with which he can attain the supreme state. Sikh historical writings, unauthentic writings or apocryphal compositions written under the names of Sikh Gurus and other writings by Sikhs are not considered Gurbani and are referred to as Kachi Bani. Gurbani is composed of two words:'Gur' and'Bani'. Gur has multiple meanings depending on context. In Guru Granth Sahib, Gur is used for multiple meanings, as per context of hymn.
The common use of Gur is either for internal conscious mind. Thereby Gurbani either means the speech of conscious mind. Gurbani is directly received from inside after attaining a Supreme state, whereas the Granth or textual form is worldly language of the same. Gurbani is referred to as Dhur Ki Bani. In Adi Granth, it is considered a source of spiritual knowledge which illuminates the mind and gives internal bliss; the one who comprehends Gurbani is described as an Amritdhari. Gurbani is a source of truth with which the internal filth and sins get eradicated and one who find Gurbani sweet is in supreme state. Extracts from Guru Granth Sahib are called Gutkas containing sections of Gurbani; these Gutkas can vary from just a few pages to hundreds of pages and are used by the Sikhs to read these Banis on a daily basis. The hymns of the Japji Sahib, Jaap Sahib, Tav-Prasad Savaiye, Chaupai Sahib and Anand Sahib should be read before sunrise daily according to the Sikh Rehat Maryada; these are recited by initiated Sikhs at Amritvela.
Rehras is read in the evening around sunset or after a day's work and Kirtan Sohila is read before going to bed. Doing Nitnem is commonly referred as doing paath. Japji Sahib, Anand Sahib, Kirtan Sohila are a part of Guru Granth Sahib. Jaap Sahib, Tav-Prasad Savaiye, Chaupai Sahib were all compiled by Guru Gobind Singh and found in the Dasam Granth. Rehras is a mix with hymns from both Guru Granth Dasam Granth. A Sikh may add more Gurbani to their Nitnem and if done that Gurbani becomes a part of their Nitnem. Panj Granthi Japji Sahib Anand Sahib Sri Guru Granth Sahib Nitnem
Khalsa refers to both a special group of initiated Sikhs, as well as a community that considers Sikhism as its faith. The Khalsa tradition was initiated in 1699 by the last living Guru of Guru Gobind Singh, its formation was a key event in the history of Sikhism. The founding of Khalsa is celebrated by Sikhs during the festival of Vaisakhi. Guru Gobind Singh started the Khalsa tradition after his father had been beheaded for resisting the religious persecution of non-Muslims during the rule of the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb. Guru Gobind Singh created and initiated the Khalsa as a warrior with a duty to protect the innocent from any form of religious persecution; the Khalsa redefined the Sikh tradition from the start. It rules of conduct for the Khalsa warriors, it created a new institution for the temporal leadership of the Sikhs, replacing the masands system maintained by the earlier Gurus of Sikhism. Additionally, the Khalsa provided a religious vision for the Sikh community. Upon initiation, a Khalsa Sikh was given the titles of Kaur.
The rules of life, included behavioral code, a dress code. In contrast to the Khalsa Sikh, a Sahajdhari Sikh is one who reveres the teachings of the Sikh gurus, but has not undergone the initiation. Sahajdhari Sikhs do not accept some or all elements of the dress and behavioral codes of the Khalsa Sikhs; the Khalsa has been predominantly a male institution in Sikh history, with Khalsa authority with the male leaders. In the contemporary era, it has become open to women but its authority remains with Sikh men. "Khalsa", according to McLeod, is derived from the Arabic or Persian word "Khalisa" which means "to be pure, to be clear, to be free from". Sikhism emerged in the northwestern part of Indian subcontinent. During the Mughal Empire rule, according to professor Eleanor Nesbitt, khalsa meant the land, possessed directly by the emperor, different from jagir land granted to lords in exchange for a promise of loyalty and annual tribute to the emperor. Prior to Guru Gobind Singh, the religious organization was organized through the agents.
The masands would collect revenue from rural regions for the Sikh cause, much like jagirs would for the Islamic emperor. The khalsa, in Sikhism, came to mean pure loyalty to the Guru, not to the intermediary masands who were becoming corrupt, states Nesbitt; the Sikhs faced religious persecution during the Mughal Empire rule. Guru Arjan Dev, the fifth Guru, was arrested and executed by Emperor Jahangir in 1606; the following Guru, Guru Hargobind formally militarised the Sikhs and emphasised the complementary nature of the temporal power and spiritual power. In 1675, Guru Tegh Bahadur, the ninth Guru of the Sikhs and the father of Guru Gobind Singh was executed by the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb for resisting religious persecution of non-Muslims, for refusing to convert to Islam. In 1699, the tenth Guru of Sikhism, Guru Gobind Singh asked Sikhs to gather at Anandpur Sahib on 30 March 1699, the day of Vaisakhi. Guru Gobind Singh addressed the congregation from the entryway of a tent pitched on a hill.
He drew his sword, according to the Sikh tradition, asked for a volunteer from those who gathered, someone willing to sacrifice his head. One came forward; the Guru with a bloody sword. He asked for another volunteer, repeated the same process of returning from the tent without anyone and with a bloodied sword four more times. After the fifth volunteer went with him into the tent, the Guru returned with all five volunteers, all safe, he called them the first Khalsa in the Sikh tradition. These five volunteers were: Daya Ram, Dharam Das, Himmat Rai, Mohkam Chand, Sahib Chand. Guru Gobind Singh mixed water and sugar into an iron bowl, stirring it with a double-edged sword to prepare what he called Amrit, he administered this to the Panj Pyare, accompanied with recitations from the Adi Granth, thus founding the khande ka pahul of a Khalsa – a warrior community. The Guru gave them a new surname "Singh". After the first five Khalsa had been baptized, the Guru asked the five to baptize him as a Khalsa.
This made the Guru the sixth Khalsa, his name changed from Guru Gobind Rai to Guru Gobind Singh. He introduced ideas that indirectly challenged the discriminatory taxes imposed by Islamic authorities. For example, Aurangzeb had imposed taxes on non-Muslims that were collected from the Sikhs as well, for example the jizya, pilgrim tax and Bhaddar tax – the last being a tax to be paid by anyone following the Hindu ritual of shaving the head after the death of a loved one and cremation. Guru Gobind Singh declared that Khalsa do not need to continue this practice, because Bhaddar is not dharam, but a bharam. Not shaving the head meant not having to pay the taxes by Sikhs who lived in Delhi and other parts of the Mughal Empire. However, the new code of conduct led to internal disagreements between Sikhs in the 18th century between the Nanakpanthi and the Khalsa. Guru Gobind Singh had deep respect for the Khalsa, stated that there is no difference between the True Guru and the sangat. Before his founding of the Khalsa, the Sikh movement had used the Sanskrit word Sisya, but the favored term thereaft
Prayer is an invocation or act that seeks to activate a rapport with an object of worship a deity, through deliberate communication. In the narrow sense, the term refers to an act of supplication or intercession directed towards a deity, or a deified ancestor. More prayer can have the purpose of thanksgiving or praise, in comparative religion is associated with more abstract forms of meditation and with charms or spells. Prayer can take a variety of forms: it can be part of a set liturgy or ritual, it can be performed alone or in groups. Prayer may take the form of a hymn, formal creedal statement, or a spontaneous utterance in the praying person. Today, most major religions involve prayer in another; the English term prayer is from Medieval Latin precaria "petition, prayer". The Vulgate Latin is oratio, which translates Greek προσευχή in turn the Septuagint translation of Biblical Hebrew תְּפִלָּה tĕphillah. Various spiritual traditions offer a wide variety of devotional acts. There are morning and evening prayers, graces said over meals, reverent physical gestures.
Some Christians fold their hands. Some Native Americans regard dancing as a form of prayer; some Sufis whirl. Hindus chant mantras. Jewish prayer may involve bowing. Muslims practice salat in their prayers. Quakers keep silent; some pray according to standardized rituals and liturgies, while others prefer extemporaneous prayers. Still others combine the two. Friedrich Heiler is cited in Christian circles for his systematic Typology of Prayer which lists six types of prayer: primitive, Greek cultural, philosophical and prophetic; some forms of prayer require a prior ritualistic form of cleansing or purification such as in ghusl and wudhu. Prayer may be done and individually, or it may be done corporately in the presence of fellow believers. Prayer can be incorporated into a daily "thought life", in which one is in constant communication with a god; some people pray throughout all, happening during the day and seek guidance as the day progresses. This is regarded as a requirement in several Christian denominations, although enforcement is not possible nor desirable.
There can be many different answers to prayer, just as there are many ways to interpret an answer to a question, if there in fact comes an answer. Some may experience physical, or mental epiphanies. If indeed an answer comes, the time and place it comes is considered random; some outward acts that sometimes accompany prayer are: anointing with oil. One less noticeable act related to prayer is fasting. A variety of body postures may be assumed with specific meaning associated with them: standing. Prayers may be recited from memory, read from a book of prayers, or composed spontaneously as they are prayed, they may be chanted, or sung. They may be with musical accompaniment or not. There may be a time of outward silence. There are prayers to fit specific occasions, such as the blessing of a meal, the birth or death of a loved one, other significant events in the life of a believer, or days of the year that have special religious significance. Details corresponding to specific traditions are outlined below.
Anthropologically, the concept of prayer is related to that of surrender and supplication. The traditional posture of prayer in medieval Europe is kneeling or supine with clasped hands, in antiquity more with raised hands; the early Christian prayer posture was standing, looking up to heaven, with outspread arms and bare head. This is the pagan prayer posture. Certain Cretan and Cypriote figures of the Late Bronze Age, with arms raised, have been interpreted as worshippers, their posture is similar to the "flight" posture, a crouching posture with raised hands, observed in schizophrenic patients and related to the universal "hands up" gesture of surrender. The kneeling posture with clasped hands appears to have been introduced only with the beginning high medieval period adopted from a gesture of feudal homage. Although prayer in its literal sense is not used in animism, communication with the spirit world is vital to the animist way of life; this is accomplished through a shaman who, through a trance, gains access to the spirit world and shows the spirits' thoughts to the people.
Other ways to receive messages from the spirits include using astrology or contemplating fortune tellers and healers. Some of the oldest extant literature, such as the Sumerian temple hymns of Enheduanna are liturgy addressed to deities and thus technically "prayer"; the Egyptian Pyramid Texts of about the same period contain spells or incantations addressed to the gods. In the loosest sense, in the form of magical thinking combined with animism, prayer has been argued as representing a human cultural universal, which would have been present since the emergence of behavioral modernity, by anthropologists such as Sir Edward Burnett Tylor a
Sikhism, or Sikhi Sikkhī, from Sikh, meaning a "disciple", "seeker," or "learner") is a religion that originated in the Punjab region in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent around the end of the 15th century, has variously been defined as monotheistic and panentheistic. It is one of the youngest of the major world religions, the world's fifth largest organized religion, as well as being the world's ninth-largest overall religion; the fundamental beliefs of Sikhism, articulated in the sacred scripture Guru Granth Sahib, include faith and meditation on the name of the one creator, divine unity and equality of all humankind, engaging in selfless service, striving for justice for the benefit and prosperity of all, honest conduct and livelihood while living a householder's life. In the early 21st century there were nearly 25 million Sikhs worldwide, the great majority of them living in Punjab, according to the Encyclopaedia Britannica. Sikhism is based on the spiritual teachings of Guru Nanak, the first Guru, the nine Sikh gurus that succeeded him.
The Tenth Guru, Guru Gobind Singh, named the Sikh scripture Guru Granth Sahib as his successor, terminating the line of human Gurus and making the scripture the eternal, religious spiritual guide for Sikhs. The Guru Granth Sahib is notable for being written by the founders of the religion, for including works by members of other religions. Sikhism rejects claims; the Sikh scripture opens with Ik Onkar, its Mul Mantar and fundamental prayer about One Supreme Being. Sikhism emphasizes simran, that can be expressed musically through kirtan or internally through Nam Japo as a means to feel God's presence, it teaches followers to transform the "Five Thieves". Hand in hand, secular life is considered to be intertwined with the spiritual life. Guru Nanak taught that living an "active and practical life" of "truthfulness, self-control and purity" is above the metaphysical truth, that the ideal man is one who "establishes union with God, knows His Will, carries out that Will". Guru Hargobind, the sixth Sikh Guru, established the political/temporal and spiritual realms to be mutually coexistent.
Sikhism evolved in times of religious persecution. Two of the Sikh gurus – Guru Arjan and Guru Tegh Bahadur – were tortured and executed by the Mughal rulers after they refused to convert to Islam; the persecution of Sikhs triggered the founding of the Khalsa as an order to protect the freedom of conscience and religion, with qualities of a "Sant-Sipāhī" – a saint-soldier. The Khalsa was founded by Guru Gobind Singh; the majority of Sikh scriptures were written in the Gurmukhī alphabet, a script standardised by Guru Angad out of Laṇḍā scripts used in North India. Adherents of Sikhism are known as Sikhs, which means disciples of the Guru; the anglicised word'Sikhism' is derived from the Punjabi verb Sikhi, with roots in Sikhana, Sikhi connotes the "temporal path of learning". The basis of Sikhism lies in the teachings of his successors. Many sources call Sikhism a monotheistic religion, while others call it a monistic and panentheistic religion. According to Eleanor Nesbitt, English renderings of Sikhism as a monotheistic religion "tend misleadingly to reinforce a Semitic understanding of monotheism, rather than Guru Nanak's mystical awareness of the one, expressed through the many.
However, what is not in doubt is the emphasis on'one'". In Sikhism, the concept of "God" is Waheguru considered Nirankar and Alakh Niranjan; the Sikh scripture begins with Ik Onkar, which refers to the "formless one", understood in the Sikh tradition as monotheistic unity of God. Sikhism is classified as an Indian religion along with Buddhism and Jainism, given its geographical origin and its sharing some concepts with them. Sikh ethics emphasize the congruence between everyday moral conduct, its founder Guru Nanak summarized this perspective with "Truth is the highest virtue, but higher still is truthful living". God in Sikhism is known as the One Supreme Reality or the all-pervading spirit; this spirit has no gender in Sikhism. It is Akaal Purkh and Nirankar. In addition, Nanak wrote; the traditional Mul Mantar goes from Ik Oankar until Nanak Hosee Bhee Sach. The opening line of the Guru Granth Sahib and each subsequent raga, mentions Ik Oankar: ੴ ਸਤਿ ਨਾਮੁ ਕਰਤਾ ਪੁਰਖੁ ਨਿਰਭਉ ਨਿਰਵੈਰੁ ਅਕਾਲ ਮੂਰਤਿ ਅਜੂਨੀ ਸੈਭੰ ਗੁਰ ਪ੍ਰਸਾਦਿ॥Transliteration: ikk ōankār sat-nām karatā purakh nirabha'u niravair akāl mūrat ajūnī saibhan gur prasād.
"There is one supreme being, the eternal reality, the creator, without fear and devoid of enmity, never incarnated, self-existent, known by grace through the true Guru." Māyā, defined as a temporary illusion or "unreality", is one of the core deviations from the pursuit of God and salvation: where worldly attractions which give only illusory temporary satisfaction and pain which distract the process of the devotion of God. However, Nanak emphasised māyā as not a reference of its values. In Sikhism, the influences of ego, greed and lust, known as the Five Thieves, are believed to be distracting and hurtful. Sikhs believe the world is curren
The Dasam Patishah Ji Da Granth known as Dasam Granth, is a religious text containing many of the texts traditionally attributed to Guru Gobind Singh. It is written in Brij Bhasha, with Awadhi, Hindustani and Persian compositions written entirely in the Gurmukhi script except for the Fatehnama, Zafar Nama and Hikayat, which are in the Persian alphabet; the Dasam Granth is a separate religious text from the Guru Granth Sahib. Some compositions of the Dasam Granth such as Jaap Sahib, Tav-Prasad Savaiye and Benti Chaupai are part of the Nitnem or daily prayers and part of the Amrit Sanchar or baptism ceremony. Although the compositions of the Dasam Granth are accepted to be penned by Guru Gobind Singh there are some that still question the authenticity of the Dasam Granth. There are three major views on the authorship of the Dasam Granth: The historical and traditional view is that the entire work was composed by Guru Gobind Singh himself; the entire collection was composed by the poets in the Guru's entourage.
Only a part of the work was composed by the Guru. In his religious court at Anandpur Sahib, Guru Gobind Singh had employed 52 poets, who translated several classical texts into Braj Bhasha. Most of the writing compiled at Anandpur Sahib was lost while the Guru's camp was crossing the Sirsa river before the Battle of Chamkaur. There were copiers available at the Guru's place. Bhai Mani Singh compiled all the available works under the title Dasam Granth; the traditional scholars claim that all the works in Dasam Granth were composed by the Guru himself, on the basis of Bhai Mani Singh's letter. But the veracity of the letter has been found to be unreliable. Any one moderately acquainted with Hindi can tell from the internal evidence of style that Chandi Charitar and Bhagauti ki War are translations by different hands; some others dispute the claim of the authorship, saying that some of the compositions included in Dasam Granth are "out of tune" with other Sikh scriptures, must have been composed by other poets.
The names of poets Raam and Kaal appear in the granth. References to Kavi Shyam can be seen in Mahan Kosh of Bhai Kahan Singh Nabha, under the entry'Bawanja Kavi' and in Kavi Santokh Singh's magnum opus Suraj Prakash Granth; the following are historical books after the demise of Guru Gobind Singh which mention that the compositions in the present Dasam Granth was written by Guru Gobind Singh: Rehitnama Bhai Nand Lal mentioned Jaap Sahib is an important Bani for a Sikh. Rehitnama Chaupa Singh Chibber quotes various lines from Bachitar Natak, 33 Swiayey, Chopai Sahib, Jaap Sahib. In 1711, Sri Gur Sobha was written by the poet Senapat and mentioned a conversation of Guru Gobind Singh and Akal Purakh, written three of its Adhyay on base of Bachitar Natak. In 1741, Parchian Srvadas Kian quoted lines from Rama Avtar, 33 Swaiyey and mentioned Zafarnama with Hikayats. in 1751, Gurbilas Patshahi 10 – Koyar Singh Kalal, mentioned Guru Gobind Singh composed Bachitar Natak, Krisna Avtar, Bisan Avtar, Akal Ustat, Jaap Sahib, Hikayats etc.
This is first Granth mentioned Guruship of Guru Granth Shahib. In 1766, Kesar Singh Chibber mentioned history of compilation of Dasam Granth by Bhai Mani Singh Khalsa on directions of Mata Sundri, as he was first who wrote history after death of Guru Gobind Singh. In 1766, Sri Guru Mahima Parkash – Sarup Chand Bhalla, mentioned about various Banis of Guru Gobind Singh and compilation of Dasam Granth In 1790, Guru Kian Sakhian – Svarup Singh Kashish, mentioned Guru Gobind Singh composed, bachitar Natak, Krishna Avtar, Shastarnaam Mala, 33 Swaiyey etc. In 1797, Gurbilas Patshahi 10 – Sukkha Singh, mentioned compositions of Guru Gobind Singh. In 1812, J. B. Malcolm, in SKetch of Sikhs mentioned about Dasam Granth as Bani of Guru Gobind Singh; the length of the printed version of Dasam Granth is 1428 pages. It contains the Jaap Sahib, the Akal Ustat or praise of the Creator and the Bachittar Natak, which gives an account of the Guru's parentage, his divine mission and the battles in which he had been engaged.
Next come three abridged compositions of the wars of Durga, called Chandi, with demons. Following this is the Gyan Parbodh, or awakening of knowledge; these are the compositions included in Dasam Granth: Some birs include the following compositions: Ugardanti Malkauns Ki Vaar Asfotak Kabits The compositions within Dasam Granth play a huge role in Sikh liturgy, prescribed by Sikh Rehat Maryada: Jaap Sahib is part of Nitnem, which Sikh recites daily in morning. Tav-Prasad Savaiye, again a bani of Nitnem, is part of Akal Ustat composition, recited daily in morning along with above. Benti Chaupai, is part of Sri Charitropakhyan, recited in morning as well as evening prayers. Jaap, Tav Prasad Savaiye and Chaupai are read while preparing Khande Batey Ki Pahul; the first stanza of the Sikh ardās, an invocation to God and the nine Gurus preceding Gobind Singh, is from Chandi di Var. As per Sikh Rehat Maryada, a stanza of Chau
Varan Bhai Gurdas
Varan Bhai Gurdas is the name given to the 40 vars, traditionally attributed to Bhai Gurdas. Bhai Gurdas was a first cousin of mother of Guru Arjan Dev, he was a scholar of great repute. From his work it is clear that he had mastery of various Indian languages and had studied many ancient Indian religious scriptures; each of the 40 chapters of "Varan Bhai Gurdas" consists of a differing number of Pauris. The composition is a collection of detailed commentary and explanation of theology and the ethics of Sikh beliefs as outlined by the Gurus, it explains the Sikh terms like sangat, haumai, "Gun", Gurmukh and Manmukh, Naam, etc. Many of the principles of Sikhism are explained in simple terms by Bhai Sahib and at times in many different ways. Bhai Gurdas Sikh scriptures searchgurbani.com Bhai Gurdas Varan sikhitothemax.com allaboutsikhs.com
Guru Granth Sahib
Sri Guru Granth Sahib is the Sikh scriptures. It was compiled by the ten gurus of Sikhism and is itself regarded by Sikhs as the final and eternal living guru. Adi Granth, the first rendition, was compiled by Guru Arjan; the tenth guru, Guru Gobind Singh, added one shloka, dohra mahala 9 ang, 1429 and all 115 hymns of his father, Guru Tegh Bahadur. This second rendition came to be known as Sri Guru Granth Sahib. After Guru Gobind Singh's death in 1708, Baba Deep Singh and Bhai Mani Singh prepared many copies of the Sri Guru Granth Sahib for distribution; the text consists of 1,430 angs and 6,000 śabads, which are poetically rendered and set to a rhythmic ancient north Indian classical form of music. The bulk of the scripture is divided into sixty rāags, with each Granth rāga subdivided according to length and author; the hymns in the scripture are arranged by the rāgas in which they are read. The Guru Granth Sahib is written in the Gurmukhī script, in various languages, including Lahnda, Braj Bhasha, Sanskrit and Persian.
Copies in these languages have the generic title of Sant Bhasha. Guru Granth Sahib was composed by the Sikh Gurus: Guru Nanak Dev, Guru Angad Dev, Guru Amar Das, Guru Ram Das, Guru Arjan Dev, Guru Tegh Bahadur and Guru Gobind Singh added 1 sloakh in mahala 9 Ang 1429, it contains the traditions and teachings of Indian sants, such as Ravidas, Ramananda and Namdev among others, two Muslim Sufi saints Bhagat Bhikan and: Sheikh Farid. The vision in the Guru Granth Sahib is of a society based on divine justice without oppression of any kind. While the Granth acknowledges and respects the scriptures of Hinduism and Islam, it does not imply a moral reconciliation with either of these religions, it is installed in a Sikh gurdwara. The Granth is revered as the spiritual authority in Sikhism. During the guruship of Guru Nanak Dev, collections of his holy hymns were compiled and sent to distant Sikh communities for use in morning and evening prayers, his successor Guru Angad Dev began collecting his predecessor's writings.
This tradition was continued by the fifth gurus as well. When the fifth guru Guru Arjan Dev was collecting religious writings of his predecessor, he discovered that pretenders to the guruship were releasing what he considered as forged anthologies of writings of the previous guru and including their own writings with them. In order to prevent spurious scriptures from gaining legitimacy, Guru Arjan Dev began compiling a sacred scripture for the Sikh community, he finished collecting the religious writings of Guru Ram Das, his immediate predecessor, convinced Mohan, the son of Guru Amar Das, to give him the collection of the religious writings of the first three gurus. In addition, he sent disciples to go across the country to find and bring back any unknown religious writings of theirs, he invited members of other religions and contemporary religious writers to submit writings for possible inclusion. Guru Arjan pitched a tent by the side of Ramsar tank in Amritsar and started the task of compiling the holy Granth.
He selected hymns for inclusion in the Adi Bhai Gurdas acted as his scribe. While the holy hymns and verses were being put together Akbar, the Mughal Emperor, received a report that the Adi Granth contained passages vilifying Islam. Therefore, while travelling north, he asked to inspect it. Baba Buddha and Bhai Gurdas brought him a copy of the Adi Granth. After choosing three random passages to be read, Akbar decided. In 1604, Adi Granth was completed and installed at the Harmandir Sahib, with Baba Buddha as the first granthi, or reader. Since communities of Sikh disciples were scattered all over northern India, copies of the holy scripture needed to be made for them; the sixth guru added the tunes of 9 out of 22 Vars. Seventh and eighth guru did not have writings of their own added to the holy scripture; the tenth guru, Guru Gobind Singh, included writings of his father Guru Tegh Bahadur in the Guru Granth Sahib, included 1 salokh in mahala 9 Ang 1429. In 1704 at Damdama Sahib, during a one-year respite from the heavy fighting with Aurangzeb which the Khalsa was engaged in at the time, Guru Gobind Singh and Bhai Mani Singh added the religious compositions of Guru Tegh Bahadur to Adi Granth to create a definitive compilation.
Religious verses of Guru Gobind Singh were not included in Guru Granth Sahib, but he added 1 sloak in mahala 9 Ang 1429. His banis are found in the Sri Dasam Granth, they are part in the daily prayers of Sikhs During this period, Bhai Mani Singh collected Guru Gobind Singh's religious writings, as well as his court poems, included them in a secondary religious volume, today known as the Dasam Granth Sahib. Sikhs consider the Guru Granth Sahib as the eternal living guru, the highest religious and spiritual guide for Sikhs and inspire all of humanity, its place in Sikh devotional life is based on two fundamental principles: on the "Gurbani", received by the Sikh gurus in their divine consciousness from God and revealed to mankind. The Guru Granth Sahib answers all questions regarding religion and that morality can be discovered within it; the word is the guru and the guru is the word. Thus, in Sikh theology, the revealed divine word was written by past gurus. Numerous holy men, aside from the Sikh gurus, are collectively referred to as Bhagats or "devotees."
In 1708 Guru Gobin