Nitric oxide

Nitric oxide is a colorless gas with the formula NO. It is one of the principal oxides of nitrogen. Nitric oxide is a free radical, i.e. it has an unpaired electron, sometimes denoted by a dot in its chemical formula. Nitric oxide is a heteronuclear diatomic molecule, a historic class that drew researches which spawned early modern theories of chemical bonding. An important intermediate in chemical industry, nitric oxide forms in combustion systems and can be generated by lightning in thunderstorms. In mammals, including humans, nitric oxide is a signaling molecule in many physiological and pathological processes, it was proclaimed the "Molecule of the Year" in 1992. The 1998 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded for discovering nitric oxide's role as a cardiovascular signalling molecule. Nitric oxide should not be confused with nitrous oxide, an anesthetic, or with nitrogen dioxide, a brown gas and major air pollutant. Upon condensing to a liquid, nitric oxide dimerizes to dinitrogen dioxide, but the association is weak and reversible.

The N–N distance in crystalline NO is 218 pm, nearly twice the N–O distance. Since the heat of formation of ·NO is endothermic, NO can be decomposed to the elements. Catalytic converters in cars exploit this reaction: 2 NO → O2 + N2; when exposed to oxygen, nitric oxide converts into nitrogen dioxide: 2 NO + O2 → 2 NO2. This conversion has been speculated as occurring via the ONOONO intermediate. In water, nitric oxide reacts with water to form nitrous acid; the reaction is thought to proceed via the following stoichiometry: 4 NO + O2 + 2 H2O → 4 HNO2. Nitric oxide reacts with fluorine and bromine to form the nitrosyl halides, such as nitrosyl chloride: 2 NO + Cl2 → 2 NOCl. With NO2 a radical, NO combines to form the intensely blue dinitrogen trioxide: NO + NO2 ⇌ ON−NO2; the addition of a nitric oxide moiety to another molecule is referred to as nitrosylation. Nitric oxide reacts with acetone and an alkoxide to a diazeniumdiolate or nitrosohydroxylamine and methyl acetate: This reaction, discovered around 1898, remains of interest in nitric oxide prodrug research.

Nitric oxide can react directly with sodium methoxide, forming sodium formate and nitrous oxide. Nitric oxide reacts with transition metals to give complexes called metal nitrosyls; the most common bonding mode of nitric oxide is the terminal linear type. Alternatively, nitric oxide can serve as a one-electron pseudohalide. In such complexes, the M−N−O group is characterized by an angle between 120° and 140°; the NO group can bridge between metal centers through the nitrogen atom in a variety of geometries. In commercial settings, nitric oxide is produced by the oxidation of ammonia at 750–900 °C with platinum as catalyst: 4 NH3 + 5 O2 → 4 NO + 6 H2OThe uncatalyzed endothermic reaction of oxygen and nitrogen, effected at high temperature by lightning has not been developed into a practical commercial synthesis: N2 + O2 → 2 NO In the laboratory, nitric oxide is conveniently generated by reduction of dilute nitric acid with copper: 8 HNO3 + 3 Cu → 3 Cu2 + 4 H2O + 2 NOAn alternative route involves the reduction of nitrous acid in the form of sodium nitrite or potassium nitrite: 2 NaNO2 + 2 NaI + 2 H2SO4 → I2 + 2 Na2SO4 + 2 H2O + 2 NO 2 NaNO2 + 2 FeSO4 + 3 H2SO4 → Fe23 + 2 NaHSO4 + 2 H2O + 2 NO 3 KNO2 + KNO3 + Cr2O3 → 2 K2CrO4 + 4 NOThe iron sulfate route is simple and has been used in undergraduate laboratory experiments.

So-called NONOate compounds are used for nitric oxide generation. Nitric oxide concentration can be determined using a chemiluminescent reaction involving ozone. A sample containing nitric oxide is mixed with a large quantity of ozone; the nitric oxide reacts with the ozone to produce oxygen and nitrogen dioxide, accompanied with emission of light: NO + O3 → NO2 + O2 + hνwhich can be measured with a photodetector. The amount of light produced is proportional to the amount of nitric oxide in the sample. Other methods of testing include electroanalysis, where ·NO reacts with an electrode to induce a current or voltage change; the detection of NO radicals in biological tissues is difficult due to the short lifetime and concentration of these radicals in tissues. One of the few practical methods is spin trapping of nitric oxide with iron-dithiocarbamate complexes and subsequent detection of the mono-nitrosyl-iron complex with electron paramagnetic resonance. A group of fluorescent dye indicators that are available in acetylated form for intracellular measurements exist.

The most common compound is 4,5-diaminofluorescein. Nitric oxide reacts with the hydroperoxy radical to form nitrogen dioxide, which can react with a hydroxyl radical to produce nitric acid: ·NO + HO2•→ •NO2 + •OH ·NO2 + •OH → HNO3Nitric acid, along with sulfuric acid, contributes to acid rain deposition. ·NO participates in ozone layer depletion. Nitric oxide reacts with stratospheric ozone to form O2 and nitrogen dioxide: ·NO + O3 → NO2 + O2This reaction is utilized to measure concentrations of ·NO in control volumes; as seen in the Acid deposition section, nitric oxide can transform into nitrogen dioxide. Symptoms of short-term nitrogen dioxide exposure include nausea and headache. Long-term effects could include impaired respiratory function. NO is a gaseous signaling molecule, it is a key vertebrate biological messenger. It is a known bioproduct in all types of organisms, ranging from bacteri

Keihan 8000 series

The Keihan 8000 series is an electric multiple unit limited express train type operated by the private railway operator Keihan Electric Railway in Japan since 1989. As of 1 April 2015, the fleet consists of ten eight-car trains, formed as follows with four motored cars and four non-powered trailer cars; the TD car is a bilevel car. The MC1 and M1 cars each have two scissors-type pantographs; the 8000 series trains were introduced between 1989 and 1990 operating as seven-car sets. They were lengthened to eight cars per set with the addition of a type 8800 bilevel car from fiscal 1997. Use of the bilevel car does not incur a standalone surcharge. Between 2008 and 2010, the fleet was repainted in a new colour scheme. Between March 2010 and November 2012, the fleet underwent a programme of refurbishment, which included interior changes. Car 6 of each set is due to be modified to become a "Premium Car" with 2+1 abreast reclining seating ahead of the introduction of reserved-seating limited express services on 20 August 2017, which incurs a surcharge.

Modifications include the elimination of one doorway on each side. Seating accommodation is provided for 40 passengers with a seat width of 460 mm and seat pitch of 1,020 mm. AC power outlets are provided for each seat. Official website

Ivan Doan

Ivan Vanovich Doan is a Ukrainian Vietnamese actor. He attended the National University of Theatre and Television in Kiev for four years where he learned the original Stanislavski method of acting, he speaks native Russian and Ukrainian, Standard American English, RP, non-accented German as well as good French and Vietnamese. He is a martial artist that does his own stunts. Doan began his professional career in 2007 and is known for his roles in How I Fought Bravely the Thirst for Knowledge and What Happened Then, Overturn: Awakening of the Warrior, The Magnitsky Act – Behind the Scenes. Doan was born in Ukraine to a Ukrainian mother and Vietnamese father. In 2003 he got accepted to the acting program of Kyiv National I. K. Karpenko-Kary Theatre and Television University. Upon graduation in 2007, he was invited to work in Moscow by theater director Roman Viktyuk. Doan is known for his accent skills, he speaks English, German, Russian and Vietnamese. He is a lifelong practitioner of martial arts.

He resides in Berlin. How I Fought Bravely the Thirst for Knowledge and What Happened Then The New Year Tariff Rate Open-eyr The House on Ozernaya street Guest Overturn Overturn: Awakening of the Warrior The Bomb The History of Chriminalistics Generation Maidan: A Year of Revolution & War Touching Quietude The Magnitsky Act – Behind the Scenes Pilgrims Life Goes On in Paris Heroes and Cowards Rocca Changes the World Masquerades of Research: Part I Ivan Doan at the Internet Movie Database Ivan Doan's talent agency in Berlin Official website of Ivan Doan "Short Film Review'Pilgrims'" "Pilgrims" "Pilgrims and refugees" "Indie Film Review'Overturn: Awakening of the Warrior'" Overturn: Awakening of the Warrior "Friday Download: Overturn"