Nitrous oxide

Nitrous oxide known as laughing gas or nitrous, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, with taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidizer similar to molecular oxygen, it is soluble in water. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain reducing effects, its colloquial name "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the safest and most effective medicines needed in a health system, it is used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide occurs in small amounts in the atmosphere, but has been found to be a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs.

It is estimated that 30% of the N2O in the atmosphere is the result of human activity, chiefly agriculture. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide may be used as an oxidizer in a rocket motor; this is advantageous over other oxidisers in that it is much less toxic, due to its stability at room temperature is easier to store and safe to carry on a flight. As a secondary benefit, it may be decomposed to form breathing air, its high density and low storage pressure enable it to be competitive with stored high-pressure gas systems. In a 1914 patent, American rocket pioneer Robert Goddard suggested nitrous oxide and gasoline as possible propellants for a liquid-fuelled rocket. Nitrous oxide has been the oxidiser of choice in several hybrid rocket designs; the combination of nitrous oxide with hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene fuel has been used by SpaceShipOne and others. It is notably used in amateur and high power rocketry with various plastics as the fuel.

Nitrous oxide may be used in a monopropellant rocket. In the presence of a heated catalyst, N2O will decompose exothermically into nitrogen and oxygen, at a temperature of 1,070 °F; because of the large heat release, the catalytic action becomes secondary, as thermal autodecomposition becomes dominant. In a vacuum thruster, this may provide a monopropellant specific impulse of as much as 180 s. While noticeably less than the Isp available from hydrazine thrusters, the decreased toxicity makes nitrous oxide an option worth investigating. Nitrous oxide is said to deflagrate at 600 °C at a pressure of 309 psi. At 600 psi, for example, the required ignition energy is only 6 joules, whereas N2O at 130 psi a 2,500-joule ignition energy input is insufficient. In vehicle racing, nitrous oxide allows the engine to burn more fuel by providing more oxygen than air alone, resulting in a more powerful combustion; the gas is not flammable at a low pressure/temperature, but it delivers more oxygen than atmospheric air by breaking down at elevated temperatures.

Therefore, it is mixed with another fuel, easier to deflagrate. Nitrous oxide is a strong oxidising agent equivalent to hydrogen peroxide, much stronger than oxygen gas. Nitrous oxide is stored as a compressed liquid. Sometimes nitrous oxide is injected into the intake manifold, whereas other systems directly inject, right before the cylinder to increase power; the technique was used during World War II by Luftwaffe aircraft with the GM-1 system to boost the power output of aircraft engines. Meant to provide the Luftwaffe standard aircraft with superior high-altitude performance, technological considerations limited its use to high altitudes. Accordingly, it was only used by specialised planes such as high-altitude reconnaissance aircraft, high-speed bombers and high-altitude interceptor aircraft, it sometimes could be found on Luftwaffe aircraft fitted with another engine-boost system, MW 50, a form of water injection for aviation engines that used methanol for its boost capabilities. One of the major problems of using nitrous oxide in a reciprocating engine is that it can produce enough power to damage or destroy the engine.

Large power increases are possible, if the mechanical structure of the engine is not properly reinforced, the engine may be damaged, or destroyed, during this kind of operation. It is important with nitrous oxide augmentation of petrol engines to maintain proper operating temperatures and fuel levels to prevent "pre-ignition", or "detonation". Most problems that are associated with nitrous oxide do not come from mechanical failure due to the power increases. Since nitrous oxide allows a much denser charge into the cylinder, it increases cylinder pressures; the increased pressure and temperature can cause problems such as melting valves. It may crack or warp the piston or head and cause pre-ignition due to uneven heating. Automotive-grade liquid nitrous oxide differs from medical-grade nitrous oxide. A small amount of sulfur dioxide is added to prevent substance abuse. Multiple washes through a base (such as sodium hydro

The Main Event (video game)

The Main Event, known in Japan as Ringu no Ōja, is a professional wrestling arcade game released by Konami in 1988. A player selects two different wrestlers as their tag team, they wrestle another tag team. If the player wins, his team moves on to another match. If he loses, he gets an immediate rematch, since the game isn't over until the player's energy falls to zero; some of the game's most distinguishable features were an oversized "Action" button which would flash whenever an attack, submission or pin could be performed. There are three weight classes: Cruiserweights, which specialize in agile moves. Moves are divided in five types: Attack, Grapple 1, Grapple 2, Signature. "Attack" is the performing of a punch, chop or headbutt while in front of an opponent. "Grapple 1" moves. "Grapple 1" moves include the basic headlock, body slam and hiptoss for all three classes. When you or your opponent receive enough damage, "Grapple 2" moves can be performed; these include a dropkick and backbreaker for Cruiserweights, atomic drop, bear hug, pile driver for Heavyweights.

All classes can perform "Aerial" moves such as the flying body attack, flying elbow drop and flying knee drop after climbing the turnbuckle. Each wrestler has a "Signature" move which can be performed at any time during the match if the player is positioned. Which regular move the wrestler performed depended upon the remaining stamina of your opponent, whether or not he's "stunned", right timing and the exact location of your wrestler relative to the opponent. A metal folding chair lying outside the ring could be used as a weapon; some wrestlers could do illegal maneuvers such as biting and choking. Victories reward you with extra energy, matches were won with pins, submission holds, or out-of-ring timeouts. If a double count-out occurs, the referee leaves the ring and the wrestlers continue to fight until one side is pinned or submits. For pins and submission holds, you had to press the "Action" button more than your opponent, moving a status bar beyond a certain point. After each win, a newspaper article shows your winning wrestlers' photo with a headline that they won, as well as their current ranking.

Adding coins to increase your "health" did little to revive your wrestler after a lengthy beating or increase his chances of kicking out of a pin. As the game progressed, the computer opponents became more difficult to beat, the CPU's illegal partner breaking your pins and submissions. However, pinfall victories in these harder levels can still be achieved after performing a certain number of pin attempts. If you move all the way up the ranks and win the Championship Title you defend it against the computer who becomes more difficult; every wrestler a player could choose from was a lookalike of a contemporary WWF wrestler. Characters included El Condor, Conan the Great, The Maui Mauler, Kamikaze Ken, San Antonio Smasher, Saturn Six, Bigfoot Joe, Alan The Empire; the Japanese version of the game is notably different from its American counterpart in several ways: Players could only use Conan the Great and Kamikaze Ken as their wrestlers, there were three buttons instead of two, the game only lasted five matches, if completed, the remaining energy would add as points to the final score.

The game's Soundtrack was produced by Konami Kukeiha Club and published by King Records on July 21, 1989 as part of "Konami Game Music Collection Vol.0" along additional soundtracks from Flak Attack, The Final Round, Gang Busters, City Bomber, Devastators. The Final Round, a boxing arcade game released by Konami that same year, shares many sound samples with The Main Event, most notably the referee's screams and count; the Main Event's game developmental engine was used for several of Konami's hit beat-em-up arcade titles such as Crime Fighters and Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles. The game is located. In December 2010, The Main Event was re-released on Microsoft's Game Room service for its Xbox 360 video game system as part of Game Pack 013; the game's ROMs have been dumped and are supported in MAME


The Emsian is one of three faunal stages in the Early Devonian epoch. It lasted from 407.6 ± 2.6 million years ago to 393.3 ± 1.2 million years ago. It was followed by the Eifelian stage, it is named after the Ems river in Germany. During this period, earliest known agoniatitid ammonoid fossils began appearing within this stage after first appearing in previous stage and began to evolutionarily radiate within this stage, in which a new ammonoid order Goniatitida rises in the end of Zlichovian stage. Agoniatitid ammonoids would die out in the Taghanic event in the upper middle Givetian. Goniatite ammonoids would give rise to further ammonoid orders, thus starting ammonoid dominance of marine fossils in further periods until their end at the Cretaceous-Paleogene mass extinction event. In North America the Emsian Stage is represented by Sawkill or Sawkillian time