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Noah's Ark

Noah's Ark is the vessel in the Genesis flood narrative through which God spares Noah, his family, examples of all the world's animals from a world-engulfing flood. The story in Genesis is repeated, with variations, in the Quran, where the ark appears as Safina Nūḥ. Searches for Noah's Ark have been made from at least the time of Eusebius, believers in the Ark continue to search for it in modern times. Many searches have been mounted for the ark, but no confirmable physical proof of the ark has been found. There is no scientific evidence that Noah's Ark existed as it is described in the Bible, nor is there evidence in the geologic record for the biblical global flood; the structure of the ark are homologous with Temple worship. Accordingly, Noah's instructions are given to him by God: the ark is to be 300 cubits long, 50 cubits wide, 30 cubits high; these dimensions are based on a numerological preoccupation with the number sixty, the same number characterising the vessel of the Babylonian flood-hero.

Its three internal divisions reflect the three-part universe imagined by the ancient Israelites: heaven, the earth, the underworld. Each deck is the same height as the Temple in Jerusalem, itself a microcosmic model of the universe, each is three times the area of the court of the tabernacle, leading to the suggestion that the author saw both ark and tabernacle as serving for the preservation of human life, it has a door in the side, a tsohar, which may be either a roof or a skylight. It is to be made of Gopher wood, a word which appears nowhere else in the Bible - and divided into qinnim, a word which always refers to birds' nests elsewhere in the Bible, leading some scholars to emend this to qanim, reeds; the finished vessel is to be smeared with koper, meaning pitch or bitumen: in Hebrew the two words are related, kaparta... bakopper. For well over a century scholars have recognised that the Bible's story of Noah's ark is based on older Mesopotamian models; because all these flood stories deal with events that happened at the dawn of history, they give the impression that the myths themselves must come from primitive origins, but the myth of the global flood that destroys all life only begins to appear in the Old Babylonian period.

The reasons for this emergence of the typical Mesopotamian flood myth may have been bound up with the specific circumstances of the end of the Third Dynasty of Ur around 2004 BCE and the restoration of order by the First Dynasty of Isin. There are nine known versions of the Mesopotamian flood story, each more or less adapted from an earlier version. In the oldest version, inscribed in the Sumerian city of Nippur c.1600 BCE, the hero is King Ziusudra. This is known as the Sumerian Flood Story and derives from an earlier version; the Ziusudra version tells how he rescues life when the gods decide to destroy it. This remains the basic plot for several subsequent heroes, including Noah. Ziusudra's Sumerian name means "He of long life". In Babylonian versions his name is Atrahasis. In the Atrahasis version, the flood is a river flood; the version closest to the biblical story of Noah, as well as its most source, is that of Utnapishtim in the Epic of Gilgamesh. The most complete text of Utnapishtim's story is a clay tablet dating from the 7th century BCE, but fragments of the story have been found from as far back as the 19th century BCE.

The last known version of the Mesopotamian flood story was written in Greek in the 3rd century BCE by a Babylonian priest named Berossus. From the fragments that survive, it seems little changed from the versions of two thousand years before; the parallels between Noah's Ark and the arks of Babylonian flood-heroes Atrahasis and Utnapishtim have been noted. Atrahasis' ark was circular, resembling an enormous quffa, had one or two decks. Utnapishtim's ark was a cube and had six decks with seven compartments on each, each divided into nine subcompartments. Noah's Ark had three decks. There is believed to be a linear progression from circular to square to rectangular; the most striking similarity is the near-identical deck areas of the three arks: 14,400 cubits2, 14,400 cubits2, 15,000 cubits2 for Atrahasis', Utnapishtim's, Noah's ark, respectively. This has led professor Finkel to conclude that "the iconic story of the Flood and the Ark as we know it today originated in the landscape of ancient Mesopotamia, modern Iraq."Linguistic parallels between Noah's ark and the ark of the Babylonian flood-hero Atrahasis have been noted.

The word used for "pitch" in Genesis is not the normal Hebrew word, but is related to the word used in the Babylonian story. The Hebrew word for "ark" is nearly identical to the Babylonian word for an oblong boat given that "v" and "b" are the same letter in Hebrew: bet. However, the causes for God/gods having sent the flood differ. In the Hebrew myth the flood comes as God's judgment on a wicked humanity. In the Babylonian Epic of Gilgamesh, the reasons are not given and the flood appears to be the result of the caprice of the gods. In the Atrahasis version of the Babylonian flood story, the flood was sent by the gods to reduce human over-population, after the flood, other measures were introduced to prevent the problem recurring. There is consensus among scholars that the Torah w

Inter county

Inter county, or inter-county, is Gaelic Athletic Association terminology which refers to competitions or matches between GAA counties. The term can be used to describe the players on the teams; the first inter county competitions the All-Ireland Senior Football Championship and the All-Ireland Senior Hurling Championship took place in 1887. Inter county teams select the best players from the clubs within the county, a practice which began in 1892. Before 1892 the winner of each counties club championship would represent the county in the All-Ireland championships; the inter county season begins in January with each province's warm up competition and ends in September with the All Ireland final. The GAA's inter county competitions are the organisation's most attended competitions and are Ireland's most attended sporting events, while the All Ireland finals are the most watched, and the All-Ireland Football Final is the most watched event in Ireland's sporting calendar. Each of the 32 GAA counties in Ireland participates in the inter county leagues and in the All-Ireland Senior Hurling Championship.

London competes in the Men's Hurling and Gaelic football championships and leagues, winning the All-Ireland Senior Hurling Championship once in 1901, Warwickshire compete in the Men's hurling championship only, while New York City compete in the Men's football championships. In Great Britain, the British provincial council organise inter county competitions for the 7 counties under its control; the British provincial council is the only area outside Ireland to organise regular inter county matches. Changing clubs between counties is known as an inter county transfer and is regulated by the Provincial council if the clubs are in the same province, or by the central council of the GAA when the transferring between clubs in different provinces. A special transfer is available for students going on a J-1 visa, which allows a temporary transfer to Canada, New York or North America

Barbarossa (film)

Barbarossa is a 2009 Italian English-language film set in northern Italy during the late 12th century. Despite the film's title, Friedrich "Barbarossa" features only as a supporting character in this film, concerned with the struggle of the Lombard League, which struggled to maintain independence from the Holy Roman Empire, led by the legendary Guelph warrior Alberto da Giussano; this film was co-written and directed by Renzo Martinelli. It has been released on DVD in the United States under the title Sword of War, elsewhere under the title Barbarossa: Siege Lord. "Italy. 12th century AD. Northern Italy is ruled over by a German Emperor: Frederick I Hohenstaufen, known as'Barbarossa', his dream is to conquer Central and Southern Italy, thus reviving the ancient empire founded by Charlemagne. But in the North a young man from Milan has formed an army of 900 young men from different cities: the'Company of Death'; this young man's name is Alberto Giussano. His dream is to defeat the Emperor and to regain freedom for the Northern lands."

The Emperor Barbarossa is out hunting when he is attacked by a wild boar, but is saved by a young boy. Rather, he is Frederick Hohenstaufen, better known as Barbarossa. With this the boy introduces himself as son of Giovanni. A few years in the German city of Würzburg, Barbarossa is going to see Hildegard von Bingen, the great seër, he plans to marry for the second time. The seër says, she says Frederick of Swabia's name will be remembered for centuries, but to beware of the scythe which will bring defeat and water for it will bring his death. At the wedding, Duke of Saxony, is marrying a young French girl; the story cuts to Milan where Evandro calls over to the now grown Alberto and tells him to get onto his cart because they must reach the river before dawn. They start to load their goods onto a boat there. Lodigiani soldiers arrive and say the merchants crossed through their territory in the night and now they must pay their dues. Evandro pulls a knife and slits the throat of the soldier next to him Alberto and his companions slay the other soldiers but Alberto is in the fighting.

His horse brings him back home where two beautiful women, the blonde Tessa and her brunette sister, sister Eleonora. The brunette kisses Alberto's face. Two emissaries from Lodi come to Barbarossa to tell him that the city of Milan is trying to dominate them. Lodi has always been loyal to the Emperor and now they ask him for his help. Barbarossa says, he says he will write a letter to Milan and the two emissaries will take it to them. A German emissary delivers the letter to Milan, he says. Milan is warned not to attack Lodi on pain of being banished from the Empire. A cleric named Gerado throws steps on it. Gerado's colleague, Siniscalco Barozzi is shocked at the behaviour of his friend and he asks the German emissary not to leave. Alberto is shocked and asks Gerado what is he going to do now. Gerado says he will attack Lodi. Alberto has a nightmare and awakens in fright from his deep sleep, his two brothers tell him. Barbarossa is furious that Milan attacked Lodi, but he has no desire to fight, he says.

But Barbarossa's charismatic and supportive new queen wants him to go to Milan and destroy that city. Barbarossa sets out for Milan. Tessa and father have dinner when Siniscalco Barozzi arrives, asking the father for the hand of his daughter Tessa. Tessa's Father says that Tessa would make a good wife and he will put in a good word for him with her. Eleonora comes to tell Alberto that Siniscalco Barozzi wants to marry Tessa but she says that will never happen. Alberto says that they say she is a witch and jokes that maybe, how she knows Tessa's future. Eleanora is hurt and angry by the accusation so to pacify her, Alberto he shows her the large knife given to him by Barbarossa himself. Eleonora sees a vision of fighting, she recoils from the knife she runs from the house. Tessa tells Eleonora that Ranero, one of Alberto's brothers, says he wants to marry her and she returns his feelings. Siniscalco Barozzi reaches the camp of Barbarossa but The Emperor is not there so the scheming and cowardly Barozzi tells the substitute Rinaldo di Dassel that he has brought Milan's oath of allegiance to Barbarossa.

Rinaldo says that Barbarossa is still coming to attack Milan. Barozzi returns to Milan to warn of the great size of the German army. In addition, they have a great many war machines. Barozzi implores the people to surrender Milan but they decide to fight, to Barozzi's irritation. In Verona at the Adige River, a new bridge has been built to the satisfaction of the Germans, they start crossing the bridge, but soon heavy log rams are send down the river to knock the bridge into sections. German horses and soldiers are tossed into the Adige River. For Verona siding with Milan and killing many German soldiers, Barbarossa cuts off the ear of one of the Verona emissaries. Eleonora runs to tell Alberto that the Germans have destroyed the city of Brescia with more than one thousand dead. Alberto says. Eleonora thinks the battle has been lost; as Soldiers from the cities of Parma, Cremona and Ferrara are sent to join forces with Barbarossa, the Germans are approach Milan. The bells are rung and the people come into the fort.

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Clay Pit Ponds State Park Preserve

Clay Pit Ponds State Park Preserve is 265-acre state park located near the southwestern shore of Staten Island, New York. It is the only state park located on Staten Island; the park was the site of extensive mining of white kaolin clay in the 19th century that provided the raw material for bricks and terra cotta. After the abandonment of the quarrying operations, natural springs, vegetation filled in the pits; the preserve contains archaeological evidence of settlements of the Lenape, early European settlers, the Free Blacks of Sandy Ground. The park was created in 1977 after extensive lobbying by the Protectors of Pine Oak Woods, a local conservation organization. Groundbreaking for a $1.3 million nature center on Nielsen Avenue was held on May 4, 2007. In October 2008, the center opened with exhibits on the history of the Charleston area and wildlife and plants found within the park; the 3,000-square-foot facility contains exhibit space, an outdoor pavilion. The park is a 265-acre nature preserve, comprising wetlands, sand barrens, spring-fed streams, woodlands.

It includes pitch pine woods, rare wildflowers such as cranberry, lizard-tail and bog twayblade. The animal species found in the park include northern black racer snakes, box turtles, Fowler's toads, green frogs, spring peepers. More than 170 bird species have been sighted in the park. Deer are regularly seen there; the purpose of the preserve is to retain the site's unique ecology, as well as to provide educational and recreational opportunities, such a nature walks, pond ecology programs, birdwatching. Two hiking trails – the Abraham's Pond Trail and the Ellis Swamp Trail – are open to the public near the park headquarters, horseback riding is permitted on five miles of bridle paths; the park has two designated areas which are set aside for endangered species and which are off-limits to the public. List of New York state parks New York State Parks: Clay Pit Ponds State Park Preserve

Of Mice & Men (album)

Of Mice & Men is the self-titled debut studio album by American rock band Of Mice & Men. It was planned to be released on February 23, 2010, but was delayed until March 9; the album was produced by Joey Sturgis. This is the only album to feature backing vocalist Jaxin Hall. Of Mice & Men began progress on their self-titled debut shortly after demo session recordings; the group was signed to Rise within lead vocalist Austin Carlile's acknowledgment that the previous group he was a part of, Attack Attack!, were signed to label upon his membership. The album was announced by Austin Carlile on the band's YouTube channel on December 23, 2009, is available on SmartPunk, MerchNOW, InterPunk. Shortly after the album's release Carlile left the band and Jerry Roush took his position on unclean vocals. After Warped Tour 2010, Jaxin Hall left the band to improve his home life and work on his clothing company, Love Before Glory. Jerry was with Of Mice & Men up to the This Is a Family Tour with label mates Attack Attack!.

After this, Carlile was returned to the band again with Roush fired. Austin Carlile was working on a side project with Alan Ashby at the time, so when he was invited back, he said that he and Alan were a package deal. Alan was put on rhythm guitar and Shayley Bourget was moved to bass, but he was still doing clean vocals. Music videos were made for the songs "Those in Glass Houses" and "Second & Sebring". All lyrics written by Austin Carlile, Jaxin Hall, Shayley Bourget. Of Mice & Men Austin Carlile – unclean vocals Phil Manansala – lead guitar Shayley Bourget – clean vocals, rhythm guitar, piano on "Second & Sebring" Jaxin Hall – bass, backing vocals Valentino Arteaga – drums, percussionAdditional personnel Joey Sturgis – production, mixing, mastering

Praeclara gratulationis publicae

Praeclara gratulationis publicae was an apostolic letter of Pope Leo XIII promulgated on June 20, 1894. It called for the reunion of Eastern and Western churches into the "Unity of the Faith", it condemned Freemasonry. A previous letter on the same subject, entitled the epistle to the Easterners, had been written by Pope Pius IX in 1848. In 1895, it was criticized by Ecumenical Patriarch Anthimus VII; the call for unity was re-asserted by the Second Vatican Council's Unitatis redintegratio, although the latter statement articulates a different kind of ecclesiology, more in line with the Council's spirit of cooperation with fellow Christians. Praeclara was cited in the encyclical Orientales omnes Ecclesias of Pope Pius XII on the topic of Eastern Catholic Churches. Leo XIII has been criticized by Protestant fundamentalists for having declared in the encyclical that "We hold upon this earth the place of God Almighty", seen as a sign of the coming apocalypse. Catholicism and Freemasonry East–West Schism List of encyclicals of Pope Leo XIII Papal documents relating to Freemasonry Text of Praeclara gratulationis publicae