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Nobel Committee

A Nobel Committee is a working body responsible for most of the work involved in selecting Nobel Prize laureates. There are one for each Nobel Prize. Four of these committees are working bodies within their prize awarding institutions, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, the Swedish Academy; these four Nobel Committees only propose laureates, while the final decision is taken in a larger assembly. This assembly is composed of the entire academies for the prizes in physics and literature, as well as the 50 members of the Nobel Assembly at the Karolinska Institute for the prize in physiology or medicine; the fifth Nobel Committee is the Norwegian Nobel Committee, responsible for the Nobel Peace Prize. This committee has a different status since it is both the working body and the deciding body for its prize. Nobel Committee for Physics Nobel Committee for Chemistry Nobel Committee for Physiology or Medicine Norwegian Nobel Committee

Rainer Maria

Rainer Maria is a three piece emo band from Madison, Wisconsin residing in Brooklyn, New York. The band was active from 1995 to 2006 and reunited in 2014. Named after the German-language poet Rainer Maria Rilke, Caithlin De Marrais, Kaia Fischer and William Kuehn formed the band in late summer of 1995, they released five full-length albums, a live DVD, numerous live recordings, EPs. In its earlier days, the band had female vocal line-up; the gender ambiguity of the name Rainer Maria paralleled this and was one of the reasons it was selected as the band's name. The band's many tours and intimate live shows at venues such as Brooklyn's North Six, Washington, D. C.'s The Black Cat, the Bowery Ballroom in NYC, Chapel Hill's Cat's Cradle helped to grow its fan base and fuel album sales. On November 6, 2006, the band announced, through Pitchfork Media, that the December 16th show at New York City's Bowery Ballroom would be their last, it was accompanied by this statement: "We are grateful to our new listeners and our longtime fans for their endless support and attention.

We feel fortunate to have come up during a unique time in rock music, in a community that grew with us from the Midwest to Brooklyn and beyond. Making records has always been a revelation, walking onto stage together we found a vision we could share."For us, this transition can be nothing short of heartbreaking. But for reasons both musical and personal, the three of us have chosen this time to move on."The band played their last show on December 17, 2006, at North Six in Brooklyn. They opened with "Artificial Light" and closed with a lengthy version of "Rise." Referring to the intensity of the show and the enthusiasm of the crowd, guitarist Kaia Fischer at one point remarked jokingly in-between songs "we should break up every night." The band played a reunion show at the Bowery Ballroom in Manhattan on December 31, 2014. They played again in Brooklyn on December 31, 2016, January 1, 2017; the band released S/T, their first album in 11 years, in August 2017. Caithlin De Marrais — bass, vocals Kaia Fischer — guitar, synths William Kuehn — drums, percussion Past Worn Searching Look Now Look Again A Better Version of Me Long Knives Drawn Catastrophe Keeps Us Together S/T Rainer Maria Atlantic Ears Ring "New York, 1955" b/w "Up Until This Time" 7" "Hell or High Water" b/w "Paper Sack" 7" "Artifical Light" "Ears Ring" "Catastrophe" "Lower Worlds" Demo Tape Anyone in Love With You Live CD/DVD Life of Leisure CD single "Catastrophe" "Ears Ring" Official Website Video interview from 2006 SXSW with some live footage Rainer Maria Catastrophe Keeps Us Together Review Lazy-i Interview: February 2003 "Catastrophe" artist commentary Polyvinyl Records - Atlantic EP

Tom Pelphrey

Tom Pelphrey is an American actor. He is best known for playing the roles of Jonathan Randall and Mick Dante in the CBS television series' Guiding Light and As the World Turns Kurt Bunker in the Cinemax television series Banshee and Ward Meachum in the Netflix original series Iron Fist. Born in Howell, New Jersey, Pelphrey graduated from Howell High School in 2000, from Rutgers University in 2004 with a Bachelor of Fine Arts degree. Pelphrey's most notable role has been the role of Jonathan Randall, the son of Reva Shayne and her late former husband, Richard Winslow, on the CBS soap opera Guiding Light, he joined the cast in September 2004 and received critical acclaim for his portrayal of anti-hero Jonathan. He was nominated for a Daytime Emmy Award for "Outstanding Younger Actor" in 2005 and won the award the following year in April 2006, he lost to Bryton McClure. Pelphrey won his second Daytime Emmy Award for "Outstanding Younger Actor" in 2008. Pelphrey signed a contract to play "Mick" on As the World Turns beginning in October 2009.

His run ended in February 2010. Pelphrey earned an Emmy prenomination for Best Supporting Actor for his role as Mick Dante. On March 30, 2007, he appeared in an episode of Numb3rs, "Pandora's Box". On October 17, 2008 he appeared in an episode of "Ghost Whisperer", the following season in an episode of Law & Order: Special Victims Unit. In 2015 Pelphrey landed the recurring role of Kurt Bunker, a former neo-nazi trying to reintegrate into society, on Cinemax's action drama Banshee. To prepare for this role he started lifting weights and did research by reading books on the neo-nazi movement in America. Since 2017, he has appeared in Iron Fist as Ward Meachum. From September 6, 2007 to September 30, 2007, Pelphrey performed in Kevin Mandel's A New Television Arrives Finally as the title character, at Theatre 54, in New York. Pelphrey starred in In God's Hat at the Peter Jay Sharp Theater, in New York City, through August 7, 2010. In 2012, he appeared in the Broadway cast of the musical drama End of the Rainbow as Mickey Deans.

Tom Pelphrey on IMDb CBS website biography of Tom Pelphrey


Sentō is a type of Japanese communal bathhouse where customers pay for entrance. Traditionally these bathhouses have been quite utilitarian, with a tall barrier separating the sexes within one large room, a minimum of lined up faucets on both sides and a single large bath for the washed bathers to sit in among others. Since the second half of the 20th century, these communal bathhouses have been decreasing in numbers as more and more Japanese residences now have baths; some Japanese find social importance in going to public baths, out of the theory that physical proximity/intimacy brings emotional intimacy, termed skinship in pseudo-English Japanese. Others go to a sentō because they live in a small housing facility without a private bath or to enjoy bathing in a spacious room and to relax in saunas or jet baths that accompany new or renovated sentōs. Another type of Japanese public bath is onsen. In general, the word onsen means that the bathing facility has at least one bath filled with natural hot spring water.

However, throughout the Kansai region of Japan the word "onsen" is a used naming scheme for sentō. Sentō and supersentō in Kansai that do have access to a hot spring will differentiate themselves by having "natural hot spring" somewhere on their signage. There are many different looks for public bath. Most traditional sentō, are similar to the layout shown on the right; the entrance from the outside looks somewhat similar to a temple, with a Japanese curtain across the entrance. The curtain is blue and shows the kanji 湯 or the corresponding hiragana ゆ. After the entrance, there is an area with shoe lockers, followed by two long curtains or door, one on each side; these lead to the datsuijo known as datsuiba for the men and women respectively. The men's and the women's side are similar and differ only slightly. A public bathing facility in Japan has one of two kinds of entrances. One is the front desk variety, where a person in charge sits at a front desk, abbreviated as "front." The other entrance variety is the bandai style.

In Tokyo, 660 sentō facilities have a "front"-type entrance, while only 315 still have the more traditional bandai-style entrance. Inside, between the entrances is the bandai, where the attendant sits; the bandai is a rectangular or horseshoe-shaped platform with a railing around 1.5 to 1.8 m high. Above the bandai is a large clock. In front of the bandai is a utility door, to be used by the attendants only; the dressing room is 10 m by 10 m, sometimes covered with tatami sheets and contains the lockers for the clothes. There is a large shelf storing equipment for regular customers; the ceiling is high, at 3 to 4 m. The separating wall between the men's and the women's side is about 1.5 m high. The dressing room often has access to a small Japanese garden with a pond, a Japanese-style toilet. There are a number including some coin-operated massage chairs. There is a scale to measure weight, sometimes height. In some old sentō, this scale may use the traditional Japanese measure monme and kan. In old sentō the height scale may go only to 180 cm.

Local business advertises in the sentō. The women's side has some baby beds, may have more mirrors; the decoration and the advertising is gender-specific on the different sides. There is a refreshment cooler here where customers can self-serve and pay the attendant. Milk drinks are traditional favorites and sometimes there is ice cream; the bathing area is separated from the changing area by a sliding door to keep the heat in the bath. An exception are baths in the Okinawa region, as the weather there is already hot, there is no need to keep the hot air in the bath. Sentō in Okinawa have no separation between the changing room and the bathing area or only a small wall with an opening to pass through; the bathing area is tiled. Near the entrance area is a supply of small buckets. There are a number of washing stations at the wall and sometimes in the middle of the room, each with two faucets, one for hot water and one for cold water, a shower head. At the end of the room are the bathtubs at least two or three with different water temperatures, maybe a'denki buro'.

In the Osaka and Kansai area the bathtubs are more found in the center of the room, whereas in Tokyo they are at the end of the room. The separating wall between the men and the women side is about 1.5 m high. The ceiling may be 4 m high, with large windows in the top. On rare occasions, the separating wall has a small hole; this was used to pass soap. At the wall on the far end of the room is a large ceramic tile mural or painting for decoration. Most this is Mount Fuji, but it may be a general Japanese landscape, a European landscape, a river or ocean scene. On rarer occasions, it may show a group of warriors or a female nude on the male side. Playing children or a female beauty decorate the women's side. Behind the bathing area is the boiler room, where the water is heated; this may use any other type of fuel such as wood chippings. The tall chimneys of the boilers are used to locate the sentō from far away. After World War II, Tokyo had power outages when all bathhouse owners turned on the electric water heating at the same time.

Many modern sentō have a sauna with a bathtu

California locations by race

The following is a list of California locations by race. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, Whites were the dominant racial group in California, comprising 61.8 percent of its population of 36,969,200. The county with the highest percentage of whites was Sierra County, the second smallest county in California; the ten counties with the highest percentage of whites were all small. They had an average population of 60,460, none had a population of over 200,000. In contrast, the counties with the lowest percentage of whites were much larger, with an average population of 1,999,943; the smallest of these counties was Solano County, with a population of 411,620. All counties in California had a White majority, except Alameda County. White was the only reported racial group in 142 places, comprising one in ten of the total; the largest of these places was Forest Meadows, with a population of 1,546. Most of the ten places with the lowest reported percentage of whites were in Los Angeles County, two of these places — Buck Meadows and Lookout — reported only racial categories other than White.

Asian was the third most reported race in California, behind some other race. Asians comprised 13.1 percent of California's population. San Francisco County had the highest percentage of Asians of any county in California. Of the thirteen counties in which Asians comprised more than 10 percent of the population, the average had a population of 1,138,957; the ten counties with the lowest percentages of Asians were landlocked. Of the nineteen places in California with the largest percentages of Asians, thirteen were in Los Angeles County, all but two small places had a population of at least 7,000, all but three had a population of at least 10,000. Buck Meadows, with a reported population of 12, was the only place in which Asian was the only reported racial group. Monterey Park, with a population of 60,251, had the highest percentage of Asians for all places with a population larger than 100. Asians are a rather concentrated racial group, with one-third of California's places reporting no Asians whatsoever, only about one place in ten reporting percentages of Asians greater than or equal to the state percentage.

Black or African American was the fourth most reported racial group in California, comprising 6.1 percent of the state's population half that of Asians. Solano County had the highest percentage of those reporting Black or African American as their race, they surpassed 10 percent in two other counties: Alameda and Sacramento. Alpine County was the only county which reported racial groups other than Black or African American. Of the ten counties in California with the lowest percentage of Blacks or African Americans, all are small, all but Santa Cruz County are landlocked. In contrast, most of the ten counties with the highest percentages of Blacks or African Americans had rather high populations, with an average population of 1,918,645. View Park-Windsor Hills had the highest percentage of Blacks or African Americans of all places in California, all places reporting a majority of this racial group were in Los Angeles County; this racial group was more concentrated than Asians were, with four in ten places not reporting this racial group at all and with only about place in ten reporting a concentration above that of the state.

Native Americans, defined in this article as the sum of those reported their race as American Indian, Alaska Native, Native Hawaiian, or other Pacific Islanders, comprised more than 10 percent of the population in two counties: Alpine County and Inyo County. Crows Landing had the highest percentage of Native Americans of any place in California, Native Americans comprised a majority of the population in a total of six places. In no case did a place that reported more than 10 percent of its population as Native American have a population of over 5,000; the place with the highest concentration of Native Americans and with a population of over 5,000 was East Palo Alto, in which 9.8 percent of the population was Native American. Hispanic or Latino was the most reported race or ethnic group in California other than White. Hispanics or Latinos may be of any race, but they report their race as either White or some other race in the vast majority of cases, they comprised 37.2 percent of California's total population and comprised the majority of the population in eight counties.

Of these counties, Imperial County reported the highest concentration. Notably, Imperial County borders Mexico. Of the ten counties which reported the highest concentration of Hispanics or Latinos, all but Monterey County were landlocked. On the other hand, the ten counties which reported the lowest concentrations of Hispanic or Latinos were all landlocked. None of these counties have populations over 200,000 and their average population was 65,633; the county that reported the lowest concentration of Hispanics or Latinos was Trinity County with a population of just 13,711. Although San Diego County borders Mexico, it had a lower percentage of Hispanics or Latinos than nearby counties which don't. Hispanics or Latinos comprised the entire population in twelve places, the largest of these being Del Rey, with a population of 1,625. Another one of these places, Kettleman City had a population of more than 1,000; these places are all located in eithe

Ouvrage Chesnois

Ouvrage Chesnois known as Ouvrage Chênois, is a gros ouvrage of the Maginot Line, located in the Fortified Sector of Montmédy, facing Belgium. The ouvrage lies between the towns of Thonne-le-Thil, it possesses six combat blocks. It is located between gros ouvrage Thonnelle and petit ouvrvage La Ferté; the position was sabotaged and abandoned by French forces that were ordered to retreat from the exposed position in June 1940 during the Battle of France. The ouvrage is now sealed; the site was approved in 1934. Work by the contractor Bringer & Tondu began in 1934 at a cost of 37 million francs. A planned second phase was to add a second artillery block; the rise in tensions between France and Germany in the late 1930s prevented the second phase from being pursued. Chesnois is one of four positions in the so-called Tête de Pont de Montmédy, a salient in the French defensive lines along the Belgian border; the isolated area was one of the "New Fronts" to the west of the main Maginot Line, created to defend against the increased threat of a German advance through Belgium.

The New Front positions suffered from restricted funding, as well as discontinuity in the fortification lines. Large distances between fortifications compared to earlier portions of the Line made mutual support between ouvrages difficult. Chesnois is a gros ouvrage It is located in rolling open country; the underground galleries extend more than 2,000 metres from end to end. Block 1: infantry block with one automatic rifle cloche, one GFM-B/observation cloche, one grenade launcher cloche, a retractable mixed arms turret, one twin machine gun embrasure and one machine gun/47mm anti-tank gun embrasure. Block 2: infantry block with one GFM-B cloche and one mixed arms cloche. Block 3: infantry block with one GFM-B cloche, one AM cloche, one twin machine gun embrasure and one JM/AC47 embrasure. Block 4: infantry block with one GFM-B cloche, one GFM-B/observation cloche, one AM cloche, one twin machine gun embrasure and one JM/AC47 embrasure. Block 5: artillery block with one GFM-B cloche and one retractable twin 75mm gun turret.'Block 6': artillery block with one GFM-B cloche and one retractable twin 75mm gun turret.

Block 7: mixed entry block with two GFM-B cloches and one twin machine gun embrasureThe fortification's drain extends 365 metres from Block 7 and serves as an emergency exit. A number of small blockhouses are associated with Chesnois, as well as several casemates: Casemate de Moiry: Double block with two JM/AC47 embrasures, two JM embrasures, two AM cloches and two GFM-B cloches. Casemate de Sainte-Marie: Single block with one JM/AC47 embrasure, one JM embrasure, two AM cloches and two GFM-B cloches. Casemate de Sapogne: Single block with one JM/AC47 embrasure, one JM embrasure, two AM cloches and one GFM-B cloche. Casemate de Christ: Single block with one JM/AC47 embrasure, one JM embrasure, two AM cloches and one GFM-B cloche. Casemate de Thonne-le-Thil: Double block with two JM/AC47 embrasures, two JM embrasures, two AM cloches and two GFM-B cloches. Casemate de Guerlette: Double block with two JM/AC47 embrasures, two JM embrasures, one AM cloche and two GFM-B cloches. None of these are connected to each other.

The 1940 manning of the ouvrage under the command of Captain Aubert comprised 316 men and 8 officers of the 155th Fortress Infantry Regiment. The units were under the umbrella of the 2nd Army, Army Group 1; the Casernement de Montmédy provided peacetime above-ground barracks and support services to Chesnois and other fortifications in the area. See Fortified Sector of Montmédy for a broader discussion of the events of 1940 in the Montmédy sector of the Maginot Line. In the initial stages of the Battle of France, Chesnois provided covering fire to its neighbor Ouvrage La Ferté on 17–18 May 1940. Chesnois did not resume firing. La Ferté's garrison was killed and the position was lost on the 19th. In June the garrisons of the Tête de Pont de Montmédy were ordered to withdraw the night of 10–11 June to straighten French lines, to avoid La Ferté's fate; the fortifications' arms and infrastructure were sabotaged. Evacuation was complete by 12 June; the German 169th Infantry Division advanced to take possession of Chesnois and other ouvrages in the salient on 13 June 1940.

The area saw no action during the Lorraine Campaign of 1944. The interior of the ouvrage had been stripped by the Germans, again after the war by scrap dealers; the site is sealed to access. Most surface elements remain accessible; the interior is not accessible. It is reported to be dangerous to enter. List of all works on Maginot Line Siegfried Line Atlantic Wall Czechoslovak border fortifications Allcorn, William; the Maginot Line 1928-45. Oxford: Osprey Publishing, 2003. ISBN 1-84176-646-1 Kaufmann, J. E. and Kaufmann, H. W. Fortress France: The Maginot Line and French Defenses in World War II, Stackpole Books, 2006. ISBN 0-275-98345-5 Kaufmann, J. E. Kaufmann, H. W. Jancovič-Potočnik, A. and Lang, P. The Maginot Line: History and Guide and Sword, 2011. ISBN 978-1-84884-068-3 Mary, Jean-Yves. Hommes et Ouvrages de la Ligne Maginot, Tome 1. Paris, Histoire & Collections, 2001. ISBN 2-908182-88-2 Mary, Jean-Yves. Hommes et Ouvrages de la Ligne Maginot, Tome 2. Paris, Histoire & Collections, 2003. ISBN 2-908182-97-1 Mary, Jean-Yves.

Hommes et Ouvrages de la Ligne Maginot, Tome 3. Paris, Histoire & Collections, 2003. ISBN 2-913903-88-6 Mary, Jean-Yves. Hommes et Ouvrages de la Ligne Maginot, Tome 5. Paris