Nobel Prize

The Nobel Prize is a set of annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances. The will of the Swedish chemist and industrialist Alfred Nobel established the five Nobel prizes in 1895; the prizes in Chemistry, Peace and Physiology or Medicine were first awarded in 1901. The prizes are regarded as the most prestigious awards available in their respective fields. In 1968, Sveriges Riksbank, Sweden's central bank, established the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel; the award is based on a donation received by the Nobel Foundation in 1968 from Sveriges Riksbank on the occasion of the bank's 300th anniversary. The first Prize in Economic Sciences was awarded to Ragnar Frisch and Jan Tinbergen in 1969; the Prize in Economic Sciences is awarded by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden, according to the same principles as for the Nobel Prizes that have been awarded since 1901.

The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences awards the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, the Nobel Prize in Physics, the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel. Between 1901 and 2018, the Nobel Prizes were awarded 590 times to 935 organizations. With some receiving the Nobel Prize more than once, this makes a total of 27 organizations and 908 individuals; the prize ceremonies take place annually in Sweden. Each recipient receives a gold medal, a diploma, a sum of money, decided by the Nobel Foundation. Medals made before 1980 were struck in 23-carat gold, in 18-carat green gold plated with a 24-carat gold coating; the prize is not awarded posthumously. A prize may not be shared among more than three individuals, although the Nobel Peace Prize can be awarded to organizations of more than three people. Alfred Nobel was born on 21 October 1833 in Stockholm, into a family of engineers, he was a chemist and inventor. In 1894, Nobel purchased the Bofors iron and steel mill, which he made into a major armaments manufacturer.

Nobel invented ballistite. This invention was a precursor to many smokeless military explosives the British smokeless powder cordite; as a consequence of his patent claims, Nobel was involved in a patent infringement lawsuit over cordite. Nobel amassed a fortune during his lifetime, with most of his wealth coming from his 355 inventions, of which dynamite is the most famous. In 1888, Nobel was astonished to read his own obituary, titled The merchant of death is dead, in a French newspaper, it was Alfred's brother Ludvig. The article made him apprehensive about how he would be remembered; this inspired him to change his will. On 10 December 1896, Alfred Nobel died in his villa in San Remo, from a cerebral haemorrhage, he was 63 years old. Nobel wrote several wills during his lifetime, he composed the last over a year before he died, signing it at the Swedish–Norwegian Club in Paris on 27 November 1895. To widespread astonishment, Nobel's last will specified that his fortune be used to create a series of prizes for those who confer the "greatest benefit on mankind" in physics, physiology or medicine and peace.

Nobel bequeathed 94 % of 31 million SEK, to establish the five Nobel Prizes. Owing to skepticism surrounding the will, it was not approved by the Storting in Norway until 26 April 1897; the executors of the will, Ragnar Sohlman and Rudolf Lilljequist, formed the Nobel Foundation to take care of the fortune and to organise the awarding of prizes. Nobel's instructions named a Norwegian Nobel Committee to award the Peace Prize, the members of whom were appointed shortly after the will was approved in April 1897. Soon thereafter, the other prize-awarding organizations were designated; these were Karolinska Institute on 7 June, the Swedish Academy on 9 June, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences on 11 June. The Nobel Foundation reached an agreement on guidelines for. In 1905, the personal union between Sweden and Norway was dissolved. According to his will and testament read in Stockholm on 30 December 1896, a foundation established by Alfred Nobel would reward those who serve humanity; the Nobel Prize was funded by Alfred Nobel's personal fortune.

According to the official sources, Alfred Nobel bequeathed from the shares 94% of his fortune to the Nobel Foundation that now forms the economic base of the Nobel Prize. The Nobel Foundation was founded as a private organization on 29 June 1900, its function is to manage the finances and administration of the Nobel Prizes. In accordance with Nobel's will, the primary task of the Foundation is to manage the fortune Nobel left. Robert and Ludvig Nobel were involved in the oil business in Azerbaijan, according to Swedish historian E. Bargengren, who accessed the Nobel family archive, it was this "decision to allow wi


Bethoncourt is a commune in the Doubs department in the Bourgogne-Franche-Comté region in eastern France. Bethoncourt lies north of Montbéliard, close to the border with the Haute-Saône department and the Territoire de Belfort and near the Swiss border; the Lizaine called the Luzine, flows through it. In the Franco-Prussian War, many citizens of Bethoncourt fled from the Prussians across the border to Switzerland, where many had relatives in the Swiss Jura region. In the early twentieth century, Bethoncourt grew from a small town into a thriving city of nearly 11,000 inhabitants. Since 1975, however, it has shrunk to just over half that size. Bethoncourt possessed rich iron mines that provided ore for all the foundries in the region in such towns as Chagey and Audincourt. Shafts from 1 to 3 meters in diameter were dug to a depth of 40 meters; these led to horizontal galleries. The ore was brought to a washing station, a sort of lock on the Lizaine between Bethoncourt and Bussurel. There the nodules of iron were washed out of the soil matrix.

The workers peasants, were well paid for this difficult and dangerous work. The galoshes they wore became the nickname for the residents of Bethoncourt. In the mid-nineteenth century, an important segment of the population consisted of skilled watchmakers. However, the entire Jura watchmaking industry was hit hard by the importation of cheap factory-made American watches, which were of equal or higher quality. In the 1930s, up to 600 workers were employed in the textile mill. Bethoncourt lies on the Strasbourg-Lyon line of the SNCF and on departmental highway D438. Bethoncourt is twinned with: Silmiouglou, Burkina Faso Communes of the Doubs department INSEE statistics

Outline of Tamil Nadu

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Tamil Nadu: Tamil Nadu – state in South India. Tamil Nadu covers an area of 130,058 km2, is the eleventh largest state in India; the bordering states are Kerala to the west, Karnataka to the north west and Andhra Pradesh to the north. To the east is the Bay of Bengal and the state encircles the union territory of Puducherry; the southernmost tip of the Indian Peninsula is Kanyakumari, the meeting point of the Arabian Sea, the Bay of Bengal, the Indian Ocean. When India became independent in 1947, Madras presidency became Madras state, comprising present-day Tamil Nadu, coastal Andhra Pradesh up to Ganjam district in Orissa, South Canara district Karnataka, parts of Kerala; the state was subsequently split up along linguistic lines. In 1969, Madras State was renamed Tamil Nadu, meaning "Tamil country". Common name: Tamil Nadu Native name = தமிழ்நாடு Pronunciation: TAM-il-NAH-doo; the 3 Biosphere Reserves in Tamil Nadu listed by size are: The Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve Agasthyamalai Biosphere Reserve