Outside of Europe, a number of overseas territories of EU members use the euro as their currency. Additionally,210 million people worldwide as of 2013 use currencies pegged to the euro, the euro is the second largest reserve currency as well as the second most traded currency in the world after the United States dollar. The name euro was adopted on 16 December 1995 in Madrid. The euro was introduced to world markets as an accounting currency on 1 January 1999. While the euro dropped subsequently to US$0.8252 within two years, it has traded above the U. S. dollar since the end of 2002, peaking at US$1.6038 on 18 July 2008. In July 2012, the euro fell below US$1.21 for the first time in two years, following concerns raised over Greek debt and Spains troubled banking sector, as of 26 March 2017, the euro–dollar exchange rate stands at ~ US$1.07. The euro is managed and administered by the Frankfurt-based European Central Bank, as an independent central bank, the ECB has sole authority to set monetary policy.
The Eurosystem participates in the printing and distribution of notes and coins in all states. The 1992 Maastricht Treaty obliges most EU member states to adopt the euro upon meeting certain monetary and budgetary convergence criteria, all nations that have joined the EU since 1993 have pledged to adopt the euro in due course. Since 5 January 2002, the central banks and the ECB have issued euro banknotes on a joint basis. Euro banknotes do not show which central bank issued them, Eurosystem NCBs are required to accept euro banknotes put into circulation by other Eurosystem members and these banknotes are not repatriated. The ECB issues 8% of the value of banknotes issued by the Eurosystem. In practice, the ECBs banknotes are put into circulation by the NCBs and these liabilities carry interest at the main refinancing rate of the ECB. The euro is divided into 100 cents, in Community legislative acts the plural forms of euro and cent are spelled without the s, notwithstanding normal English usage.
Otherwise, normal English plurals are used, with many local variations such as centime in France. All circulating coins have a side showing the denomination or value. Due to the plurality in the European Union, the Latin alphabet version of euro is used. For the denominations except the 1-, 2- and 5-cent coins, beginning in 2007 or 2008 the old map is being replaced by a map of Europe showing countries outside the Union like Norway
Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms. By controlling information flow through biochemical signaling and the flow of energy through metabolism. Biochemistry is closely related to biology, the study of the molecular mechanisms by which genetic information encoded in DNA is able to result in the processes of life. Depending on the definition of the terms used, molecular biology can be thought of as a branch of biochemistry, or biochemistry as a tool with which to investigate. The chemistry of the cell depends on the reactions of smaller molecules. These can be inorganic, for water and metal ions, or organic, for example the amino acids. The mechanisms by which cells harness energy from their environment via chemical reactions are known as metabolism, the findings of biochemistry are applied primarily in medicine and agriculture. In medicine, biochemists investigate the causes and cures of diseases, in nutrition, they study how to maintain health and study the effects of nutritional deficiencies.
In agriculture, biochemists investigate soil and fertilizers, and try to discover ways to improve crop cultivation, crop storage and pest control. However, biochemistry as a scientific discipline has its beginning sometime in the 19th century, or a little earlier. Gowland Hopkins on enzymes and the nature of biochemistry. The term biochemistry itself is derived from a combination of biology, the German chemist Carl Neuberg however is often cited to have coined the word in 1903, while some credited it to Franz Hofmeister. Then, in 1828, Friedrich Wöhler published a paper on the synthesis of urea and these techniques allowed for the discovery and detailed analysis of many molecules and metabolic pathways of the cell, such as glycolysis and the Krebs cycle. Another significant historic event in biochemistry is the discovery of the gene and this part of biochemistry is often called molecular biology. In the 1950s, James D. Watson, Francis Crick, Rosalind Franklin, in 1958, George Beadle and Edward Tatum received the Nobel Prize for work in fungi showing that one gene produces one enzyme.
In 1988, Colin Pitchfork was the first person convicted of murder with DNA evidence, mello received the 2006 Nobel Prize for discovering the role of RNA interference, in the silencing of gene expression. Around two dozen of the 92 naturally occurring elements are essential to various kinds of biological life. Most rare elements on Earth are not needed by life, while a few common ones are not used, most organisms share element needs, but there are a few differences between plants and animals
The Swedish Academy, founded in 1786 by King Gustav III, is one of the Royal Academies of Sweden. It is known for making the decision on who will be the laureate for the Nobel Prize in Literature. The Swedish Academy was founded in 1786 by King Gustav III, modelled after the Académie française, it has 18 members. The motto of the Academy is Talent and Taste, the primary purpose of the Academy is to further the purity and sublimity of the Swedish language. To that end the Academy publishes two dictionaries, the first is a one-volume glossary called Svenska Akademiens ordlista. The second is a dictionary, edited on principles similar to those of the Oxford English Dictionary. The SAOL has reached its 14th edition while the first volume of the SAOB was published in 1898 and, as of 2014, the building now known as the Stockholm Stock Exchange Building was built for the bourgeoisie. The bottom floor was used as an exchange and the upper floor was used for balls, New Years Eve parties. When the academy was founded, the ballroom was the biggest room in Stockholm that could be heated and thus used in the winter, the academy has had its annual meeting there every year since, attended by members of the Swedish royal family.
However, it was not until 1914 the academy gained the right to use the floor as their own for all eternity. It is here that the Academy meets and, amongst other business, the latter makes it arguably one of the most influential literary bodies in the world. Dag Hammarskjölds former farm at Backåkra, close to Ystad in southern Sweden, was bought in 1957 as a residence by Hammarskjöld. The south wing of the farm is reserved as a retreat for the 18 members of the Swedish Academy. Since 1901, the Academy has annually decided who will be the laureate for the Nobel Prize in Literature, the Swedish Academy annually awards nearly 50 different prizes and scholarships, most of them for domestic Swedish authors. Common to all is that they are awarded without competition and without application, the Dobloug Prize, the largest of these at $40,000, is a literature prize awarded for Swedish and Norwegian fiction. Swedish, Stora Priset, literally the Big Prize, was instituted by King Gustav III, the prize, which consists of a single gold medal, is the most prestigious award that can be awarded by the Swedish Academy.
It has been awarded to, among others, Selma Lagerlöf, Herbert Tingsten, Astrid Lindgren, Evert Taube, the Academy awards around 50 prizes each year. A person does not have to apply nor compete for the prizes, full list of awards The current permanent secretary of the Academy is Sara Danius, who was preceded by Peter Englund
Literature, in its broadest sense, is any single body of written works. Its Latin root literatura/litteratura was used to refer to all written accounts, developments in print technology have allowed an evergrowing distribution and proliferation of written works, culminating in electronic literature. There have been attempts to define literature. Simon and Delyse Ryan begin their attempt to answer the question What is Literature, with the observation, The quest to discover a definition for literature is a road that is much travelled, though the point of arrival, if ever reached, is seldom satisfactory. Most attempted definitions are broad and vague, and they change over time. In fact, the thing that is certain about defining literature is that the definition will change. Concepts of what is literature change over time as well, definitions of literature have varied over time, it is a culturally relative definition. In Western Europe prior to the century, literature as a term indicated all books.
A more restricted sense of the term emerged during the Romantic period, contemporary debates over what constitutes literature can be seen as returning to the older, more inclusive notion of what constitutes literature. Cultural studies, for instance, takes as its subject of both popular and minority genres, in addition to canonical works. The value judgment definition of literature considers it to cover exclusively those writings that possess high quality or distinction and this sort of definition is that used in the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition when it classifies literature as the best expression of the best thought reduced to writing. The formalist definition is that literature foregrounds poetic effects, it is the literariness or poetic of literature that distinguishes it from ordinary speech or other kinds of writing. Etymologically, the term derives from Latin literatura/litteratura learning, a writing, originally writing formed with letters, in spite of this, the term has been applied to spoken or sung texts.
Poetry is a form of art which uses aesthetic and rhythmic qualities of language to evoke meanings in addition to, or in place of. Possibly as a result of Aristotles influence, poetry before the century was usually less a technical designation for verse than a normative category of fictive or rhetorical art. As a form it may pre-date literacy, with the earliest works being composed within and sustained by an oral tradition, novel, a long fictional prose narrative. It was the close relation to real life that differentiated it from the chivalric romance, in most European languages the equivalent term is roman. In English, the term emerged from the Romance languages in the fifteenth century, with the meaning of news, it came to indicate something new
Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, administered by the Nobel Foundation, is awarded once a year for outstanding discoveries in the fields of life sciences and medicine. It is one of five Nobel Prizes established in 1895 by Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel, Nobel was personally interested in experimental physiology and wanted to establish a prize for progress through scientific discoveries in laboratories. The Nobel Prize is presented to the recipient at a ceremony on 10 December, the anniversary of Nobels death, along with a diploma. The front side of the medal provides the profile of Alfred Nobel as depicted on the medals for Physics, Chemistry. As of 2015,106 Nobel Prizes in Physiology or Medicine have been awarded to 198 men and 12 women. The first Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded in 1901 to the German physiologist Emil von Behring, for his work on serum therapy and this includes one to António Egas Moniz in 1949 for the prefrontal leucotomy, bestowed despite protests from the medical establishment.
Other controversies resulted from disagreements over who was included in the award, the 1952 prize to Selman Waksman was litigated in court, and half the patent rights awarded to his co-discoverer Albert Schatz who was not recognized by the prize. The 1962 prize awarded to James D, since the Nobel Prize rules forbid nominations of the deceased, longevity is an asset, one prize being awarded as long as 50 years after the discovery. Alfred Nobel was born on 21 October 1833 in Stockholm, Sweden into a family of engineers and he was a chemist and inventor who amassed a fortune during his lifetime, most of it from his 355 inventions of which dynamite is the most famous. He was interested in experimental physiology and set up his own labs in France, in 1888, Nobel was surprised to read his own obituary, titled The merchant of death is dead, in a French newspaper. Though Nobel wrote several wills during his lifetime, the last was written a little over a year before he died at the age of 63, because his will was contested, it was not approved by the Storting until 26 April 1897.
After Nobels death, the Nobel Foundation was set up to manage the assets of the bequest, in 1900, the Nobel Foundations newly created statutes were promulgated by Swedish King Oscar II. According to Nobels will, the Karolinska Institutet in Sweden, a medical school, the prize is commonly referred to as the Nobel Prize in Medicine. It was important to Nobel that the prize be awarded for a discovery, per the provisions of the will, only select persons are eligible to nominate individuals for the award. Past Nobel laureates may nominate, until 1977, all professors of Karolinska Institutet together decided on the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Therefore, the Nobel Assembly was constituted, consisting of 50 professors at Karolinska Institutet. It elects the Nobel Committee with 5 members who evaluate the nominees, the Secretary who is in charge of the organization, in 1968, a provision was added that no more than three persons may share a Nobel prize. True to its mandate, the Committee has selected researchers working in the sciences over those who have made applied contributions
Nobel Peace Prize
Per Alfred Nobels will, the recipient is selected by the Norwegian Nobel Committee, a five-member committee appointed by the Parliament of Norway. Since 1990, the prize is awarded on 10 December in Oslo City Hall each year, the prize was formerly awarded in the Atrium of the University of Oslo Faculty of Law, the Norwegian Nobel Institute, and the Parliament. Due to its nature, the Nobel Peace Prize has, for most of its history. Alfred Nobels will further specified that the prize be awarded by a committee of five chosen by the Norwegian Parliament. Nobel died in 1896 and he did not leave an explanation for choosing peace as a prize category, as he was a trained chemical engineer, the categories for chemistry and physics were obvious choices. The reasoning behind the peace prize is less clear, some Nobel scholars suggest it was Nobels way to compensate for developing destructive forces. His inventions included dynamite and ballistite, both of which were used violently during his lifetime, ballistite was used in war and the Irish Republican Brotherhood, an Irish nationalist organization, carried out dynamite attacks in the 1880s.
Nobel was instrumental in turning Bofors from an iron and steel producer into an armaments company and it is unclear why Nobel wished the Peace Prize to be administered in Norway, which was ruled in union with Sweden at the time of Nobels death. The Norwegian Nobel Committee speculates that Nobel may have considered Norway better suited to awarding the prize, the Norwegian Parliament appoints the Norwegian Nobel Committee, which selects the Nobel Peace Prize laureate. Each year, the Norwegian Nobel Committee specifically invites qualified people to submit nominations for the Nobel Peace Prize, the statutes of the Nobel Foundation specify categories of individuals who are eligible to make nominations for the Nobel Peace Prize. Nominations by committee members can be submitted up to the date of the first Committee meeting after this deadline. In 2009, a record 205 nominations were received, but the record was again in 2010 with 237 nominations, in 2011. Nominations from 1901 to 1956, have released in a database.
Nominations are considered by the Nobel Committee at a meeting where a short list of candidates for review is created. Advisers usually have some months to complete reports, which are considered by the Committee to select the laureate. The Committee seeks to achieve a decision, but this is not always possible. The Chairman of the Norwegian Nobel Committee presents the Nobel Peace Prize in the presence of the King of Norway on 10 December each year, the Peace Prize is the only Nobel Prize not presented in Stockholm. The Nobel laureate receives a diploma, a medal, and a document confirming the prize amount, as of 2013, the prize was worth 10 million SEK
Rosalind Elsie Franklin was an English chemist and X-ray crystallographer who made contributions to the understanding of the molecular structures of DNA, RNA, viruses and graphite. Although her works on coal and viruses were appreciated in her lifetime, she studied the Natural Sciences Tripos at Newnham College, from which she graduated in 1941. Earning a research fellowship, she joined the University of Cambridge physical chemistry laboratory under Ronald George Wreyford Norrish, the British Coal Utilisation Research Association offered her a research position in 1942, and started her work on coals. This helped her earn a Ph. D. in 1945 and she went to Paris in 1947 as a chercheur under Jacques Mering at the Laboratoire Central des Services Chimiques de lEtat, where she became an accomplished X-ray crystallographer. She became an associate at Kings College London in 1951 and worked on X-ray diffraction studies. In 1953, after two years, owing to disagreement with her director John Randall and more so with her colleague Maurice Wilkins, at Birkbeck, J. D.
Bernal, chair of the physics department, offered her a separate research team. She died in 1958 at the age of 37 of ovarian cancer, Watson suggested that Franklin would have ideally been awarded a Nobel Prize in Chemistry, along with Wilkins, but the Nobel Committee does not make posthumous nominations. After finishing her work on DNA, Franklin led pioneering work at Birkbeck on the structures of viruses. Her team member Aaron Klug continued her research, winning the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1982, Franklin was born on 25 July 1920 in 50 Chepstow Villas, Notting Hill, London into an affluent and influential British Jewish family. Her father was Ellis Arthur Franklin, a politically liberal London merchant banker who taught at the citys Working Mens College, Rosalind was the elder daughter and the second child in the family of five children. David was the eldest brother, Colin and Jenifer were her younger siblings and her fathers uncle was Herbert Samuel, who was the Home Secretary in 1916 and the first practising Jew to serve in the British Cabinet.
Her aunt, Helen Caroline Franklin, known in the family as Mamie, was married to Norman de Mattos Bentwich, Helen Caroline Franklin was active in trade union organisation and the womens suffrage movement, and was a member of the London County Council. Her uncle, Hugh Franklin, was prominent figure in the suffrage movement. Rosalinds middle name, was in memory of Hughs first wife, Franklins parents helped settle Jewish refugees from Europe who had escaped the Nazis, particularly those from the Kindertransport. They took in two Jewish children to their home, and one of them, a nine-year-old Austrian, Evi Eisenstädter, from early childhood, Franklin showed exceptional scholastic abilities. At age six, she joined her brother Roland at Norland Place School, at that time, her aunt Mamie, described her to her husband, Rosalind is alarmingly clever – she spends all her time doing arithmetic for pleasure, and invariably gets her sums right. She developed an early interest in cricket and hockey, at age nine, she entered a boarding school, Lindores School for Young Ladies in Sussex.
The school was near the seaside, and the family wanted an environment for her delicate health
The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London. Continuous publication began under its founder, James Wilson, in September 1843, in 2015 its average weekly circulation was a little over 1.5 million, about half of which were sold in the United States. The publication belongs to the Economist Group and it is 50% owned by the English branch of the Rothschild family and by the Agnelli family through its holding company Exor. The remaining 50% is held by investors including the editors. The Rothschilds and the Agnellis are represented on the board of directors, a board of trustees formally appoints the editor, who cannot be removed without its permission. Although The Economist has an emphasis and scope, about two-thirds of the 75 staff journalists are based in the London borough of Westminster. For the year to March 2016 the Economist Group declared operating profit of £61m, previous major shareholders include Pearson PLC.
The Economist takes a stance of classical and economic liberalism which is supportive of free trade, free immigration. The publication has described itself as a product of the Caledonian liberalism of Adam Smith and it targets highly educated readers and claims an audience containing many influential executives and policy-makers. The publications CEO described this recent global change, which was first noticed in the 1990s and accelerated in the beginning of the 21st century, on the contents page of each issue, The Economists mission statement is written in italics. The Economist was founded by the British businessman and banker James Wilson in 1843, to advance the repeal of the Corn Laws, articles relating to some practical, agricultural, or foreign topic of passing interest, such as foreign treaties. An article on the principles of political economy, applied to practical experience, covering the laws related to prices, rent, revenue. Parliamentary reports, with focus on commerce and free trade.
Reports and accounts of popular movements advocating free trade, general news from the Court of St. Jamess, the Metropolis, the Provinces and Ireland. Law reports, confined chiefly to areas important to commerce, books, confined chiefly, but not so exclusively, to commerce and agriculture, and including all treatises on political economy, finance, or taxation. A commercial gazette, with prices and statistics of the week and inquiries from the news magazines readers. It has long respected as one of the most competent. Its logo was designed in 1959 by Reynolds Stone, in January 2012 The Economist launched a new weekly section devoted exclusively to China, the first new country section since the introduction of a section about the United States in 1942
A gold medal is a medal awarded for highest achievement in a non-military field. Its name derives from the use of at least a fraction of gold in form of plating or alloying in its manufacture, others offer only the prestige of the award. Many organizations now award gold medals either annually or extraordinarily, including UNESCO, while some gold medals are solid gold, others are gold-plated or silver-gilt, like those of the Olympic Games, the Lorentz Medal, the United States Congressional Gold Medal and the Nobel Prize medal. Nobel Prize medals consist of 18 karat green gold plated with 24 karat gold, before 1980 they were struck in 23 karat gold. In the United States, Congress would enact a resolution asking the President to reward those responsible, the commanding officer would receive a gold medal and his officers silver medals. Other countries similarly honored their military and naval victors in a similar fashion, Medals have historically been given as prizes in various types of competitive activities, especially athletics.
Traditionally, medals are made of the metals, Gold Silver Bronze Occasionally. This standard was adopted for Olympic competition at the 1904 Summer Olympics, at the 1896 event, silver was awarded to winners and bronze to runners-up, while at 1904 other prizes were given, not medals. At the modern Olympic Games, winners of a sporting discipline receive a medal in recognition of their achievement. At the Ancient Olympic Games only one winner per event was crowned with kotinos, aristophanes in Plutus makes a remark why victorious athletes are crowned with wreath made of wild olive instead of gold. When Tigranes, an Armenian general learned this, he uttered to his leader, what kind of men are these against whom you have brought us to fight. Men who do not compete for possessions, but for honour, hence medals were not awarded at the ancient Olympic Games. At the 1896 Summer Olympics, winners received a silver medal, in 1900, most winners received cups or trophies instead of medals. The next three Olympics awarded the winners solid gold medals, but the medals themselves were smaller, the use of gold rapidly declined with the onset of the First World War and with the onset of the Second World War.
The last series of Olympic medals to be made of gold were awarded at the 1912 Olympic Games in Stockholm. Olympic Gold medals are required to be made from at least 92. 5% silver, all Olympic medals must be at least 60mm in diameter and 3mm thick. Minting the medals is the responsibility of the Olympic host, from the 1972 Summer Olympics through 2000, Cassiolis design remained on the obverse with a custom design by the host city on the reverse. Noting that Cassiolis design showed a Roman amphitheater for what originally were Greek games, Winter Olympics medals have been of more varied design
The Storting is the supreme legislature of Norway, established in 1814 by the Constitution of Norway. The unicameral parliament has 169 members, and is elected every four years based on party-list proportional representation in nineteen plural member constituencies, a member of the Storting is known in Norwegian as a Stortingsrepresentant, literally Storting representative. The assembly is led by a president and, since 2009 five vice presidents — the presidium, the members are allocated to twelve standing committees, as well as four procedural committees. Three ombudsmen are directly subordinate to parliament, the Parliamentary Intelligence Oversight Committee, in 2009, qualified unicameralism was replaced by unicameralism, through the dissolution of the two chambers, the Lagting and the Odelsting. Since 2013 Olemic Thommessen has been president, the alltings were where legal and political matters were discussed. As oral laws became codified and Norway unified as an entity in the 10th century.
The Parliament of Norway Building opened in 1866, on 27 June 1940 the presidium signed an appeal to King Haakon, about his abdication. In September 1940 the representatives were summoned to Oslo, and voted in favour of the results of the negotiations between the presidium and the authorities of the German invaders, directives from Adolf Hitler resulted in the obstruction of the agreement of cooperation between parliament and occupation force. Although the Storting has always been unicameral, until 2009 it would divide itself into two departments in legislative matters. After elections, the Storting would elect a quarter of its membership to form the Lagting a sort of upper house, the division was used on very rare occasions in cases of impeachment. The original idea in 1814 was probably to have the Lagting act as an upper house. Bills were submitted by the Government to the Odelsting or by a member of the Odelsting, a standing committee, with members from both the Odelsting and Lagting, would consider the bill, and in some cases hearings were held.
If passed by the Odelsting, the bill would be sent to the Lagting for review or revision, most bills were passed unamended by the Lagting and sent directly to the king for royal assent. If the Lagting amended the Odelstings decision, the bill would be sent back to the Odelsting, if the Odelsting approved the Lagtings amendments, the bill would be signed into law by the King. If it did not, the bill would return to the Lagting, if the Lagting still proposed amendments, the bill would be submitted a plenary session of the Storting. In order to be passed, the bill should have had the approval of a majority of the plenary session. In all other cases a majority would suffice. Three days had to pass between each time a department voted on a bill, in all other cases, such as taxes and appropriations, the Storting would meet in plenary sessions
Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff
Jacobus Henricus van t Hoff, Jr. was a Dutch physical chemist. A highly influential theoretical chemist of his time, van t Hoff was the first winner of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry and his pioneering work helped found the modern theory of chemical affinity, chemical equilibrium, chemical kinetics, and chemical thermodynamics. In his 1874 pamphlet Van t Hoff formulated the theory of the carbon atom. In 1875 he predicted the correct structures of allenes and cumulenes as well as their axial chirality and he is widely considered one of the founders of physical chemistry as the discipline is known today. The third of seven children, Van t Hoff was born in Rotterdam and his father was Jacobus Henricus van t Hoff, Sr. a physician, and his mother was Alida Kolff van t Hoff. From a young age, he was interested in science and nature, in his early school years, he showed a strong interest in poetry and philosophy. He considered Lord Byron to be his idol, against the wishes of his father, Van t Hoff chose to study chemistry.
First, he enrolled at Delft University of Technology in September 1869, and studied until 1871 and he passed all his courses in two years, although the time assigned to study was three years. Then he enrolled at University of Leiden to study chemistry and he studied in Bonn, with Friedrich Kekulé and in Paris with C. A. Wurtz. He received his doctorate under Eduard Mulder at the University of Utrecht in 1874, in 1878, Van t Hoff married Johanna Francina Mees. They had two daughters, Johanna Francina and Aleida Jacoba, and two sons, Jacobus Henricus van t Hoff III and Govert Jacob, Van t Hoff died at the age of 58, on 1 March 1911, at Steglitz, near Berlin, from tuberculosis. Van t Hoff earned his earliest reputation in the field of organic chemistry, in 1874, he accounted for the phenomenon of optical activity by assuming that the chemical bonds between carbon atoms and their neighbors were directed towards the corners of a regular tetrahedron. This three-dimensional structure accounted for the found in nature.
He shares credit for this with the French chemist Joseph Le Bel, a German translation appeared in 1877, at a time when the only job van t Hoff could find was at the Veterinary School in Utrecht. In these early years his theory was ignored by the scientific community. Kolbe wrote, A Dr. J. H. van ’t Hoff of the Veterinary School at Utrecht has no liking, however, by about 1880 support for van t Hoffs theory by such important chemists as Johannes Wislicenus and Viktor Meyer brought recognition. He introduced the concept of chemical affinity. In 1886, he showed a similarity between the behaviour of solutions and gases
Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences
The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences or Kungliga Vetenskapsakademien is one of the Royal Academies of Sweden. Every year the Academy awards the Nobel Prizes in Physics and Chemistry, the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel, the Crafoord Prize, the Academy has elected about 1.700 Swedish and 1.200 foreign members since it was founded in 1739. Hansson, appointed from 1 July 2015 The transactions of the Academy were published as its main series between 1739 and 1974, in parallel, other major series have appeared and gone, Öfversigt af Kungl. These lasted into the 1860s, when they were replaced by the single Bihang series, further restructuring of their topics occurred in 1949 and 1974. The purpose of the academy was to focus on practically useful knowledge, the academy was intended to be different from the Royal Society of Sciences in Uppsala, which had been founded in 1719 and published in Latin. The location close to the activities in Swedens capital was intentional.
The academy was modeled after the Royal Society of London and Academie Royale des Sciences in Paris, members of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences Official website Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences video site