The Nobel Prize in Literature is a Swedish literature prize, awarded annually, since 1901, to an author from any country who has, in the words of the will of Swedish industrialist Alfred Nobel, produced "in the field of literature the most outstanding work in an ideal direction". Though individual works are sometimes cited as being noteworthy, the award is based on an author's body of work as a whole; the Swedish Academy decides. The academy announces the name of the laureate in early October, it is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the will of Alfred Nobel in 1895. On some occasions the award has been postponed to the following year, most in 2018. Alfred Nobel stipulated in his last will and testament that his money be used to create a series of prizes for those who confer the "greatest benefit on mankind" in physics, peace, physiology or medicine, literature. Though Nobel wrote several wills during his lifetime, the last was written a little over a year before he died, signed at the Swedish-Norwegian Club in Paris on 27 November 1895.
Nobel bequeathed 94% of his total assets, 31 million Swedish kronor, to establish and endow the five Nobel Prizes. Due to the level of scepticism surrounding the will, it was not until 26 April 1897 that the Storting approved it; the executors of his will were Ragnar Sohlman and Rudolf Lilljequist, who formed the Nobel Foundation to take care of Nobel's fortune and organize the prizes. The members of the Norwegian Nobel Committee that were to award the Peace Prize were appointed shortly after the will was approved; the prize-awarding organisations followed: the Karolinska Institutet on 7 June, the Swedish Academy on 9 June, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences on 11 June. The Nobel Foundation reached an agreement on guidelines for how the Nobel Prize should be awarded. In 1900, the Nobel Foundation's newly created statutes were promulgated by King Oscar II. According to Nobel's will, the prize in literature should be determined by "the Academy in Stockholm", specified by the statutes of the Nobel Foundation to mean the Swedish Academy.
Each year, the Swedish Academy sends out requests for nominations of candidates for the Nobel Prize in Literature. Members of the Academy, members of literature academies and societies, professors of literature and language, former Nobel literature laureates, the presidents of writers' organizations are all allowed to nominate a candidate, it is not permitted to nominate oneself. Thousands of requests are sent out each year, as of 2011 about 220 proposals are returned; these proposals must be received by the Academy by 1 February, after which they are examined by the Nobel Committee. By April, the Academy narrows the field to around twenty candidates. By May, a short list of five names is approved by the Committee; the subsequent four months are spent in reading and reviewing the works of the five candidates. In October, members of the Academy vote and the candidate who receives more than half of the votes is named the Nobel laureate in Literature. No one can get the prize without being on the list at least twice, thus many of the same authors reappear and are reviewed over the years.
The academy is master of thirteen languages, but when a candidate is shortlisted from an unknown language, they call on translators and oath-sworn experts to provide samples of that writer. Other elements of the process are similar to that of other Nobel Prizes; the judges are composed of an 18 member committee who are elected for life and up until 2018, not technically permitted to leave. On 2 May 2018, King Carl XVI Gustaf amended the rules of the academy and made it possible for members to resign; the new rules state that a member, inactive in the work of the academy for more than two years can be asked to resign. The award is announced in October. Sometimes, the award has been announced the year after the nominal year, the latest being the 2018 award. In the midst of controversy surrounding claims of sexual assault, conflict of interest, resignations by officials, on 4 May 2018, the Swedish Academy announced that the 2018 laureate would be announced in 2019 along with the 2019 laureate. A Literature Nobel Prize laureate earns a gold medal, a diploma bearing a citation, a sum of money.
The amount of money awarded depends on the income of the Nobel Foundation that year. If a prize is awarded to more than one laureate, the money is either split evenly among them or, for three laureates, it may be divided into a half and two quarters. If a prize is awarded jointly to two or more laureates, the money is split among them; the prize money of the Nobel Prize has been fluctuating since its inauguration but as of 2012 it stood at kr 8,000,000 it was kr 10,000,000. This was not the first time the prize-amount was decreased—beginning with a nominal value of kr 150,782 in 1901 the nominal value has been as low as kr 121,333 in 1945—but it has been uphill or stable since peaking at an SEK-2011 value of 11,659,016 in 2001; the laureate is invited to give a lecture during "Nobel Week" in Stockholm. It is the second richest literary prize in the world; the Nobel Prize medals, minted by Myntverket in Sweden and the Mint of Norway since 1902, are registered trademarks of the Nobel Foundation.
Ravi Kumar Sawhney is an American industrial designer. He is the founder and CEO of RKS Design, co-founder of RKS Guitars, Chairperson of the IDSA/Business Week Catalyst Case Study Program. Ravi Sawhney's parents immigrated from India to Canada in 1953, Ravi was born April 16, 1956 in Nova Scotia, moved to the United States in 1965, he started working as a designer and model maker in 1976 while studying at California State University and Art Center College of Design. In 1978, he graduated CSUN and was hired by Xerox in the Advanced Product Development Group working in conjunction with Xerox PARC, where he was the sole industrial designer working with a team of 20 cognitive and social scientists to develop the first touch screen interface, he founded RKS Design, now known as RKS, in 1980. He has taught Senior Level Industrial Design at Art Center College of Design, Junior and Senior Level Industrial Design at California State University, Northridge, he has been a featured lecturer at Anderson School of Business, U.
C. L. A. & U. S. C. and holds an Honorary Ph. D. from Academy of Art University. He created RKS's proprietary strategy and design philosophy. Ravi is an Expert Design blogger on FastCompany In September 2009, Ravi was inducted into the Industrial Designers Society of America's Academy of Fellows. Ravi Sawhney is a member of the Dean's Executive Council at California Lutheran University's School of Management. Honorary doctorate from Academy of Art University for contributions to the art and design of music making Chairperson of IDSA/Business Week Catalyst award 2004 Head Juror for the Industrial Design Excellence Awards Member, Board of Directors, KOR Water, Inc Advisory Board, Guitar Center Music Foundation Board Member and Founding Trustee - Pasadena Museum of California Art, served as head juror of the museum's inaugural California Design Biennial exhibition. Pearson/Wharton School Publishing, 2010: Predictable Magic Innovation Magazine, Summer 2001, page 50: The Psycho-Aesthetics Martini pdf: Design Magazine, June/July 2002: You Are What You Consume pdf: FastCompany.com Design Reach Blog FastCompany.com: Ravi Sawhney Interaction13 conference in Toronto, by the Interaction Design Association: Opening keynote “Our Power toEmpower: the Satisfaction of Designing for Social Impact” International Design Forum, Singapore: Opening Keynote - “Design - What Every Business Needs.
The Practical Application of Design for Successful Business Ventures” World Innovation Conference, Cannes, by B2B Europe: Opening Keynote “Understanding and Harnessing Emotional Connections Through Design” IP and Green Tech, Alexandria, by the United States Patent & Trademark Office: Opening Keynote “Innovation Today: Thoughts on Getting Creative, Navigating the IP Landscape and Protecting Things of Value – Patents and the Planet” RKS RKS Guitars
Blue Stone is an American electropop musical project formed by producer/programmer Robert Smith and producer/multi-instrumentalist Bill Walters, featuring various female guest vocalists. The group has released three studio albums and one remix album, all on Neurodisc Records, since 2006. Blue Stone's style and genre have been described as "Ethereal Pop," "Ambient Pop," "Dream Pop," and "New Age" by critics, their music integrates layered hardware and software synthesizers with live piano and percussion. Robert Smith and Bill Walters are the group's core members, who write the majority and produce all of Blue Stone's output, they collaborate with various female guest vocalists, some of whom are credited as co-writers of songs. Prior to forming Blue Stone, Smith released music in the New Age genre as Bella Sonus, he and Walters have experience performing together as bandmates in Rock and Blues projects in prior decades. The two have cited a variety of musical artists, including Pink Floyd, Jan Hammer, William Orbit, Delerium, BT, Afro Celt Sound System, as having been influential in developing their sound.
Blue Stone's first studio album, was released in 2006 and received mixed reviews. Breathe features one guest vocalist, Darcy, on numerous songs, which are a combination of free-form composition and traditional verse/chorus songwriting; the album performed well on the iTunes Store's Electronic Album Chart Top 100. Worlds Apart was released in 2007 to uniformly positive reviews, included three guest vocalists, each performing on multiple songs; this album represented a shift toward a majority of conventionally written songs that continued in the 2009 release Messages, well received by critics. "Confession" "Breathe" "Break of Dawn" "Falling" "The River" "I Am" "Forgiven" "Only One" "Holy Ground" "Searching" "Contact" "Dusk" "Traveler" "Lost" "New Beginning" "Set Adrift" "Waters Flow" "Lost Sun" "Dreamcatcher" "Voleti" "Worlds Apart" "Envy" "Take Flight" "Far Away" "Labyrinth of Dreams" "Tears" "Event Horizon" "Remember This" "On the Wind" "Circles" "Flood" "Dreamcatcher" "Worlds Apart" "Event Horizon" "Waters Flow" "Adrift" "Worlds Apart" "Faraway" "Tears" "Worlds Apart" "Circles" "Tears Are Falling" "Event Horizon" "Midnight Tides" "Open Your Eyes" "Deja Vu" "Hang On" "Wait for the Sun" "Open Sky" "Lotus Bloom" "Come Alive" "Moving Forward" "Ancient Echoes" "Set Me in the Sun" "Bridges" "The Silence" "Hypnotized" "Messages" "Innocence" "Mischief" "Seduction" "Epimetheus" "Curiosity" "Darkened Rooms" "Who Are You" "The Journey" "Stolen Light" "Shattered" "Hope" "Dream" "Uncover Me" "Caged" "Fairy Star" "Speed" "Déjà Vu" "Dreamcatcher" "Lotus Bloom" "Uncover Me" "Breathe" "Open Sky" "Epimetheus" "Worlds Apart" "Holy Ground" "Set Me in the Sun" "Labyrinth of Dreams" "Warrior Heart" "One Star" "No Tears" "Serenity" "Te Deum" Blue Stone Project Myspace Neurodisc Records Official Site Blue Stone interview with DJFIX for Breathe Conversation with Robert Smith of Blue Stone Conversation with Robert Smith, Bill Walters and Sheyenne Rivers of Blue Stone for the album Worlds Apart Discogs