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Nobelium

Nobelium is a synthetic chemical element with the symbol No and atomic number 102. It is named in the inventor of dynamite and benefactor of science. A radioactive metal, it is the tenth transuranic element and is the penultimate member of the actinide series. Like all elements with atomic number over 100, nobelium can only be produced in particle accelerators by bombarding lighter elements with charged particles. A total of twelve nobelium isotopes are known to exist. Chemistry experiments have confirmed that nobelium behaves as a heavier homolog to ytterbium in the periodic table; the chemical properties of nobelium are not known: they are only known in aqueous solution. Before nobelium's discovery, it was predicted that it would show a stable +2 oxidation state as well as the +3 state characteristic of the other actinides: these predictions were confirmed, as the +2 state is much more stable than the +3 state in aqueous solution and it is difficult to keep nobelium in the +3 state. In the 1950s and 1960s, many claims of the discovery of nobelium were made from laboratories in Sweden, the Soviet Union, the United States.

Although the Swedish scientists soon retracted their claims, the priority of the discovery and therefore the naming of the element was disputed between Soviet and American scientists, it was not until 1997 that International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry credited the Soviet team with the discovery, but retained nobelium, the Swedish proposal, as the name of the element due to its long-standing use in the literature. The discovery of element 102 was a complicated process and was claimed by groups from Sweden, the United States, the Soviet Union; the first complete and incontrovertible report of its detection only came in 1966 from the Joint Institute of Nuclear Research at Dubna. The first announcement of the discovery of element 102 was announced by physicists at the Nobel Institute in Sweden in 1957; the team reported that they had bombarded a curium target with carbon-13 ions for twenty-five hours in half-hour intervals. Between bombardments, ion-exchange chemistry was performed on the target.

Twelve out of the fifty bombardments contained samples emitting MeV alpha particles, which were in drops which eluted earlier than fermium and californium. The half-life reported was 10 minutes and was assigned to either 251102 or 253102, although the possibility that the alpha particles observed were from a short-lived mendelevium isotope created from the electron capture of element 102 was not excluded; the team proposed the name nobelium for the new element, approved by IUPAC, a decision which the Dubna group characterized in 1968 as being hasty. The following year, scientists at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory repeated the experiment but were unable to find any 8.5 MeV events which were not background effects. In 1959, the Swedish team attempted to explain the Berkeley team's inability to detect element 102 in 1958, maintaining that they did discover it; however work has shown that no nobelium isotopes lighter than 259No with a half-life over 3 minutes exist, that the Swedish team's results are most from thorium-225, which has a half-life of 8 minutes and undergoes triple alpha decay to polonium-213, which has a decay energy of 8.53612 MeV.

This hypothesis is lent weight by the fact that thorium-225 can be produced in the reaction used and would not be separated out by the chemical methods used. Work on nobelium showed that the divalent state is more stable than the trivalent one and hence that the samples emitting the alpha particles could not have contained nobelium, as the divalent nobelium would not have eluted with the other trivalent actinides. Thus, the Swedish team retracted their claim and associated the activity to background effects; the Berkeley team, consisting of Albert Ghiorso, Glenn T. Seaborg, John R. Walton and Torbjørn Sikkeland claimed the synthesis of element 102 in 1958; the team used the new heavy-ion linear accelerator to bombard a curium target with 12C ions. They were unable to confirm the 8.5 MeV activity claimed by the Swedes but were instead able to detect decays from fermium-250 the daughter of 254102, which had an apparent half-life of ~3 s. 1963 Dubna work confirmed that 254102 could be produced in this reaction, but that its half-life was 50±10 s.

In 1967, the Berkeley team attempted to defend their work, stating that the isotope found was indeed 250Fm but the isotope that the half-life measurements related to was californium-244, granddaughter of 252102, produced from the more abundant curium-244. Energy differences were attributed to "resolution and drift problems", although these had not been reported and should have influenced other results. 1977 experiments showed. However, 1973 work showed that the 250Fm recoil could have easily been produced from the isomeric transition of 250mFm which could have been formed in the reaction at the energy used. Given this, it is probable that no nobelium was produced in this experiment. In 1959, the team continued their studies and claimed that they were able to produce an isotope that decayed predominantly by emission of an 8.3 MeV alpha particle, with a half-life of 3 s with an

Donnellson, Iowa

Donnellson is a city in Lee County, United States. The population was 912 at the 2010 census, it is part of the Fort Madison -- IA-MO Micropolitan Statistical Area. Donnellson was incorporated on October 25, 1892, named after Esten A. Donnell, a surveyor in the region. Donnellson, plus the surrounding communities of Argyle and Montrose, is served by the Central Lee Community School District, consolidated into one location in 1986. Donnellson is located at 40°38′36″N 91°33′54″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.26 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2010, there were 912 people, 378 households, 226 families living in the city; the population density was 723.8 inhabitants per square mile. There were 415 housing units at an average density of 329.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 99.0% White, 0.1% African American, 0.1% Native American, 0.2% Asian, 0.5% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.4% of the population.

There were 378 households of which 30.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.2% were married couples living together, 11.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 3.2% had a male householder with no wife present, 40.2% were non-families. 35.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.29 and the average family size was 2.98. The median age in the city was 41.1 years. 24.2% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 51.9 % female. As of the census of 2000, there were 963 people, 386 households, 270 families living in the city; the population density was 1,208.8 people per square mile. There were 415 housing units at an average density of 520.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 98.65% White, 0.21% African American, 0.31% Asian, 0.31% from other races, 0.52% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.93% of the population.

There were 386 households out of which 31.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.8% were married couples living together, 9.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.8% were non-families. 27.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.33 and the average family size was 2.83. In the city, the population was spread out with 23.5% under the age of 18, 7.1% from 18 to 24, 24.1% from 25 to 44, 19.8% from 45 to 64, 25.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females, there were 78.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 78.5 males. The median income for a household in the city was $36,316, the median income for a family was $41,500. Males had a median income of $34,125 versus $24,688 for females; the per capita income for the city was $18,336. About 4.3% of families and 3.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 1.7% of those under age 18 and 5.9% of those age 65 or over.

It is served by Central Lee Community School District. Donnellson Iowa Website Portal style website, Business, Library and more City-Data.com Comprehensive Statistical Data and more about Tipton

Kiwi (song)

"Kiwi" is a song recorded by English singer and songwriter Harry Styles for his self-titled debut studio album. The song was released as the final single from the album; the song is one of the more sexually overt songs on the album, includes lyrics about cigarettes, liquor, a femme fatale, a one night stand with a girl. Styles told BBC Radio 1 that the song "started out as a joke, now it’s one of my favourite songs. It’s one of the first ones I wrote for the album when I was getting out a lot of energy"; the music video for the song was released on 8 November 2017, directed by the filmmaking duo Us. It follows Styles and a group of children as they engage in large cake fight in Wimbledon Chase Primary School. Child actress Beau Gadsdon plays Styles' female lookalike in the video. In May 2017, Styles performed "Kiwi" on The Late Late Show with James Corden. In November, he performed the song on The X Factor UK and CBS Radio’s 5th annual We Can Survive concert at the Hollywood Bowl; the same month, Styles performed on the runway during the 2017 Victoria's Secret Fashion Show in Shanghai at the Mercedes-Benz Arena, opening the show with "Kiwi".

Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics "Kiwi" on YouTube

Bruce Poliquin

Bruce Lee Poliquin is an American businessman and politician. A Republican, he represented Maine's 2nd congressional district in the United States House of Representatives from 2015 to 2019. Poliquin was first elected to Congress in the 2014 general election. From 2010 to 2012 he was the Maine State Treasurer, he was a candidate for the Republican nomination for the U. S. Senate in 2012, finishing second in the primary election. In January 2017, at the start of the 115th United States Congress, Poliquin was the only Republican representing a U. S. House district in New England. Poliquin was defeated by Democrat Jared Golden in his 2018 run for reelection, is the first incumbent to lose his seat in Maine's second district since 1916. Poliquin claimed the ranked-choice voting process used in the election was unconstitutional and claimed to be the winner because he led after the initial tally, he sued to be declared the winner and have ranked-choice voting declared unconstitutional, but his lawsuit was rejected.

He conceded to Golden on December 24, 2018. Poliquin was raised in Waterville, Maine, he grew up in a family of French-Canadian ancestry. His father was a school principal and his mother was a nurse, he attended Phillips Academy in Andover and received a scholarship to attend Harvard University, where he studied economics, graduating in 1976. After college Poliquin worked in the investment management industry in New York City. At Avatar Investors Associates Corporation, a fund management company, he helped manage nearly $5 billion in worker pension funds. In 2010 Poliquin sought the Maine Republican Party's nomination for governor of Maine, he finished sixth of the seven candidates. Paul LePage won Poliquin endorsed him. Following LePage's election in November 2010, the Maine Legislature elected Poliqiun Maine State Treasurer. In 2011 Poliquin expressed concerns about the Maine State Housing Authority's plans to construct a low-income housing complex in Portland. Poliquin cited the proposed $314,000 per unit cost as an example of irresponsible government spending.

Dale McCormick, the authority's director and an appointee of Democratic Governor John Baldacci, approved the proposal following a reduction in the per unit price to $265,000. In 2012 Maine Democrats accused Poliquin of violating the state constitution by engaging in commerce while in office; the complaints against Poliquin centered around his involvement with the Popham Beach Club, a private club in Phippsburg and Dirigo Holdings LLC, a real estate company. Maine Attorney General William Schneider advised Poliquin to disassociate himself from his business ventures but did not offer an opinion as to whether he had violated the Constitution; the Maine House voted unanimously to send the issue to the Maine Supreme Judicial Court to settle the matter. The Court declined to offer a ruling, concluding that there were no circumstances in Poliquin's case requiring immediate attention. In February 2012 some Democrats criticized Poliquin for his use of the Maine Tree Growth Tax Program, a program meant to preserve forestland from development pressures for commercial timber harvesting, with 10 acres of his oceanfront property in Georgetown.

The program reduced the value of his property from the assessed $1.8 million to $725,500, resulting in Poliquin paying $30 a year in property taxes. A 2009 Maine Forest Service report discussed Poliquin's property as an example of one that might not be complying with the law, stating that restrictions on timber harvesting in shoreland areas would limit any commercial use of the land, but the report acknowledged that as long as the property was 10 acres it could remain in the program. Poliquin transferred the property in question to the Open Space program, a less generous tax abatement program, he said the issue was a distraction for the town and was politically motivated by Democrats' dissatisfaction with his policies as treasurer. At the end of his term Poliquin wrote an op-ed in the Bangor Daily News with a list of his accomplishments as treasurer; these included reforms to the state workers' pension plan, efforts to reduce the cost of affordable housing, reduced wasteful spending, retention of the state's Aa2 bond rating.

In March 2012 Poliquin announced his candidacy for the U. S. Senate seat being vacated by Olympia Snowe, he lost the Republican primary to Charlie Summers, who lost the general election to Independent former governor Angus King. On July 10, 2013, Poliquin said he was not interested in becoming the Chairman of the Maine Republican Party, despite encouragement to do so from many Republicans, including Governor LePage. In August 2013 Poliquin announced that he would seek the Maine Republican Party's nomination for the Second Congressional District. Poliquin won the primary election against former Maine Senate President Kevin Raye and faced Democratic State Senator Emily Cain and Independent retired Navy captain Blaine Richardson in the general election. Poliquin won with 47% of the vote. Poliquin ran for reelection in 2016, he was a member of the National Republican Congressional Committee's Patriot Program, designed to help protect vulnerable Republican incumbents in the 2016 election. Poliquin ran unopposed in the primary election.

He faced Democrat Emily Cain, whom he beat in the November 8 general election. Poliquin defeated Cain with 55% of the vote. Describing Poliquin on February 10, 2018, as "the last of an endangered species" as a House Republican from New England, the Boston Globe wrote that his "fight against extinction" was "looking more dire," with "Democrats' leaders looking to make New England a clean sweep in 2018."In the general election Poliquin faced Democratic nomi

This Is War (song)

"This Is War" is a song by American rock band Thirty Seconds to Mars, featured on their third studio album of the same name. Written by lead vocalist Jared Leto, the song was released as the second single from the album to American radio on March 8, 2010, the physical single was released on March 26, 2010; the music video was shot on April 7, 2010. A 30-second teaser was released and the music video was set to premiere in June 2010. However, it was delayed; the film features 30 Seconds to Mars. The video was leaked on April 1, 2011. In response to the leak, the band stated. On April 6, 2011, nearly a year after the video was shot, it was released, it shows the band dressed up as American soldiers patrolling the desert in an armored Humvee while showing scenes of war and leaders all while some unknown entity observes them and their action. Near the end of the video, various military vehicles are flying uncontrollably above the men, towards a pile; the group's own Humvee gets sucked into the pile. The objects smashing into the pile get temporarily crushed but assume their normal un-crushed form after a second.

As the camera shows the forming pile from afar, it is revealed that it forms into a huge pyramid, hovering over the desert. The video was directed by Edouard Salier, it won the Video of the Year Award on MSN Latinoamérica. All songs written by Jared Leto. Promo "This Is War" – 5:27EU CD single "This Is War" – 5:27 "Hurricane" By Emma Ford and Natalie Loren aka "Luxury Kills" – 5:49Digital download EP "This Is War" – 5:47 "This Is War" – 4:46 "Night of the Hunter" – 4:57 The song has been included on the soundtrack of Dragon Age: Origins, as downloadable content for Rock Band, the Formula One video review of the 2010 Italian Grand Prix and in a promo for the TV show Revolution; this is War was used as the theme song for the fan-made abridged parody of Sword Art Online by Something Witty Entertainment. List of number-one alternative rock singles of 2010 Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics

Condition of average

Condition of average is the insurance term used when calculating a payout against a claim where the policy undervalues the sum insured. In the event of partial loss, the amount paid against a claim will be in the same proportion as the value of the underinsurance; the formula used is Payout = Claim × Sum Insured Current Value where Payout is the amount paid out by the policy, Claim is the amount claimed against the policy after a loss, Sum Insured is the maximum amount to be paid out by the policy, Current Value is the value the policy should be insured for. Underinsurance occurs. Sum Insured is the maximum amount that can be paid out and is only paid out in cases of total destruction. Where partial destruction occurs, Payout is pro rata in line with the underinsurance; this is due to insurance companies basing the premiums on their risk of losing the full Sum Insured against total destruction events. Where a building's insurance policy is subject to average, underinsurance can result in high liabilities on the owner.

For example, if a flood or fire causes $3M of partial damage, the building is insured for $5M, but its true value is determined to be $10M, the payout will be Payout = Claim × Sum Insured Current Value = $3 M × $5 M $10 M = $1.5 M This would leave the owner with an underinsurance shortfall of $1.5M. In the case where a building is listed and has a mandatory rebuild order, it could be ruinous. Under certain conditions, if the sum insured is 75% or more of the current value, no deduction is made for partial losses; this is an example of a coinsurance, with coinsurance requirement of 75%. The contents of buildings are insured either separately from the buildings, or with dwelling houses, as a separate part of a combined buildings/contents insurance policy. Whether separate or joint policies are used, the insurance claim on either part cannot be transferred to the other, for example, under insurance of the contents cannot be offset by the claim made on the buildings insurance; when contents insurance states that new-for-old applies, this increases the likelihood of under insurance.

For example, a quantity of items amongst the contents might have a low resale value but a high new-for-old value. This can happen if quantities of second-hand goods are collected. In such a case, if the policy is subject to average, any claim will be reduced by the value of the underinsurance. Crucially, this occurs with partial loss of the contents where the low-resale value contents are undamaged and may be stored separately, as in an undamaged outhouse covered as part of the policy. Due to the high shortfall burden, some countries, notably New Zealand, mandate that all policies subject to average have the policyholder acknowledge the risks of underinsurance. “ That provision will have effect only if the property insured under the policy is underinsured at the time of loss. “ If the property insured under the policy is underinsured at the time of loss, the following rules apply: “ If you suffer a total loss, the provision will have no effect: “ If you suffer a partial loss, the maximum amount that you may recover will bear the same proportion to your actual loss as the amount for which the property is insured bears to the full value of the property: “ Whatever your loss, in no case will you be entitled to recover more than the amount for which the property is insured.“Example: Your property is worth $20,000.

You insure it for $10,000. You suffer a loss of $5,000. If your policy is ‘subject to average’, the maximum amount that you may recover will be $2,500.” To remove the risk of homeowners unwittingly falling into an underinsurance trap, New Zealand has legislation to ban the use of average clauses for dwelling houses. The history of average clauses began with cargo insurance. Here, if a proportion of a cargo had to be thrown overboard in storm to save the ship, all cargo owners and the shipowner would jointly make good the loss to the owner of the cargo thrown overboard, including the those that occurred the loss; the share each of the owners would pay would be based on their proportion of the total value of cargo or ship. This is termed the law of general average. Average clauses can cause problems with claims made during periods of volatility in commodities markets. For example, if crude was being shipped from one part of the world to another, a partial loss occurred, if its current value had risen, the amount paid out by the insurance company may not cover the value of the contract.

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