Belmont County, Ohio
Belmont County is a county located in the U. S. state of Ohio. As of the 2010 census, the population was 70,400, its county seat is St. Clairsville; the county was created in 1801 and organized in 1815. It takes its name from the French for "beautiful mountain". Belmont County is part of WV-OH Metropolitan Statistical Area, it is the only Belmont County nationwide. Dille, Ohio known as Dilles Bottom, was located across the Ohio River from Moundsville, West Virginia, it was founded by the sons of David Dille around 1790 and was a fort called Fort Dille. Belmont County was formed from Jefferson and Washington Counties, September 7, 1801, it was one of Ohio's earliest counties and was a county in the Northwest Territory. Belmont is the French term for "beautiful mountain". Settlers migrating westward followed Zane's Trace through the county; the National Road was built through the county. Quakers were among the county's first settlers. Many of these people would become outspoken critics of slavery, including famous abolitionist Benjamin Lundy.
According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 541 square miles, of which 532 square miles is land and 9.1 square miles is water. Harrison County Jefferson County Ohio County, West Virginia Marshall County, West Virginia Monroe County Noble County Guernsey County As of the census of 2000, there were 70,226 people, 28,309 households, 19,250 families residing in the county; the population density was 131 people per square mile. There were 31,236 housing units at an average density of 58 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 94.98% White, 3.64% Black or African American, 0.14% Native American, 0.30% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.16% from other races, 0.77% from two or more races. 0.39% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 20.2% were of German, 12.5% Irish, 12.0% American, 10.3% English, 10.2% Italian and 9.0% Polish ancestry according to Census 2000. There were 28,309 households out of which 28.30% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.10% were married couples living together, 11.20% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.00% were non-families.
28.70% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.10% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.37 and the average family size was 2.90. In the county, the population was spread out with 21.80% under the age of 18, 7.70% from 18 to 24, 27.40% from 25 to 44, 24.90% from 45 to 64, 18.20% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females there were 96.40 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.60 males. The median income for a household in the county was $29,714, the median income for a family was $37,538. Males had a median income of $31,211 versus $19,890 for females; the per capita income for the county was $16,221. About 11.70% of families and 14.60% of the population were below the poverty line, including 20.40% of those under age 18 and 9.80% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 70,400 people, 28,679 households, 18,761 families residing in the county.
The population density was 132.3 inhabitants per square mile. There were 32,452 housing units at an average density of 61.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 94.0% white, 4.0% black or African American, 0.4% Asian, 0.1% American Indian, 0.2% from other races, 1.3% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 0.6% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 26.0% were German, 17.9% were Irish, 12.4% were English, 10.1% were Italian, 9.0% were Polish, 6.2% were American. Of the 28,679 households, 27.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.2% were married couples living together, 11.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.6% were non-families, 29.9% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.32 and the average family size was 2.85. The median age was 43.4 years. The median income for a household in the county was $38,320 and the median income for a family was $47,214. Males had a median income of $42,022 versus $26,926 for females.
The per capita income for the county was $20,266. About 12.1% of families and 15.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.4% of those under age 18 and 9.1% of those age 65 or over. All of the county's government offices are located in the Belmont County Courthouse. Belmont County has a three-member board of county commissioners who administer and oversee the various county departments, similar to all but two of the 88 Ohio counties; the elected commissioners serve four-year terms. Belmont County's elected commissioners are: Mark Thomas, J. P. Dutton, Josh Meyer. Belmont County's county flag was designed in 1988 by local state official Michael Massa. Local citizens voted in a nationally covered election to choose it from a group of three designs by Massa; the seal is featured on the county's flag. Belmont County is served by several detentional centers located around St. Clairsville; the Belmont Correctional Institution is located on 158 acres between St. Clairsville and Bannock on State Route 331.
The facility houses 2,698 inmates. The Belmont County Jail is located in St. Clairsville and is located near Belmont College and Ohio University Eastern Campus; the facility contains 144 beds and houses the county sheriff's offices. The county is served by Sargus Juvenile Detention Center, a 17-bed facility that serves surrounding counties. Sargus Center is locat
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is applied to living organisms, most of the time to humans, it is a key geographical term. In simple terms population density refers to the number of people living in an area per kilometer square. Population density is population divided by total land water volume, as appropriate. Low densities may lead to further reduced fertility; this is called the Allee effect after the scientist. Examples of the causes in low population densities include: Increased problems with locating sexual mates Increased inbreeding For humans, population density is the number of people per unit of area quoted per square kilometer or square mile; this may be calculated for a county, country, another territory or the entire world. The world's population is around 7,500,000,000 and Earth's total area is 510,000,000 square kilometers. Therefore, the worldwide human population density is around 7,500,000,000 ÷ 510,000,000 = 14.7 per km2. If only the Earth's land area of 150,000,000 km2 is taken into account human population density is 50 per km2.
This includes all continental and island land area, including Antarctica. If Antarctica is excluded population density rises to over 55 people per km2. However, over half of the Earth's land mass consists of areas inhospitable to human habitation, such as deserts and high mountains, population tends to cluster around seaports and fresh-water sources. Thus, this number by itself does not give any helpful measurement of human population density. Several of the most densely populated territories in the world are city-states and dependencies; these territories have a small area and a high urbanization level, with an economically specialized city population drawing on rural resources outside the area, illustrating the difference between high population density and overpopulation The potential to maintain the agricultural aspects of deserts is limited as there is not enough precipitation to support a sustainable land. The population in these areas are low. Therefore, cities in the Middle East, such as Dubai, have been increasing in population and infrastructure growth at a fast pace.
Cities with high population densities are, by some, considered to be overpopulated, though this will depend on factors like quality of housing and infrastructure and access to resources. Most of the most densely populated cities are in Southeast Asia, though Cairo and Lagos in Africa fall into this category. City population and area are, however dependent on the definition of "urban area" used: densities are invariably higher for the central city area than when suburban settlements and the intervening rural areas are included, as in the areas of agglomeration or metropolitan area, the latter sometimes including neighboring cities. For instance, Milwaukee has a greater population density when just the inner city is measured, the surrounding suburbs excluded. In comparison, based on a world population of seven billion, the world's inhabitants, as a loose crowd taking up ten square feet per person, would occupy a space a little larger than Delaware's land area; the Gaza Strip has a population density of 5,046 pop/km.
Although arithmetic density is the most common way of measuring population density, several other methods have been developed to provide a more accurate measure of population density over a specific area. Arithmetic density: The total number of people / area of land Physiological density: The total population / area of arable land Agricultural density: The total rural population / area of arable land Residential density: The number of people living in an urban area / area of residential land Urban density: The number of people inhabiting an urban area / total area of urban land Ecological optimum: The density of population that can be supported by the natural resources Demography Human geography Idealized population Optimum population Population genetics Population health Population momentum Population pyramid Rural transport problem Small population size Distance sampling List of population concern organizations List of countries by population density List of cities by population density List of city districts by population density List of English districts by population density List of European cities proper by population density List of United States cities by population density List of islands by population density List of U.
S. states by population density List of Australian suburbs by population density Selected Current and Historic City, Ward & Neighborhood Density Duncan Smith / UCL Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis. "World Population Density". Exploratory map shows data from the Global Human Settlement Layer produced by the European Commission JRC and the CIESIN Columbia University
Muskingum County, Ohio
Muskingum County is a county located in the U. S. state of Ohio. As of the 2010 census, the population was 86,074, its county seat is Zanesville. Nearly bisected by the Muskingum River, the county name is based on a Delaware American Indian word translated as "town by the river" or "elk's eye". Muskingum County comprises the Zanesville, OH Micropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Columbus-Marion-Zanesville, OH Combined Statistical Area. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 673 square miles, of which 665 square miles is land and 8.0 square miles is water. It is the fourth-largest county in Ohio by land area. Coshocton County Guernsey County Noble County Morgan County Perry County Licking County As of the census of 2000, there were 84,585 people, 32,518 households, 22,860 families residing in the county; the population density was 127 people per square mile. There were 35,163 housing units at an average density of 53 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 93.91% White, 4.01% Black or African American, 0.21% Native American, 0.27% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.20% from other races, 1.37% from two or more races.
0.52% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 32,518 households out of which 33.30% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.30% were married couples living together, 12.00% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.70% were non-families. 24.90% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.90% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.53 and the average family size was 3.01. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.90% under the age of 18, 9.40% from 18 to 24, 27.70% from 25 to 44, 22.60% from 45 to 64, 14.30% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 92.00 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.40 males. The median income for a household in the county was $35,185, the median income for a family was $41,938. Males had a median income of $31,537 versus $22,151 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,533.
About 9.90% of families and 12.90% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.90% of those under age 18 and 10.00% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 86,074 people, 34,271 households, 23,125 families residing in the county; the population density was 129.5 inhabitants per square mile. There were 38,074 housing units at an average density of 57.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 93.0% white, 3.8% black or African American, 0.3% Asian, 0.2% American Indian, 0.2% from other races, 2.5% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 0.8% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 25.2% were German, 15.5% were Irish, 11.1% were American, 10.9% were English. Of the 34,271 households, 32.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.1% were married couples living together, 13.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.5% were non-families, 26.9% of all households were made up of individuals.
The average household size was 2.46 and the average family size was 2.95. The median age was 39.5 years. The median income for a household in the county was $39,538 and the median income for a family was $48,425. Males had a median income of $40,183 versus $28,668 for females; the per capita income for the county was $20,561. About 13.0% of families and 16.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.6% of those under age 18 and 9.3% of those age 65 or over. The County is served by 7 high schools: East Muskingum High School located in New Concord, Franklin Local High School located in Duncan Falls, Maysville High School located in South Zanesville, Roscrans High School, Tri-Valley High School located in Dresden, West Muskingum High School located in Zanesville, Zanesville High School which, as the name implies, is in Zanesville; each high school is the only high school in school districts of the same name, the exception being Roscrans as the district is referred to as Bishop Fenwick.
The county is served by three colleges, Muskingum University, Zane State College, a branch campus of Ohio University known as Ohio University Zanesville. The Muskingum County Library System serves the communities of Muskingum County from its administrative offices in Zanesville, Ohio; this includes service to Dresden, Duncan Falls, New Concord, Roseville. In 2005, the library loaned more than 918,000 items to its 73,000 cardholders. Total holding are over 328,000 volumes with over 190 periodical subscriptions; the Wilds is a 9,154 acres wildlife preserve open to visitation for a fee. Zanesville https://web.archive.org/web/20160715023447/http://www.ohiotownships.org/township-websites Duncan Falls East Fultonham North Zanesville Pleasant Grove Trinway Irville - Former populated place in Licking Township, removed for the creation of Dillon Lake. Mattingly Settlement - Named for the many members of the Mattingly family who settled in Muskingum Township. National Register of Historic Places listings in Muskingum County, Ohio King, John W..
The Silent Dead, or Roll of Honor. Zanesville, Ohio: Logan & Dodd. LCCN 01021599. OL 22893426M – via Internet Archive. Thomas, William Lewis.. History of Southeastern Ohio and the Muskingum Valley, 1788-1928. In
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
United States Navy
The United States Navy is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States. It is the largest and most capable navy in the world and it has been estimated that in terms of tonnage of its active battle fleet alone, it is larger than the next 13 navies combined, which includes 11 U. S. allies or partner nations. With the highest combined battle fleet tonnage and the world's largest aircraft carrier fleet, with eleven in service, two new carriers under construction. With 319,421 personnel on active duty and 99,616 in the Ready Reserve, the Navy is the third largest of the service branches, it has 282 deployable combat vessels and more than 3,700 operational aircraft as of March 2018, making it the second-largest air force in the world, after the United States Air Force. The U. S. Navy traces its origins to the Continental Navy, established during the American Revolutionary War and was disbanded as a separate entity shortly thereafter.
The U. S. Navy played a major role in the American Civil War by blockading the Confederacy and seizing control of its rivers, it played the central role in the World War II defeat of Imperial Japan. The US Navy emerged from World War II as the most powerful navy in the world; the 21st century U. S. Navy maintains a sizable global presence, deploying in strength in such areas as the Western Pacific, the Mediterranean, the Indian Ocean, it is a blue-water navy with the ability to project force onto the littoral regions of the world, engage in forward deployments during peacetime and respond to regional crises, making it a frequent actor in U. S. foreign and military policy. The Navy is administratively managed by the Department of the Navy, headed by the civilian Secretary of the Navy; the Department of the Navy is itself a division of the Department of Defense, headed by the Secretary of Defense. The Chief of Naval Operations is the most senior naval officer serving in the Department of the Navy.
The mission of the Navy is to maintain and equip combat-ready Naval forces capable of winning wars, deterring aggression and maintaining freedom of the seas. The U. S. Navy is a seaborne branch of the military of the United States; the Navy's three primary areas of responsibility: The preparation of naval forces necessary for the effective prosecution of war. The maintenance of naval aviation, including land-based naval aviation, air transport essential for naval operations, all air weapons and air techniques involved in the operations and activities of the Navy; the development of aircraft, tactics, technique and equipment of naval combat and service elements. U. S. Navy training manuals state that the mission of the U. S. Armed Forces is "to be prepared to conduct prompt and sustained combat operations in support of the national interest." As part of that establishment, the U. S. Navy's functions comprise sea control, power projection and nuclear deterrence, in addition to "sealift" duties, it follows as certain as that night succeeds the day, that without a decisive naval force we can do nothing definitive, with it, everything honorable and glorious.
Naval power... is the natural defense of the United States The Navy was rooted in the colonial seafaring tradition, which produced a large community of sailors and shipbuilders. In the early stages of the American Revolutionary War, Massachusetts had its own Massachusetts Naval Militia; the rationale for establishing a national navy was debated in the Second Continental Congress. Supporters argued that a navy would protect shipping, defend the coast, make it easier to seek out support from foreign countries. Detractors countered that challenging the British Royal Navy the world's preeminent naval power, was a foolish undertaking. Commander in Chief George Washington resolved the debate when he commissioned the ocean-going schooner USS Hannah to interdict British merchant ships and reported the captures to the Congress. On 13 October 1775, the Continental Congress authorized the purchase of two vessels to be armed for a cruise against British merchant ships. S. Navy; the Continental Navy achieved mixed results.
In August 1785, after the Revolutionary War had drawn to a close, Congress had sold Alliance, the last ship remaining in the Continental Navy due to a lack of funds to maintain the ship or support a navy. In 1972, the Chief of Naval Operations, Admiral Elmo Zumwalt, authorized the Navy to celebrate its birthday on 13 October to honor the establishment of the Continental Navy in 1775; the United States was without a navy for nearly a decade, a state of affairs that exposed U. S. maritime merchant ships to a series of attacks by the Barbary pirates. The sole armed maritime presence between 1790 and the launching of the U. S. Navy's first warships in 1797 was the U. S. Revenue-Marine, the primary predecessor of the U. S. Coast Guard. Although the USRCS conducted operations against the pirates, their depredations far outstripped its abilities and Congress passed the Naval Act of 1794 that established a permanent standing navy on 27 March 1794; the Naval Act ordered the construction and manning of six frigates and, by October 1797, the first three were brought into service: USS United States, USS Constellation, USS Constitution.
Due to his strong posture on having a strong standing Navy during this period, John Adams is "often called the father of the American Navy". In 1798–99 the Navy was involved in an undeclared Quasi-War with France. From 18
Washington County, Ohio
Washington County is a county located in the U. S. state of Ohio. As of the 2010 census, the population was 61,778, its county seat is Marietta. The county, the oldest in the state, is named for George Washington. Washington County comprises the Marietta, OH Micropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Parkersburg-Marietta-Vienna, WV-OH Combined Statistical Area. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 640 square miles, of which 632 square miles is land and 8.0 square miles is water. It is the fifth-largest county in Ohio by land area. Washington County's southern and eastern boundary is the Ohio River; the Muskingum River, Little Muskingum River, Duck Creek, the Little Hocking River flow through the county to the Ohio River. Noble County Monroe County Tyler County, West Virginia Pleasants County, West Virginia Wood County, West Virginia Athens County Morgan County Wayne National Forest Boord State Nature Preserve As of the census of 2000, there were 63,251 people, 25,137 households, 17,671 families residing in the county.
The population density was 100 people per square mile. There were 27,760 housing units at an average density of 44 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 97.33% White, 0.92% Black or African American, 0.24% Native American, 0.43% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 0.13% from other races, 0.89% from two or more races. 0.51% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 29.5% were of German, 23.4% American, 12.3% English and 11.0% Irish ancestry according to Census 2000. There were 25,137 households out of which 30.90% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.90% were married couples living together, 9.10% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.70% were non-families. 25.40% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.20% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.45 and the average family size was 2.93. In the county, the population was spread out with 23.50% under the age of 18, 8.80% from 18 to 24, 27.50% from 25 to 44, 25.10% from 45 to 64, 15.00% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 94.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.00 males. The median income for a household in the county was $34,275, the median income for a family was $41,605. Males had a median income of $32,034 versus $21,346 for females; the per capita income for the county was $18,082. About 8.60% of families and 11.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.70% of those under age 18 and 10.20% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 61,778 people, 25,587 households, 17,092 families residing in the county; the population density was 97.8 inhabitants per square mile. There were 28,367 housing units at an average density of 44.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 96.5% white, 1.1% black or African American, 0.6% Asian, 0.2% American Indian, 0.2% from other races, 1.5% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 0.7% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 29.3% were German, 16.7% were Irish, 11.8% were English, 10.7% were American.
Of the 25,587 households, 28.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.5% were married couples living together, 10.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.2% were non-families, 28.1% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.34 and the average family size was 2.84. The median age was 43.0 years. The median income for a household in the county was $41,654 and the median income for a family was $53,131. Males had a median income of $42,460 versus $28,828 for females; the per capita income for the county was $22,786. About 10.8% of families and 15.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.5% of those under age 18 and 10.0% of those age 65 or over. Washington County has a 3-member Board of County Commissioners that oversee the various County departments, similar to all but 2 of the 88 Ohio counties. Washington County's elected commissioners are: Rick Walters, David White, Ron Feathers. Washington County is the most Republican county in eastern Ohio.
In 1976, it was one of only two counties on the eastern Ohio border to vote for President Gerald Ford, in 1996, it was the only county on the eastern border to vote for Bob Dole. Only six Democratic Party presidential candidates have won the county from 1872 to the present day, the most recent being Lyndon B. Johnson in his statewide & national landslide of 1964. There are six high schools. Belpre Golden Eagles Beverly Fort Frye Cadets New Matamoras Frontier Cougars Marietta Tigers Vincent Warren Warriors Waterford WildcatsThere is the Washington County Career Center, a tech school, Washington State Community College, a two-year college, Marietta College, a four-year college. All are located in Marietta. Belpre Marietta Beverly Lower Salem Lowell Macksburg Matamoras https://web.archive.org/web/20160715023447/http://www.ohiotownships.org/township-websites Devola Little Hocking Newport Reno Vincent Waterford Covered bridges of southeast Ohio National Register of Historic Places listings in Washington County, Ohio Israel Ward Andrews, Washington County, the Early Settlement of Ohio: Being the Centennial Historical Address, before the Citizens of Washington County.
Cincinnati, OH: P. G. Thomson, 1877. Martin Register Andrews and Seymour J. Hathaway, History of Marietta and Washington County and Representative Citizens. Chicag
Time in the United States
Time in the United States, by law, is divided into nine standard time zones covering the states and its possessions, with most of the United States observing daylight saving time for the spring and fall months. The time zone boundaries and DST observance are regulated by the Department of Transportation. Official and precise timekeeping services are provided by two federal agencies: the National Institute of Standards and Technology; the clocks run by these services are kept synchronized with each other as well as with those of other international timekeeping organizations. It is the combination of the time zone and daylight saving rules, along with the timekeeping services, which determines the legal civil time for any U. S. location at any moment. Before the adoption of four standard time zones for the continental United States, many towns and cities set their clocks to noon when the sun passed their local meridian, pre-corrected for the equation of time on the date of observation, to form local mean solar time.
Noon occurred at different times but time differences between distant locations were noticeable prior to the 19th century because of long travel times and the lack of long-distance instant communications prior to the development of the telegraph. The use of local solar time became awkward as railways and telecommunications improved. American railroads maintained many different time zones during the late 1800s; each train station set its own clock making it difficult to coordinate train schedules and confusing passengers. Time calculation became a serious problem for people traveling by train, according to the Library of Congress; every city in the United States used a different time standard so there were more than 300 local sun times to choose from. Time zones were therefore a compromise, relaxing the complex geographic dependence while still allowing local time to be approximate with mean solar time. Railroad managers tried to address the problem by establishing 100 railroad time zones, but this was only a partial solution to the problem.
Weather service chief Cleveland Abbe had needed to introduce four standard time zones for his weather stations, an idea which he offered to the railroads. Operators of the new railroad lines needed a new time plan that would offer a uniform train schedule for departures and arrivals. Four standard time zones for the continental United States were introduced at noon on November 18, 1883, when the telegraph lines transmitted time signals to all major cities. In October 1884, the International Meridian Conference at Washington DC adopted a proposal which stated that the prime meridian for longitude and timekeeping should be one that passes through the centre of the transit instrument at the Greenwich Observatory in the United Kingdom; the conference therefore established the Greenwich Meridian as the prime meridian and Greenwich Mean Time as the world's time standard. The US time-zone system grew from this, in which all zones referred back to GMT on the prime meridian. In 1960, the International Radio Consultative Committee formalized the concept of Coordinated Universal Time, which became the new international civil time standard.
UTC is, within about 1 second, mean solar time at 0°. UTC does not observe daylight saving time. For most purposes, UTC is considered interchangeable with GMT, but GMT is no longer defined by the scientific community. UTC is one of several related successors to GMT. Standard time zones in the United States are defined at the federal level by law 15 USC §260; the federal law establishes the transition dates and times at which daylight saving time occurs, if observed. It is the authority of the Secretary of Transportation, in coordination with the states, to determine which regions will observe which of the standard time zones and if they will observe daylight saving time; as of August 9, 2007, the standard time zones are defined in terms of hourly offsets from UTC. Prior to this they were based upon the mean solar time at several meridians 15° apart west of Greenwich. Only the full-time zone names listed below are official. View the standard time zone boundaries here; the United States uses nine standard time zones.
As defined by US law they are: From east to west, the four time zones of the contiguous United States are: Eastern Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Atlantic coast and the eastern two thirds of the Ohio Valley. Central Time Zone, which comprises the Gulf Coast, Mississippi Valley, most of the Great Plains. Mountain Time Zone, which comprises the states and portions of states that include the Rocky Mountains and the western quarter of the Great Plains. Pacific Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Pacific coast, plus Nevada and the Idaho panhandle. Alaska Time Zone, which comprises most of the state of Alaska. Hawaii-Aleutian Time Zone, which includes Hawaii and most of the length of the Aleutian Islands chain. Samoa Time Zone, which comprises American Samoa. Chamorro Time Zone, which comprises Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. Atlantic Time Zone, which comprises Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands; some United States Minor Outlying Islands are outside the time zones defined by 15 U.
S. C. § exist in waters defined by Nautical time. In practice, military crews may