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Nogales, Arizona

Nogales is a city in Santa Cruz County, Arizona. The population was 20,837 at the 2010 census and estimated 20,188 in 2018. Nogales forms part of the larger Tucson-Nogales combined statistical area, with a total population of 1,027,683 as of the 2010 Census; the city is the county seat of Santa Cruz County. Nogales, borders the city of Nogales, Mexico, is Arizona's largest international border community; the southern terminus of Interstate 19 is located in Nogales at the U. S.-Mexico border. The highways meeting in Nogales are a major road intersection in the CANAMEX Corridor, connecting Canada, the United States, Mexico. Nogales is the beginning of the Arizona Sun Corridor, an economically important trade region stretching from Nogales to Prescott, including the Tucson and Phoenix metropolitan areas. Nogales is home to four international ports of entry, including the Morley Pedestrian Port of Entry, Dennis Deconcini Pedestrian and Passenger Vehicle Port of Entry, Nogales International Airport, the Mariposa Port of Entry.

The Nogales-Mariposa Port of Entry has twelve passenger vehicle inspection lanes and eight commercial inspection lanes. Due to its location on the border and its major ports of entry, Nogales funnels an estimated $30 billion worth of international trade into Arizona and the United States, per year, in fresh produce and manufactured goods from Mexico and the world through the deep sea port in Guaymas, Mexico; this trade helps to support tens of thousands of jobs and the overall economies in Ambos Nogales and throughout the American state of Arizona and the Mexican state of Sonora. The name Nogales means "black walnuts" in Spanish, the walnut trees which once grew abundantly in the mountain pass between the cities of Nogales and Nogales, can still be found around the town. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 20.8 square miles, all of it land. The city is at an elevation of 3,829 feet. Nogales has a semi-arid steppe climate, less hot and more rainy than a typical arid climate classification such as Phoenix.

In the winter months, Nogales averages in the mid to upper 60s, with January averaging daily highs of around 63 °F or 17.2 °C. Lows settle just below the freezing mark on a majority of nights, but it is not uncommon to see temperatures tumble below 25 °F or −3.9 °C on some winter nights. On the other hand, in the summer months, highs average between 90 and 100 °F, with the month of June being the hottest with an average daytime high of 96 °F or 35.6 °C. Nighttime lows for the summer months remain in the upper 50s and lower 60s for the duration of the season; the Arizona Monsoon runs through July and August, these months see eight inches or more of combined rainfall, which brings the average annual precipitation for Nogales to about 16 inches or 410 millimetres. Some monsoon season storms are capable of producing several inches of rain in a short amount of time, creating flash flood hazards. Nogales’ all-time highest recorded temperature is 112 °F or 44.4 °C, reached on June 26, 1990. The lowest recorded temperature was −4 °F or −20 °C on December 8, 1978.

The name "Nogales" is derived from the Spanish word for "walnut" or "walnut tree." It refers to the large stands of walnut trees that once stood in the mountain pass where Nogales is located. Nogales was at the beginning of the 1775–1776 Juan Bautista de Anza Expedition as it entered the present day U. S. from New Spain, the town is now on the Juan Bautista de Anza National Historic Trail. On the second floor of the 1904 Nogales Courthouse is a small room dedicated to the 1775–1776 Anza Expedition. In 1841, a land grant from the Mexican government to the Elías family established Los Nogales de Elías. Following the Gadsden purchase in 1853, Nogales became a part of the United States of America. In 1880, Russian immigrant Jacob Isaacson built a trading post at present-day Nogales; the U. S. Postal Service opened the Isaacson post office but renamed it as Nogales in 1883. In 1915, according to historian David Leighton, Sonora Gov. Jose M. Maytorena ordered construction of an 11-wire fence, separating Nogales, Sonora from Nogales, but it was taken down four months later.

On August 27, 1918, a battle between United States Army forces and Mexican militia - civilian in composition - took place. Culminating as the result of a decade's worth of tensions originating from the Mexican Revolution and earlier battles in Nogales along the border in 1913 and 1915, the main consequence of the 1918 violence saw the building of the first permanent border wall between Nogales and Nogales, along the unobstructed boundary line on International Street; the economy of Nogales is dependent on the cross-border trade through its Ports of Entry by produce distributors and American-based manufacturing plants in Nogales and throughout the rest of the Mexican states of Sonora and Sinaloa. Most of Nogales' economy is based on agribusiness and produce distributors, which comes from large farms in the Mexican agri-belt. Despite its small population, Nogales receives much patronage from its bordering sister-city, Sonora, Mexico. Most observers guess the population of Nogales, Sonora, at 300,000.

International commerce is a big part of Nogales’ economy. More than 60 percent of Nogales’ sales tax comes from the estimated 30,000 Mexican shoppers crossing the border daily. Nogales and Nogales, are home to one of the largest maquiladora clusters; this enables American manufacturing plants on both sides of the border to take advantage of favorable wage and operating costs and excellent t

Katarina Branković

Katarina Branković known as Kantakuzina was the Countess of Celje, through the marriage with Count of Celje Ulrich II. A Serbian princess, she was the daughter of Despot Đurađ Branković and Byzantine princess Irene Kantakouzene, she is remembered for writing the Varaždin Apostol, her endowment of the Rmanj Monastery. Katarina got married for Ulrich II, Count of Celje on 20 of April 1434; this was political marriage with intent to ensure western support to Serbian Despotate. Her sister Mara Branković was married to Sultan Murad II to ensure support from the east. Kantakuzina Katarina Branković gave birth to three children, Herman and Elisabeth. Pope Pius II once said that Kantakuzina was fair. In 1453 or 1454 she entrusted creation of Varaždin Apostol, hand-written Orthodox liturgical book and oldest preserved text in Cyrillic from the territory of today's Croatia, to a group of three transcribers. After Ulrich II was killed in Siege of Belgrade in 1456, Katarina gave up all of her possessions in modern-day Croatia and Slovenia except of Krško in exchange for yearly allowances of 2,000 Ducats, in 1460 she sold all of her possessions in Slavonia to Holy Roman Emperor Frederick III for 29,000 Goldguldens.

She decided to start traveling across Italy, Dubrovnik and in the end came back to Old Serbia to visit her sister Mara Branković, widow of Ottoman Sultan Murad II. Together with her sister she helped in the conclusion of Treaty of Constantinople after the Ottoman–Venetian War. To that end, she was sending her delegates to Venice between 1470 and 1472, along with her sister she led the Venetian envoys to Istanbul. After the death of her sister Mara in 1487 Katarina took the care about Mount Athos monasteries. Prior to her death Katarina relinquish her possession of Krško and right on yearly allowances, she died in 1492 in village Konče. Rmanj Monastery in Martin Brod, dedicated to St. Nicolas Mirlikijski. Kantakuzina Katarina Branković Serbian Orthodox Secondary School in Zagreb is a coeducational gymnasium of Serbian Orthodox Church that bears Katarina's name. Metropolitanate of Zagreb and Ljubljana was awarding Order of Kantakuzina Katarina Branković. Varaždin Apostol Kassia Anna Komnene Jefimija Princess Milica of Serbia Maria Angelina Doukaina Palaiologina Jelena Balšić Helen of Anjou Angelina of Serbia Mara Branković Olivera Despina Simonida

Gender disparities in health

WHO has defined health as "a state of complete physical and social well-being and not the absence of disease or infirmity." Identified by the 2012 World Development Report as one of two key human capital endowments, health can influence an individual's ability to reach his or her full potential in society. Yet while gender equality has made the most progress in areas such as education and labor force participation, health inequality between men and women continues to plague many societies today. While both males and females face health disparities and women experience a majority of health disparities; this comes from the fact that many cultural ideologies and practices have structured society in a way whereby women are more vulnerable to abuse and mistreatment, making them more prone to illnesses and early death. Women are restricted from receiving many opportunities, such as education and paid labor, that can help improve their accessibility to better health care resources. Health disparity has been defined by the World Health Organization as the differences in health care received by different groups of people that are not only unnecessary and avoidable but unfair and unjust.

The existence of health disparity implies that health equity does not exist in many parts of the world. Equity in health refers to the situation whereby every individual has a fair opportunity to attain their full health potential. Overall, the term "health disparities", or "health inequalities", is understood as the differences in health between people who are situated in different positions in a socioeconomic hierarchy; the social structures of many countries perpetuate the marginalization and oppression of women in the form of cultural norms and legal codes. As a result of this unequal social order, women are relegated into positions where they have less access and control over healthcare resources, making women more vulnerable to suffering from health problems than men. For example, women living in areas with a patriarchal system are less to receive tertiary education or to be employed in the paid labor market due to gender discrimination; as a result, female life expectancy at birth and nutritional well-being, immunity against communicable and non-communicable diseases, are lower than those of men.

While a majority of the global health gender disparities is weighted against women, there are situations in which men tend to fare poorer. One such instance is armed conflicts, where men are the immediate victims. A study of conflicts in 13 countries from 1955 to 2002 found that 81% of all violent war deaths were male. Apart from armed conflicts, areas with high incidence of violence, such as regions controlled by drug cartels see men experiencing higher mortality rates; this stems from social beliefs that associate ideals of masculinity with aggressive, confrontational behavior. Lastly and drastic changes in economic environments and the loss of social safety nets, in particular social subsidies and food stamps, have been linked to higher levels of alcohol consumption and psychological stress among men, leading to a spike in male mortality rates; this is because such situations makes it harder for men to provide for their family, a task, long regarded as the "essence of masculinity." A retrospective analyses of people infected with the common cold found that doctors underrate the symptoms of men, are more willing to attribute symptoms and illness to women than men.

Women live longer than men in all countries, across all age groups, for which reliable records exist. In The United States, men are less healthy than women across all social classes. Non-white men are unhealthy. Men represent a majority of on the job deaths. Further, medical doctors provide men with less service, less advice, spend less time with men than they do with women per medical encounter. At birth, boys outnumber girls with the ratio of 106 male to 100 female children. However, after conception, biology favors women. Research has shown that if men and women received similar nutrition, medical attention, general health care, women would live longer than men; this is because women, on a whole, are much more resistant to diseases and much less prone to debilitating genetic conditions. However, despite medical and scientific research that shows that when given the same care as males, females tend to have better survival rates than males, the ratio of women to men in developing regions such as South Asia, West Asia, China can be as low as 0.94, or lower.

This deviation from the natural male to female sex ratio has been described by Indian philosopher and economist Amartya Sen as the "missing women" phenomenon. According to the 2012 World Development Report, the number of missing women is estimated to be about 1.5 million women per year, with a majority of the women missing in India and China. In many developing regions, women experience high levels of mortality. Many of these deaths result from maternal mortality and HIV/AIDS infection. Although only 1,900 maternal deaths were recorded in high-income nations in 2008, India and Sub-Saharan Africa experienced a combined total of 266,000 deaths from pregnancy-related causes. In Somalia and Chad, one in every 14 women die from causes related to child birth. In addition, the HIV/AIDS epidemic contributes to female mortality; the case is true for Sub-Saharan Africa, where women account for 60% of all adult HIV infections. Women tend to have poorer health outcomes than men for several reasons ranging from sustaining greater risk to diseases to experiencing higher mortality rates.

In the Population Studies Center Research Report by Rachel Snow that compares the disability-adjus

Japanese-Jewish common ancestry theory

The Japanese-Jewish common ancestry theory is a fringe theory that appeared in the 17th century as a hypothesis which claimed the Japanese people were the main part of the Ten Lost Tribes of Israel. A version portrayed them as descendants of a tribe of Jewish Nestorians; some versions of the theory applied to the whole population, but others only claimed that a specific group within the Japanese people had descended from Jews. Tudor Parfitt writes that "the spread of the fantasy of Israelite origin... forms a consistent feature of the Western colonial enterprise", stating, It is in fact in Japan that we can trace the most remarkable evolution in the Pacific of an imagined Judaic past. As elsewhere in the world, the theory that aspects of the country were to be explained via an Israelite model was introduced by Western agents. Researcher and author Jon Entine emphasizes that DNA evidence excludes the possibility of significant links between Japanese and Jews. During the Age of Discovery, European explorers attempted to connect many peoples with whom they first came into contact to the Ten Lost Tribes, sometimes in conjunction with attempts to introduce Christian missionaries.

The first person to identify the Lost Tribes with an East Asian nation was João Rodrigues, a Jesuit missionary and interpreter. In 1608, he argued, he believed that Laozi took their ideas from Judaism. Rodrigues abandoned this theory. In his Historia da Igreja do Japão he argued that Japan was populated in two waves of immigration from the mainland, one group originating from Chekiang, the other from Korea. According to Parfitt, "the first full-blown development of the theory was put forward by Nicholas McLeod, a Scot who started his career in the herring industry before he ended up in Japan as a missionary". In 1870 McLeod published Epitome of the Ancient History of Japan. According to Zvi Ben-Dor Benite, MacLeod had been a missionary who spent decades in Japan and Korea "searching for the true Israelites". and Illustrations to the Epitome of the Ancient History of Japan, claiming that the Japanese people included descendants of the Lost Tribes of Israel, who formed the aristocracy and traditional priestly castes.

Evidence cited for this theory included similarities between the legends of Emperor Jimmu and Moses, the presence of "Portuguese-Jewish" racial features on some Japanese, similarities between Shinto and Judaism. These theories had little impact in Japan, although they were translated into Japanese and published in Japan. However, in 1908, Saeki Yoshiro, a professor at Waseda University, published a book in which he developed a variant on the theory. Yoshiro was an expert on Japanese Nestorianism. Saeki theorised that the Hata clan, which arrived from Korea and settled in Japan in the third century, was a Jewish-Nestorian tribe. According to Ben-Ami Shillony, "Saeki's writings spread the theory about'the common ancestry of the Japanese and the Jews' in Japan, a theory, endorsed by some Christian groups."There is no evidence available, including modern DNA analysis, to support this hypothesis. A published study into the genetic origins of Japanese people does not support a genealogical link as put forward by Saeki.

The Japanese-Jewish common ancestor theory has been seen as one of the attempts by European racial scientists to explain Japan's rapid modernization, in contrast to that of the other "inferior" or "degraded" Asians the Chinese. The theory itself, was taken in different directions; the same year the book by Saeki on the theory was published an article promoting yet another version of the theory appeared in Israel's Messenger, a magazine published by the Shanghai Zionist Federation. Whereas McLeod had claimed that the priest caste and ruling class of Japan were descendants of Jews, the article published by the Shanghai group offered a more proletarian version of the theory. Shillony writes that: Its author claimed, contrary to what McLeod had written, that it was the outcasts of Japan, the Eta, who were the descendants of Jews; the author of the article said that, like the Jews in the West, the Japanese Eta were hard working people associated with the shoemaking industry who lived in ghettos, "not that the Japanese compel them to do so, but they seem to prefer to be isolated from the rest of the population".

The author claimed that the Eta observed Jewish customs: "In the ghetto of Nagasaki, for example, the Ety observe the Sabbath religiously. Not only do they not work on that day of the week, but they do not smoke nor kindle fires, just like the Orthodox Jews."According to Shillony, "This ludicrous and groundless story was neither challenged nor refuted in issues of the magazine.""There is some evidence that small bands of Jews settled in China around 240 BCE." Ben-Ami Shillony describes a letter subsequently published by the same magazine, written by Elizabeth A. Gordon, a former lady-in-waiting to Queen Victoria, a prominent Christian Zionist. Gordon attempts to link Japan to British Israelism the view that the British royal family were of Israelite descent. Gordon was well known in Japan, where she was researching Shingon Buddhism, she claimed, had Christian origins. In her 1921 letter she adopted a "fantastic chain of reasoning" to prove that "the meeting between the Japanese and British crown princes signified the long-awaited reunion of Judah and Israel".

Gordon had some influence at the time in Japan. Israel–Japan relations Khazar theory of Ashkenazi ancestry Makuya Theories of Pashtun origin Theory of Kashmiri descent from lost tribes of I


In computing, D3DX is a deprecated high level API library, written to supplement Microsoft's Direct3D graphics API. The D3DX library was introduced in Direct3D 7, subsequently was improved in Direct3D 9, it provides classes for common calculations on vectors and colors, calculating look-at and projection matrices, spline interpolations, several more complicated tasks, such as compiling or assembling shaders used for 3D graphic programming, compressed skeletal animation storage and matrix stacks. There are several functions that provide complex operations over 3D meshes like tangent-space computation, mesh simplification, precomputed radiance transfer, optimizing for vertex cache friendliness and strip reordering, generators for 3D text meshes. 2D features include classes for drawing screen-space lines and sprite based particle systems. Spatial functions include various intersection routines, conversion from/to barycentric coordinates and bounding box and sphere generators; the D3DX library contains pre-written routines for doing things common to most 2D/3D applications, such as games.

Since the Direct3D API is low-level, using the D3DX library is much simpler. In 2012, Microsoft announced that D3DX would be deprecated in the Windows 8 SDK, along with other development frameworks such as XNA. Shader effects, texture management, geometry optimizations and mesh models are available as separate sources published through CodePlex; the mathematical constructs of D3DX, like vectors and matrices, would be consolidated with XNAMath into a DirectXMath and spherical harmonics math is provided as separate source. The D3DX library follows. Functionality is accessed using C++-like interfaces; the ID3DXEffect interface is used for binding FX shaders. It supports automatic mapping of named shader parameters to hardware constant registers, parameter pools, mapping textures to available samplers, specifying'techniques' and modifying render states; the ID3DXFont interface can be used to draw 2D text. See D3DXCreateText that creates 3D meshes of text; the ID3DXLine interface can be used for drawing anti-aliased screen-space lines with pattern.

The ID3DXMesh interface is used for storage of meshes and mesh optimization for vertex cache friendliness and strip reordering. Some functions in D3DX operate on this interface. An example is D3DXComputeTangentFrame for creating a tangent-space frame for effects like normal and parallax mapping. A descendant of this class is ID3DXPMesh, it is used for Precomputed Radiance Transfer - a technique similar to spherical harmonics lighting, used for precomputed global illumination and soft ambient lighting. The ID3DXSprite interface is a C++ class used for drawing a 2D image to the screen known as a sprite in computer graphics. In DirectX 7 this was done using the DirectDraw API, deprecated; the programmer needs only to call the ID3DXSprite object's Begin method to set up the render state and world transform for 2D drawing, call the Draw method to add textures to the list to be drawn and call the End method to draw the images to the screen and restore the original graphics state. A common criticism of the D3DXSprite was that it was slow but this issue has been addressed as of Direct3D 9.

It computes the tangent-space frame of a mesh, used for effects like normal/bump mapping, parallax mapping and anisotropic lighting models. It handles vertices at tangent-space discontinuities by making duplicates, thus solving the hairy ball problem, it doesn't handle reversed UV winding of faces so models with mirrored texture mapping may run into lighting troubles because of this. D3DX documentation at MSDN Living Without D3DX

Warehouse Theatre

The Warehouse Theatre was a professional producing theatre in the centre of Croydon, England. Based in an oak-beamed Victorian former cement warehouse, it had 100 seats; the theatre closed in 2012 following withdrawal of funding and the discovery, after a survey, of serious faults in the building. The Warehouse was known for its commitment to new writing, including an annual International Playwriting Festival, in partnership with the Extra Candoni Festival of Udine in Italy and Theatro Ena in Cyprus. Youth theatre was an important feature of the theatre, with a resident Croydon Young Peoples' Theatre and including an annual collaboration with the Croydon-based Brit School; the Warehouse Theatre was founded by Sam Kelly, Richard Ireson and Adrian Shergold when lunchtime theatre was popular, with the aim of presenting a varied season of plays with an emphasis on new work to the highest possible standards. The first production — Hell's Angels on Typewriters by Angela Wye — opened in May 1977, the then-50-seat auditorium became an instant favourite with local audiences for lunchtime performances whilst sharing the building with a Caribbean night club.

In 1978, the Arts Council recognised the work of the theatre by awarding a major grant, in 1979 the nightclub closed, evening performances were introduced and the seating capacity was increased to 100. Respected touring companies began to visit the theatre between in-house productions. Cabaret evenings were introduced, with performers including Lenny Henry, French & Saunders, Rik Mayall, Ben Elton, Julian Clary. More plays were premiered, with many being specially commissioned by successful writers, such as Sue Townsend, who wrote Groping for Words and Womberang for the theatre. After the withdrawal of an Arts Council grant in 1984, potential closure was averted when the London Borough of Croydon and the GLC agreed to replace the grant. Following a brief closure for major refurbishment, including the building of the bar, the theatre re-opened in 1985 under the directorship of Ted Craig with the premiere of David Allen's Cheapside. Now concentrating on new playwriting, initiatives such as the South London Playwriting Festival were launched, giving an invaluable platform to works by both new and established writers.

Kevin Hood's new play Beached won the first festival in 1986 and he became Resident Playwright, writing both The Astronomer's Garden and Sugar Hill Blues for the theatre. The building was demolished on 26/27 October 2013; the South London Playwriting Festival became the International Playwriting Festival, reflecting the number of entries from all over the globe. Finalists included playwrights from the United States and Tobago, Australia and Bulgaria, with the 1994 winner, Dino Mahoney, being half Irish, half Greek, living in Hong Kong. Mahoney's selected play Yo Yo had its premiere in April 1995. In 1996, the Warehouse Theatre inaugurated a partnership with the leading Italian playwriting festival, the Premio Candoni Arta Terme and in 1999 a partnership was formed with Theatro Ena in Cyprus providing selected writers with a window for further productions in Europe; the new writers discovered by the festival, including James Martin Charlton, Sheila Dewey, Richard Vincent, Mark Norfolk, Maggie Nevill and Roumen Shomov have gone on to further productions and screen contracts.

The Warehouse Theatre was a converted Victorian warehouse, built in 1882 for a sand and lime merchant. In spite of refurbishments, it still had several original features. There were picture tiles from the 1880s on the cellar under the main staircase, a "crab" winch and wall crane of unusual design in full working order on the side of the building. Early drawings show that the bar, opened in 1985, was sited in the old stable block, with the eating area above in the appropriately named "Hayloft" bar; the Victorian origin of the building had negative sides: the removal of a false ceiling in 1981 uncovered the planked roof and vast beams and tresses of the original holes in the original roof to let in the rain over audience and cast alike. For some years a new theatre has been planned in partnership with Stanhope / Schroders as part of their Ruskin Square development. Designed by Foster + Partners around a park setting with the Warehouse Theatre occupying a £5 million, 200 seat custom designed building.

Although a complete contrast to the existing Victorian warehouse, the new building has been designed to be as intimate as possible. As part of the redevelopment, a Boxpark retail park was opened on the site in October 2016. Croydon Arena was a proposed arena part of the Croydon Gateway re-generation scheme in the south London district of Croydon; the site is next to East Croydon station and was in the ownership of the rival development, Ruskin Square. The Arena scheme was backed by Croydon Council with developer partner Arrowcroft; the matter was the subject of a public inquiry that took place from September to November 2007. The full decision rejecting the Planning Application and the Compulsory Purchase Order was issued on the 31 July 2008 and 6 August 2008. On 4 May 2012 the Warehouse was placed into administration by the board of management, with debts of £100,000, following Croydon Council's decision to withdraw funding; the last performance was at the end of the run of Call Mr Robeson. A fund-raising appeal was launched to save the company.

A new company Warehouse Phoenix Limited was formed to continue the work of the theatre. It produced the annual International Playwriting Festival in June 2013 and a production of the selected play from the Festival The Road to Nowhere by Sean Cook was produced at the Ashcroft Theatre in Croydon in October 2013. Warehouse Phoenix website