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Noise music

Noise music is a category of music, characterised by the expressive use of noise within a musical context. This type of music tends to challenge the distinction, made in conventional musical practices between musical and non-musical sound. Noise music includes a wide range of musical styles and sound-based creative practices that feature noise as a primary aspect; some of the music can feature acoustically or electronically generated noise, both traditional and unconventional musical instruments. It may incorporate live machine sounds, non-musical vocal techniques, physically manipulated audio media, processed sound recordings, field recording, computer-generated noise, stochastic process, other randomly produced electronic signals such as distortion, static and hum. There may be emphasis on high volume levels and lengthy, continuous pieces. More noise music may contain aspects such as improvisation, extended technique and indeterminacy. In many instances, conventional use of melody, rhythm or pulse is dispensed with.

The Futurist art movement was important for the development of the noise aesthetic, as was the Dada art movement, the Surrealist and Fluxus art movements the Fluxus artists Joe Jones, Yasunao Tone, George Brecht, Robert Watts, Wolf Vostell, Dieter Roth, Yoko Ono, Nam June Paik, Walter De Maria's Ocean Music, Milan Knížák's Broken Music Composition, early LaMonte Young and Takehisa Kosugi. Contemporary noise music is associated with extreme volume and distortion. In the domain of experimental rock, examples include Lou Reed's Metal Machine Music, Sonic Youth. Other examples of music that contain noise-based features include works by Iannis Xenakis, Karlheinz Stockhausen, Helmut Lachenmann, Cornelius Cardew, Theatre of Eternal Music, Glenn Branca, Rhys Chatham, Ryoji Ikeda, Survival Research Laboratories, Coil, Cabaret Voltaire, Psychic TV, Jean Tinguely's recordings of his sound sculpture, the music of Hermann Nitsch's Orgien Mysterien Theater, La Monte Young's bowed gong works from the late 1960s.

Genres such as industrial, industrial techno, lo-fi music, black metal, sludge metal, glitch music employ noise-based materials. According to Danish noise and music theorist Torben Sangild, one single definition of noise in music is not possible. Sangild instead provides three basic definitions of noise: a musical acoustics definition, a second communicative definition based on distortion or disturbance of a communicative signal, a third definition based in subjectivity. According to Murray Schafer there are four types of noise: unwanted noise, unmusical sound, any loud sound, a disturbance in any signaling system. Definitions regarding what is considered noise, relative to music, have changed over time. Ben Watson, in his article Noise as Permanent Revolution, points out that Ludwig van Beethoven's Grosse Fuge "sounded like noise" to his audience at the time. Indeed, Beethoven's publishers persuaded him to remove it from its original setting as the last movement of a string quartet, he did so.

They subsequently published it separately. In attempting to define noise music and its value, Paul Hegarty cites the work of noted cultural critics Jean Baudrillard, Georges Bataille and Theodor Adorno and through their work traces the history of "noise", he defines noise at different times as "intrusive, unwanted", "lacking skill, not being appropriate" and "a threatening emptiness". He traces these trends starting with 18th-century concert hall music. Hegarty contends that it is John Cage's composition 4'33", in which an audience sits through four and a half minutes of "silence", that represents the beginning of noise music proper. For Hegarty, "noise music", as with 4'33", is that music made up of incidental sounds that represent the tension between "desirable" sound and undesirable "noise" that make up all noise music from Erik Satie to NON to Glenn Branca. Writing about Japanese noise music, Hegarty suggests that "it is not a genre, but it is a genre, multiple, characterized by this multiplicity...

Japanese noise music can come in all styles, referring to all other genres... but crucially asks the question of genre—what does it mean to be categorized, definable?". Writer Douglas Kahn, in his work Noise, Meat: A History of Sound in the Arts, discusses the use of noise as a medium and explores the ideas of Antonin Artaud, George Brecht, William Burroughs, Sergei Eisenstein, Allan Kaprow, Michael McClure, Yoko Ono, Jackson Pollock, Luigi Russolo, Dziga Vertov. In Noise: The Political Economy of Music, Jacques Attali explores the relationship between noise music and the future of society, he indicates that noise in music is a predictor of social change and demonstrates how noise acts as the subconscious of society—validating and testing new social and political realities. Like much of modern and contemporary art, noise music takes characteristics of the perceived negative traits of noise mentioned below and uses them in aesthetic and imaginative ways. In common use, the word noise means noise pollution.

In electronics noise can refer to the electronic signal corresponding to acoustic noise or the electronic signal corresponding to the noise seen as'snow' on a degraded television or video image. In signal processing or computing it can be con

Bias (statistics)

Statistical bias is a feature of a statistical technique or of its results whereby the expected value of the results differs from the true underlying quantitative parameter being estimated. The bias of an estimator of a parameter should not be confused with its degree of precision as the degree of precision is a measure of the sampling error. Mathematically Bias can be Defined as: Let T be a statistic used to estimate a parameter θ. If E = θ + b i a s b i a s is called the bias of the statistic T, where E represents the expected value of the statistics T. If b i a s = 0 E = θ. So, T is an unbiased estimator of the true parameter, say θ. A statistic is biased if it is calculated in such a way that it is systematically different from the population parameter being estimated; the following lists some types of biases. Selection bias involves individuals being more to be selected for study than others, biasing the sample; this can be termed Berksonian bias. Spectrum bias arises from evaluating diagnostic tests on biased patient samples, leading to an overestimate of the sensitivity and specificity of the test.

The bias of an estimator is the difference between an estimator's expected value and the true value of the parameter being estimated. Omitted-variable bias is the bias that appears in estimates of parameters in regression analysis when the assumed specification omits an independent variable that should be in the model. In statistical hypothesis testing, a test is said to be unbiased if, for some alpha level, the probability the null is rejected is less than or equal to the alpha level for the entire parameter space defined by the null hypothesis, while the probability the null is rejected is greater than or equal to the alpha level for the entire parameter space defined by the alternative hypothesis. Detection bias occurs when a phenomenon is more to be observed for a particular set of study subjects. For instance, the syndemic involving obesity and diabetes may mean doctors are more to look for diabetes in obese patients than in thinner patients, leading to an inflation in diabetes among obese patients because of skewed detection efforts.

In educational measurement, bias is defined as "Systematic errors in test content, test administration, and/or scoring procedures that can cause some test takers to get either lower or higher scores than their true ability would merit. The source of the bias is irrelevant to the trait the test is intended to measure." Funding bias may lead to the selection of outcomes, test samples, or test procedures that favor a study's financial sponsor. Reporting bias involves a skew in the availability of data, such that observations of a certain kind are more to be reported. Analytical bias arises due to the way. Exclusion bias arise due to the systematic exclusion of certain individuals from the study. Attrition bias arises due to a loss of participants e.g. loss to follow up during a study. Recall bias arises due to differences in the accuracy or completeness of participant recollections of past events. E.g. a patient cannot recall how many cigarettes they smoked last week leading to over-estimation or under-estimation.

Observer bias arises when the researcher subconsciously influences the experiment due to cognitive bias where judgment may alter how an experiment is carried out / how results are recorded. Trueness Systematic error

Sjava

Jabulani Hadebe, known professionally as Sjava, is a South African singer, actor born in Bergville, KwaZulu Natal, Sjava began his acting career in 2005, starring in several drama series' and films including uGugu no Andile. He rose to prominence on the drama series, Zone 14 where he starred for three consecutive seasons. Sjava signed to record label Ambitiouz Entertainment, he gained mainstream popularity after he was featured on Miss Pru's acclaimed song "Ameni" in 2015. Sjava's debut album, Isina Muva, introduced his experimental sound which fuses afrobeats, hip hop and contemporary R&B, his second studio album, Umqhele was released in 2018 to a critical acclaim. Umqhele which continues with his fusion sound, grew his African-influenced image, consolidated to other international regions. Before Umqhele, Sjava released his debut EP, Umphako in 2018. Jabulani Hadebe was born on 2 December 1984, in Bergville, KwaZulu-Natal, the son of Thandi Nkabinde, he is of Zulu ancestry. Sjava has two older siblings and Sindy.

Sjava started writing music at an early age. While at the age of ten, Sjava was in charge of writing original lyrics on songs for his all-boy isicathamiya group Abafana baseMpumalanga, while in primary school, he took composition of music a step further in high school, where he used to turn notes into songs teach them to his classmates. Sjava's debut recording was a feature on DJ and producer Miss Pru's "Ameni"; the successful song featured then-artists of record label Ambitiouz Entertainment. On 8 April 2016, he released his debut single as a solo artist, "Ekuseni", he released his debut album, Isina Muva on 22 July 2016. Its title is derived from a Zulu idiom meaning "late bloomer". Isina Muva was certified Gold by the Recording Industry of South Africa and Sjava celebrated by releasing a deluxe version of the album titled Isina Muva: Gold Deluxe The album earned Sjava an award at the 23rd South African Music Awards for Best Produced Album, it won for a similar category at the 16th Metro FM Music Awards, received four nominees: Best Afro Pop Album for Isina Muva, Best Male and Best New Artist.

In 2017, Sjava recorded the theme song for the Mzansi Magic drama telenovela Isithembiso, which premiered on 3 April 2017. The film Black Panther was accompanied by a soundtrack album curated by rapper Kendrick Lamar, which Sjava appeared on. Sjava was featured alongside rappers: Mozzy and Reason; the album was nominated at the 61st Annual Grammy Awards for Album of the Year, making it his first nominee at the ceremony for his appearance. The lead single from Sjava's debut EP Umpakho, "Abangani" featuring Saudi and Emtee was released on 14 June 2018 accompanied by a video paying homage to their humble beginnings. On 24 June 2018, Sjava earned a BET Award for Best New International Act at the 2018 event. Umphako was released on 6 July 2018; the four-track project atopped the iTunes local chart on its first day, is described as Sjava asserting himself as an empathetic worker’s champion. Sjava's second studio album Umqhele was released in 14 December 2018; the album's lead was released seven days before the album was available.

"Umama" spawned a version on the global music platform COLORS, where he was featured performing the song on 13 May 2019. Umqhele received positive reviews from critics. From 2005 to 2013, Sjava enrolled to acting, he appeared on several television shows, including Zone 14, Generations and Soul City and 7de Laan, uGugu and Andile, Isibaya. |Sjava |Sjava |Sjava |Sjava Sjava bags 5 AFRIMA nominations/