Nolan Kay Bushnell is an American businessman and electrical engineer. He established Atari, Inc. and the Chuck E. Cheese's Pizza Time Theatre chain. Bushnell has been inducted into the Video Game Hall of Fame and the Consumer Electronics Association Hall of Fame, received the BAFTA Fellowship and the Nations Restaurant News "Innovator of the Year" award, was named one of Newsweek's "50 Men Who Changed America." Bushnell has started more than twenty companies and is one of the founding fathers of the video game industry. He is on the board of Anti-Aging Games. In 2012 he founded an educational software company called Brainrush, using video game technology in educational software. Nolan is credited with Bushnell's Law, an aphorism about games "easy to learn and difficult to master" being rewarding. Bushnell enrolled at Utah State University in 1961 to study engineering and later business. In 1964, he transferred to the University of Utah College of Engineering, where he graduated with a Bachelor's degree in electrical engineering.
He was a member of the Pi Kappa Alpha fraternity. He was one of many computer science students of the 1960s who played the historic Spacewar! Game on DEC mainframe computers. Bushnell worked at Lagoon Amusement Park for many years, he was made manager of the games department two seasons after starting. He was interested in the midway arcade games, where theme park customers would have to use skill and luck to achieve the goal and win the prize, he liked the concept of getting people curious about the game and from there getting them to pay the fee in order to play. He would use his love for games and theme parks to help launch both Atari and Chuck E. Cheese's Pizza-Time Theaters. While in college, he worked for several employers, including Litton Guidance and Control Systems, Hadley Ltd, the industrial engineering department at the University of Utah. For several summers, he built his own advertising company, Campus Company, which produced blotters for four universities and sold advertising space around a calendar of events.
He sold copies of Encyclopedia Americana. Bushnell's first marriage was to Paula Rochelle Nielson. Bushnell's oldest child, worked with him at uWink, his second marriage was with whom he has 6 children. Bushnell was raised in The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, but is no longer an active member. A 1999 Time article described him as a "lapsed Mormon" and described him smoking a pipe, inconsistent with the LDS Church's health practice of the Word of Wisdom. After selling Atari to Warner Communications for $28 million, Bushnell purchased the former mansion of coffee magnate James Folger in Woodside, which he shared with his wife Nancy and their eight children; the Bushnells now live in Southern California. In June 2008 it was announced that Leonardo DiCaprio would portray Bushnell in the film Atari, an adaptation of Bushnell's life story. Despite the announcement, however, no progress has been made on the project. In 1969, Bushnell and colleague Ted Dabney formed Syzygy with the intention of producing a Spacewar clone known as Computer Space.
Dabney built Bushnell shopped it around, looking for a manufacturer. They made an agreement with Nutting Associates, a maker of coin-op trivia and shooting games, who produced a fiberglass cabinet for the unit that included a coin-slot mechanism. Computer Space was a commercial failure. Bushnell felt that Nutting Associates had not marketed the game well, decided that his next game would be licensed to a bigger manufacturer. In 1972, Bushnell and Dabney set off on their own, learned that the name "Syzygy" was in use, they instead incorporated under a reference to a check-like position in the game Go. They rented their first office on Scott Boulevard in Sunnyvale, contracted with Bally Manufacturing to create a driving game, hired their second employee, engineer Allan Alcorn. Bushnell bought out Dabney, forced out after Nolan told him he would transfer all the assets to another corporation and leave Ted with nothing. After Bushnell attended a Burlingame, California demonstration of the Magnavox Odyssey, he gave the task of making the Magnavox tennis game into a coin-op version to Alcorn as a test project.
He told Alcorn that he was making the game for General Electric, in order to motivate him, but in actuality he planned to dispose of the game. Alcorn incorporated many of his own improvements into the game design, such as the ball speeding up the longer the game went on, Pong was born. Pong proved to be popular. In 1974, Atari entered the consumer electronics market after engineers Harold Lee and Bob Brown approached Alcorn with an idea to develop a home version of Pong. With a marketing and distribution agreement with Sears, Pong sales soared when the unit was released in 1975. Using borrowed parts from Atari, having the main PCB printed up by Atari employee Howard Cantin, receiving further assistance from Atari employee Ron Wayne, two non-employees, Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak—both of whom had been involved in the development of the Atari arcade game Breakout—created and marketed their own home computer, they offered the design to Bushnell, but Atari had no desire to build computers at the time, instead focusing on the arcade and home console markets.
In 1976, Steve Jobs went to Nolan to ge
Sickle cell nephropathy is a type of nephropathy associated with sickle cell disease which causes kidney complications as a result of sickling of red blood cells in the small blood vessels. The hypertonic and hypoxic environment of the renal medulla, coupled with the slow blood flow in the vasa recta, favors sickling of red blood cells, with resultant local infarction. Functional tubule defects in patients with sickle cell disease are the result of partial ischemic injury to the renal tubules; the sickle cell disease in young patients is characterized by renal hyperperfusion, glomerular hypertrophy, glomerular hyperfiltration. Many of these individuals develop a glomerulopathy leading to glomerular proteinuria and, in some, the nephrotic syndrome. Co-inheritance of microdeletions in the -globin gene appear to protect against the development of nephropathy and are associated with lower mean arterial pressure and less protein in the urine. Mild increases in the blood levels of nitrogen and uric acid can develop.
Advanced kidney failure and high blood urea levels occur in 10% of cases. Pathologic examination reveals the typical lesion of "hyperfiltration nephropathy" namely, focal segmental glomerular sclerosis; this finding has led to the suggestion that anemia-induced hyperfiltration in childhood is the principal cause of the adult glomerulopathy. Nephron loss secondary to ischemic injury contributes to the development of azotemia in these patients. In addition to the glomerulopathy described above, kidney complications of sickle cell disease include cortical infarcts leading to loss of function, persistent bloody urine, perinephric hematomas. Papillary infarcts, demonstrable radiographically in 50% of patients with sickle trait, lead to an increased risk of bacterial infection in the scarred kidney tissues and functional tubule abnormalities; the presence of visible blood in the urine without pain occurs with a higher frequency in sickle trait than in sickle cell disease and results from infarctive episodes in the renal medulla.
Functional tubule abnormalities such as nephrogenic diabetes insipidus result from marked reduction in vasa recta blood flow, combined with ischemic tubule injury. This concentrating defect places these patients at increased risk of dehydration and, sickling crises; the concentrating defect occurs in individuals with sickle trait. Other tubule defects involve potassium and hydrogen ion excretion leading to high blood potassium, metabolic acidosis, a defect in uric acid excretion which, combined with increased purine synthesis in the bone marrow, results in high blood uric acid levels; the initial diagnosis is based on the clinical manifestations and is is a diagnosis of exclusion. The initial investigations in a patient with SCD, who presents with hematuria or proteinuria include:Basic metabolic panel Urine analysis and urine microalbumin to creatinine ratio Renal imaging with a renal ultrasound Intravenous pyelogram for papillary necrosis. CT scan to rule out medullary renal carcinoma in sickle cell trait patients.
Serum albumin levels Autoantibodies and complement levels HIV, hepatitis B, hepatitis C serologies Serum electrophoresis Renal biopsy when clinically indicated Review of the current and previous medication history Management of sickle nephropathy is not separate from that of overall patient management. In addition, the use of ACE inhibitors has been associated with improvement of the hyperfiltration glomerulopathy. Three-year graft and patient survival in kidney transplant recipients with sickle nephropathy is lower when compared to those with other causes of end-stage kidney disease
Hidajet "Hido" Biščević is a Croatian diplomat, former Secretary General of the Regional Cooperation Council. Of Bosniak descent, he is a journalist, having been editor-in-chief of the Vjesnik daily from 1990-92, their foreign affairs editor from 1985-89, as well as an author of several books on international relations, concerning the breakup of Yugoslavia, the Iranian Revolution and the Iran–Iraq War. Biščević graduated from the Faculty of Political Sciences at the University of Zagreb. After working at the state-owned Vjesnik daily newspaper in the 1980s and early 1990s, Biščević joined the Croatian diplomatic service in 1992, was named Head of Department for Asian and Arab Countries at the Croatian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Adviser to the Foreign Minister. From 1993-95, he was Croatia's ambassador to Turkey, after which he was appointed as Assistant Minister for Foreign Affairs, before serving as ambassador to the Russia. Upon returning from Moscow, he served as the State Secretary for Political Affairs at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs from 2003-07.
On 10 May 2007, at the Southeast European Cooperation Process Foreign Ministers summit in Zagreb, he was appointed the first Secretary General of the newly established Regional Cooperation Council, his term began on 1 January 2008. EU for YOU - Functioning of the EU Strategija kaosa, ISBN 86-7125-053-9 U ime Alaha, ISBN 86-349-0109-2 Krv na vodi, ISBN 86-409-0030-2 Biography at the Regional Cooperation Council official website Biography at the Croatian Ministry of Foreign Affairs official website