J. R. R. Tolkien
John Ronald Reuel Tolkien, was an English writer, poet and academic, best known as the author of the classic high fantasy works The Hobbit, The Lord of the Rings, The Silmarillion. He served as the Rawlinson and Bosworth Professor of Anglo-Saxon and Fellow of Pembroke College, from 1925 to 1945 and Merton Professor of English Language and Literature and Fellow of Merton College, from 1945 to 1959, he was at one time a close friend of C. S. Lewis—they were both members of the informal literary discussion group known as the Inklings. Tolkien was appointed a Commander of the Order of the British Empire by Queen Elizabeth II on 28 March 1972. After Tolkien's death, his son Christopher published a series of works based on his father's extensive notes and unpublished manuscripts, including The Silmarillion. These, together with The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings, form a connected body of tales, fictional histories, invented languages, literary essays about a fantasy world called Arda and Middle-earth within it.
Between 1951 and 1955, Tolkien applied the term legendarium to the larger part of these writings. While many other authors had published works of fantasy before Tolkien, the great success of The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings led directly to a popular resurgence of the genre; this has caused Tolkien to be popularly identified as the "father" of modern fantasy literature—or, more of high fantasy. In 2008, The Times ranked him sixth on a list of "The 50 greatest British writers since 1945". Forbes ranked him the 5th top-earning "dead celebrity" in 2009. Tolkien's immediate paternal ancestors were middle-class craftsmen who made and sold clocks and pianos in London and Birmingham; the Tolkien family originated in the East Prussian town Kreuzburg near Königsberg, where his first known paternal ancestor Michel Tolkien was born around 1620. Michel's son Christianus Tolkien was a wealthy miller in Kreuzburg, his son Christian Tolkien moved from Kreuzburg to nearby Danzig, his two sons Daniel Gottlieb Tolkien and Johann Benjamin Tolkien emigrated to London in the 1770s and became the ancestors of the English family.
In 1792 John Benjamin Tolkien and William Gravell took over the Erdley Norton manufacture in London, which from on sold clocks and watches under the name Gravell & Tolkien. Daniel Gottlieb obtained British citizenship in 1794, but John Benjamin never became a British citizen. Other German relatives joined the two brothers in London. Several people with the surname Tolkien or similar spelling, some of them members of the same family as J. R. R. Tolkien, live in northern Germany, but most of them are descendants of recent refugees from East Prussia who fled the Red Army invasion and subsequent ethnic cleansing. According to Ryszard Derdziński the Tolkien name is of Low Prussian origin and means "son/descendant of Tolk." Tolkien mistakenly believed his surname derived from the German word tollkühn, meaning "foolhardy", jokingly inserted himself as a "cameo" into The Notion Club Papers under the translated name Rashbold. However, Derdziński has demonstrated this to be a false etymology. While J. R. R. Tolkien was aware of the Tolkien family's German origin, his knowledge of the family's history was limited because he was "early isolated from the family of his prematurely deceased father".
John Ronald Reuel Tolkien was born on 3 January 1892 in Bloemfontein in the Orange Free State to Arthur Reuel Tolkien, an English bank manager, his wife Mabel, née Suffield. The couple had left England when Arthur was promoted to head the Bloemfontein office of the British bank for which he worked. Tolkien had one sibling, his younger brother, Hilary Arthur Reuel Tolkien, born on 17 February 1894; as a child, Tolkien was bitten by a large baboon spider in the garden, an event some think echoed in his stories, although he admitted no actual memory of the event and no special hatred of spiders as an adult. In another incident, a young family servant, who thought Tolkien a beautiful child, took the baby to his kraal to show him off, returning him the next morning; when he was three, he went to England with his mother and brother on what was intended to be a lengthy family visit. His father, died in South Africa of rheumatic fever before he could join them; this left the family without an income, so Tolkien's mother took him to live with her parents in Kings Heath, Birmingham.
Soon after, in 1896, they moved to Sarehole a Worcestershire village annexed to Birmingham. He enjoyed exploring Sarehole Mill and Moseley Bog and the Clent and Malvern Hills, which would inspire scenes in his books, along with nearby towns and villages such as Bromsgrove and Alvechurch and places such as his aunt Jane's farm of Bag End, the name of which he used in his fiction. Mabel Tolkien taught her two children at home. Ronald, as he was known in the family, was a keen pupil, she taught him a great deal of botany and awakened in him the enjoyment of the look and feel of plants. Young Tolkien liked to draw landscapes and trees, but his favourite lessons were those concerning languages, his mother taught him the rudiments of Latin early. Tolkien could write fluently soon afterwards, his mother allowed him to read many books. He disliked Treasure Island and The Pied Piper and thought Alice's Adventures in Wonderland by Lewis Carroll was "amusing but disturbing", he liked stories about "Red Indians" and the fantasy wor
Fingolfin is a fictional character in J. R. R. Tolkien's legendarium, appearing in The Silmarillion. Fingolfin was a High King of the Noldor in Beleriand, second eldest son of Finwë, full brother of Finarfin, half-brother of Fëanor, the eldest of Finwë's sons, he founded the House of Fingolfin. His wife was Anairë and his children were Fingon, Turgon and Argon. Fingolfin was said to be the strongest, most steadfast, most valiant of Finwë's sons, his name in Quenya—one of Tolkien's fictional languages—was Nolofinwë, or "wise Finwë". This was his father-name. Fingolfin was born to Finwë's second wife, after Míriel died, as was Finarfin. While they lived in Aman, there was always strife between the sons of Indis and the son of Míriel due to Melkor's treachery. However, Fingolfin would seek to forge a better relationship with Fëanor at every chance. After Fëanor threatened him with swords and was banished from Tirion, Fingolfin forgave him and tried to mend their relationship; this occurred soon before destruction of the Two Trees and the Darkening of Valinor.
After this event and Fëanor's decision to leave Aman, Fingolfin chose to follow him into exile, so as not to abandon his people. Fingolfin led the largest host of the Noldor when they fled Aman for Middle-earth though he thought this unwise, his followers participated in the Kinslaying at the Havens, but only because they arrived after the battle was underway not knowing that Fëanor was the aggressor. He was the one who took them across the ice of the Helcaraxë, an epic and arduous journey that lasted months or years, they arrived in Middle-earth at the first rising of the Moon, sounded their trumpets. Soon after, at the first rising of the Sun, he came to the gates of Angband and smote upon them, but Melkor—now known as Morgoth—stayed hidden inside. Fingolfin and the Noldor came to the northern shores of Lake Mithrim, from which the Fëanorian part of the host had withdrawn, his son Fingon rescued Maedhros, son of Fëanor, who in gratitude waived his claim to kingship: thus, Fingolfin became High-King of the Noldor.
He ruled from Hithlum, by the northern shores of Lake Mithrim. After defeating the Orcs in the Dagor Aglareb, Fingolfin maintained the Siege of Angband for nearly 400 years, but the Siege was ended by Morgoth's sudden assaults in the Dagor Bragollach, the Battle of Sudden Flame, many peoples of Beleriand fled. When Fingolfin learned of this, received false report that his allies had been routed on all fronts, he became filled with wrath and despair, he took his horse Rochallor and sword Ringil, rode alone to Angband. All enemies fled from him, fearing his anger, mistaking him in his fury for Oromë, the Vala patron of hunters, he challenged Morgoth to single combat. Though Morgoth feared Fingolfin, he had to accept the challenge—or face shame in the eyes of his servants. Seven times Fingolfin wounded Morgoth and seven times Morgoth cried in pain, seven times the host of Morgoth wailed in anguish, but he could not be slain for he was one of the Valar. Whenever Morgoth attacked, Fingolfin would evade, avoiding Morgoth's weapon Grond, the hammer of the underworld, as it would crack the ground so violently smoke and fire darted from the craters.
However, Fingolfin grew weary and stumbled on a crater. Morgoth pinned Fingolfin with his foot, killed him, but not before he, with his last act of defiance, hewed at Morgoth's foot. Morgoth, from thence forward, always walked with a limp. An enraged Morgoth sought to desecrate the body of the valiant king but Thorondor, Lord of Eagles flew down and raked Morgoth's eyes, carried Fingolfin's body away to be placed on a cliff overlooking Gondolin, his son Turgon built a cairn over the remains of his father. Fingolfin is among those major characters whom Tolkien, who used to illustrate his writings, supplied with a distinct heraldic device; the song "Time Stands Still" of the German power-metal band Blind Guardian tells the story of the fight between Morgoth and Fingolfin. The song "Do Not Ask Me To Praise Him" by Aire and Saruman on their album "A Elberet Giltoniel" is a lament for Fingolfin by his minstrel some time after that last battle:'... do not ask me to praise him, the day won't be brighter for a candle...'.
Dagor-nuin-Giliath House of Finwë Quenta Silmarillion Fingolfin Leads the Host Across the Helcaraxë as illustrated by Ted Nasmith
Maedhros is a fictional character in J. R. R. Tolkien's legendarium. First introduced in The Silmarillion and mentioned in Unfinished Tales and The Children of Húrin, he is one of the most enduring characters in The Silmarillion, has been the subject of paintings by artists such as Jenny Dolfen and Alan Lee. In the books, Maedhros was the first son of Fëanor, the creator of the Silmarils that were essential to the plot and the history of Middle-earth. Following his father in swearing to reclaim the Silmarils from anyone who took and kept them, he led the war against Morgoth, brought eventual ruin upon himself and his brothers. Little is mentioned about Maedhros's youth in The Silmarillion. Born to Fëanor and Nerdanel during the Years of the Trees in Aman, he was the eldest of their seven sons. With their father, they travelled far and wide in Valinor. During this time Maedhros befriended Fingon, son of Fingolfin, for whom Fëanor had no love. Following his father's banishment from Tirion, Maedhros lived in Formenos with his family.
They returned to Tirion, after Maedhros brought tidings of Finwë's murder and the theft of the Silmarils to his father and Manwë in Y. T. 1495. Fëanor's fiery words led the Noldor to Middle-earth and the Fëanorians to swear their father's terrible oath to pursue anyone who kept the Silmarils from their possession. Maedhros participated in the Kinslaying at Alqualondë and stood aside at the burning of the ships at Losgar; when Fëanor and his sons secretly sailed to Middle-earth, Maedhros was shocked when he realised that they would not return for Fingolfin and his host. Although Fëanor was killed in the Dagor-nuin-Giliath in Y. T. 1497, Morgoth's forces suffered a crushing defeat. He sent peace Maedhros agreed to treat with them, he brought more forces than had been agreed to the parley — for Maedhros was not fooled by Morgoth's peace offers, but unknown to him, Balrogs were among Morgoth's party, the Elven company was overwhelmed. Maedhros was hung by the wrist of his right hand upon Thangorodrim in great pain.
For many years, he languished there. In Y. S. 5, Fingon found him. However, with the help of Thorondor, Fingon freed him by cutting off Maedhros's right hand; this daring rescue, along with Maedhros’ repentance for the desertion of Fingolfin's hosts in Araman and relinquishment of his claim as Finwë's heir to kingship over all the Noldor in favour of his uncle, did much to repair the ill feelings between the House of Fingolfin and the House of Fëanor. His brothers, were not all pleased by their eldest brother's actions, Maedhros, sensing that they would cause feuds with their kinsmen, moved them out of Mithrim and to the lands around the Hill of Himring, which became known as the March of Maedhros. A secondary purpose in relocating was the desire to take up the responsibility to defend the area, in most danger of being attacked by Morgoth. Keen on peace and unification, Maedhros on his part remained in friendship with the houses of Fingolfin and Finarfin. Allied with Fingolfin, he set the Siege of Angband.
The siege was broken, however, in the Dagor Bragollach. Due to Maedhros's valour and deadly skill with the sword, Himring was defended, though it was surrounded by the enemy; this led many of the survivors from East Dorthonion to rally to Maedhros. He would be the first Noldor Lord to recapture lost lands when he regained the pass of Aglon and closed it to the hosts of Angband. Taking hope upon hearing the deeds of Beren and Lúthien, he gathered his brothers, united with other Elven Houses to create the Union of Maedhros, an alliance of Elves and Dwarves to drive the Orcs from Beleriand and lay siege to Morgoth's fortress of Angband. Under his leadership, the Union won several battles and regained the territory lost in the Dagor Bragollach; when the joint attack on Angband itself was to be launched, Maedhros was delayed due to the treachery of an Easterling, Uldor the Accursed, a spy of Morgoth in the service of Caranthir, the forces of the Union were utterly destroyed in the Nírnaeth Arnoediad.
Himring was taken by the Orcs and the Sons of Fëanor were wounded. They retreated to Mount Dolmed, came to live with the Nandor in Ossiriand. During Y. S. 504 — 505, the brothers learnt of the possession of the Silmaril recovered by Beren and Lúthien in the hands of Dior, the new King of Doriath. Maedhros restrained his brothers’ urge to attack, instead, sent a message to Dior demanding that he yield the Silmaril to them, but Dior ignored it. Celegorm's words convinced the Fëanorians to launch an assault, thus Doriath was destroyed, Dior was killed, the brothers emerged victorious, but the brothers Celegorm and Caranthir were slain and the Silmaril was not recovered. Upon learning that Celegorm's servants had left Dior's twin sons, Eluréd and Elurín, to starve in a dark forest, Maedhros went on a long search for them, but it proved to be fruitless. Maedhros and his surviving brothers dwelt on Amon Ereb in East Beleriand; when they heard that Elwing, who had escaped from Doriath with the Silmaril, was now living at the Havens of Sirion.
Maedhros, repenting of his deeds at Doriath, counselled against trying to regain the jewel by force. But the unfulfilment of the oath came to torment the brothers so they sent messages of friendship but with firm demands to surrender the Silmaril. Howeve
Balrogs are fictional creatures in J. R. R. Tolkien's Middle-earth legendarium, they first appeared in print in his novel The Lord of the Rings, where the Fellowship of the Ring encounter one known as Durin's Bane in the Mines of Moria. Balrogs appeared in Tolkien's earlier writings, published posthumously in The Silmarillion and books. Balrogs are tall and menacing beings who can shroud themselves in fire and shadow, they appeared armed with fiery whips "of many thongs", used long swords. In Tolkien's conception, they could not be vanquished—a certain stature was required by the would-be hero. Only dragons rivalled their capacity for ferocity and destruction, during the First Age of Middle-earth, they were among the most feared of Morgoth's forces. According to The Silmarillion, the evil Vala Melkor corrupted lesser Maiar to his service in the days of his splendor before the making of Arda; these became known as "Demons of Might": Valaraukar in Quenya, Belryg in Sindarin. Upon the awakening of the Elves, the Valar captured Melkor and destroyed his fortresses Utumno and Angband.
But they overlooked the deepest pits, with many of Melkor's other allies, the Balrogs fled into hiding. When Melkor returned to Middle-earth from Valinor, now bearing the epithet Morgoth, he was attacked by Ungoliant, a spider-like creature; when the Noldor arrived in Beleriand in pursuit of Morgoth, they won a swift victory over his Orcs in the Dagor-nuin-Giliath. Fëanor pressed on towards Angband, but the Balrogs came against him, Fëanor was mortally wounded by Gothmog, Lord of Balrogs. Fëanor's sons fought off the Balrogs. In The Lays of Beleriand, The Lay of Leithian mentions Balrog captains leading Orcs: "the Orcs went forth to rape and war, Balrog captains marched before". Tolkien tells of two Balrogs slain by Elves in the fall of Gondolin. During the assault on the city, Ecthelion of the Fountain fought Gothmog, "each slew the other." Glorfindel fought a Balrog. In the War of Wrath that ended the First Age, most of the Balrogs were destroyed, although some including the Balrog known as Durin's Bane, managed to escape and hide in "caverns at the roots of the earth".
In The Fellowship of the Ring, the Fellowship ventured through Moria and were attacked in the Chamber of Mazarbul by Orcs and the Balrog. Gandalf faced the Balrog at the Bridge of Khazad-dûm and broke the Bridge, but was dragged down by the Balrog, he slew the Balrog but perished himself at the same time—to be sent back as the more powerful Gandalf the White. Tolkien's conception of Balrogs changed over time. In all his early writing, they are numerous. A host of a thousand of them is mentioned in the Quenta Silmarillion, while at the storming of Gondolin Balrogs in the hundreds ride on the backs of the Dragons, they are of twice human size, were killed in battle by Elves and Men. They were fierce demons, associated with fire, armed with fiery whips of many thongs and claws like steel, Morgoth delighted in using them to torture his captives, they were loyal to Morgoth, once came out of hiding to save him from capture. In the published version of The Lord of the Rings, Balrogs became altogether more sinister and more powerful.
Christopher Tolkien notes the difference, saying that in earlier versions they were "less terrible and more destructible". He quotes a late margin note, not incorporated into the text saying "at most seven" existed. In writings they ceased to be creatures, but are instead Maiar, lesser Ainur like Gandalf or Sauron, spirits of fire whom Melkor had corrupted before the creation of the World. Power of the order of Gandalf's was necessary to destroy them, as Maiar, only their physical forms could be destroyed. Tolkien says of the Valar that they can change their shape at will, move unclad in the raiment of the world, meaning invisible and without form, but it seems that Morgoth and their associated Maiar could lose this ability: Morgoth, for example, was unable to heal his burns from the Silmarils or wounds from Fingolfin and Thorondor. Tolkien does not address this for Balrogs though at least in his conception they are Maiar. In "the Bridge of Khazad-dûm" in The Fellowship of the Ring, the Balrog appears "like a great shadow, in the middle of, a dark form, of man-shape maybe, yet greater".
Though the Balrog had entered the "large square chamber" of Mazarbul, at the Bridge of Khazad-dûm it "drew itself to a great height, its wings spread from wall to wall" in what was a vast hall. The Balrog's size and shape, are not given precisely; when Gandalf threw it from the peak of Zirakzigil, the Balrog "broke the mountain-side where he smote it in his ruin". Whether Balrogs have wings is unclear; this is due to Tolkien's changing conception of Balrogs, but to his imprecise but suggestive and figurative description of the Balrog that confronted Gandalf in Moria. The three key quotations: His enemy halted again, facing him, the shadow about it reached out like two vast wings. … it drew itself up to a great height, its wings were spread from wall to w
In J. R. R. Tolkien's legendarium, Elves are one of the races that inhabit a fictional Earth called Middle-earth, set in the remote past, they appear in The Hobbit and in The Lord of the Rings, but their complex history is described more in The Silmarillion. Tolkien had been writing about Elves; the modern English word elf derives from the Old English word ælf. Numerous types of elves appear in Germanic mythology, the West Germanic concept appears to have come to differ from the Scandinavian notion in the early Middle Ages, Anglo-Saxon concept diverged further under Celtic influence. Tolkien would make it clear in a letter that his Elves differ from those "of the better known lore", referring to Scandinavian mythology. By 1915 when Tolkien was writing his first elven poems, the words elf and gnome had many divergent and contradictory associations. Tolkien had been warned against using the term'fairy', which John Garth supposes may have been due to the word becoming used to indicate homosexuality, although despite this warning Tolkien continued to use it.
By the late 19th century, the term'fairy' had been taken up as a utopian theme, was used to critique social and religious values, a tradition which Tolkien along with T. H. White are seen to continue. One of the last of the Victorian Fairy-paintings, The Piper of Dreams by Estella Canziani, sold 250,000 copies and was well known within the trenches of World War I where Tolkien saw active service. Illustrated posters of Robert Louis Stevenson's poem Land of Nod had been sent out by a philanthropist to brighten servicemen's quarters, Faery was used in other contexts as an image of "Old England" to inspire patriotism. According to Marjorie Burns, Tolkien chose the term elf over fairy, but still retained some doubts. In his 1939 essay On Fairy-Stories, Tolkien wrote that "English words such as elf have long been influenced by French. Traditional Victorian dancing fairies and elves appear in much of Tolkien's early poetry, have influence upon his works in part due to the influence of a production of J. M. Barrie's Peter Pan in Birmingham in 1910 and his familiarity with the work of Catholic mystic poet, Francis Thompson which Tolkien had acquired in 1914.
O! I hear the tiny horns Of enchanted leprechauns And the padded feet of many gnomes a-coming! As a philologist, Tolkien's interest in languages led him to invent several languages of his own as a pastime. In considering the nature of who might speak these languages, what stories they might tell, Tolkien again turned to the concept of elves. In his The Book of Lost Tales, Tolkien develops a theme that the diminutive fairy-like race of Elves had once been a great and mighty people, that as Men took over the world, these Elves had "diminished" themselves; this theme was influenced by the god-like and human-sized Ljósálfar of Norse mythology, medieval works such as Sir Orfeo, the Welsh Mabinogion, Arthurian romances and the legends of the Tuatha Dé Danann. Some of the stories Tolkien wrote as elven history have been seen to be directly influenced by Celtic mythology. For example, "Flight of The Noldoli" is based on the Tuatha Dé Danann and Lebor Gabála Érenn, their migratory nature comes from early Irish/Celtic history.
John Garth sees that with the underground enslavement of the Noldoli to Melkor, Tolkien was rewriting Irish myth regarding the Tuatha Dé Danann into a Christian eschatology. The name Inwe, given by Tolkien to the eldest of the elves and his clan, is similar to the name found in Norse mythology as that of the god Ingwi-Freyr, a god, gifted the elf world Álfheimr. Terry Gunnell claims that the relationship between beautiful ships and the Elves is reminiscent of the god Njörðr and the god Freyr's ship Skíðblaðnir, he retains the usage of the French derived term "fairy" for the same creatures. The larger Elves are inspired by Tolkien's personal Catholic theology—as representing the state of Men in Eden who have not yet "fallen", similar to humans but fairer and wiser, with greater spiritual powers, keener senses, a closer empathy with nature. Tolkien wrote of them: "They are made by man in his own likeness, they are immortal, their will is directly effective for the achievement of imagination and desire."In The Book of Lost Tales, Tolkien includes both the more serious "medieval" type of elves such as Fëanor and Turgon alongside the frivolous, Jacobean type of elves such as the Solosimpi and Tinúviel.
Alongside the idea of the greater Elves, Tolkien developed the idea of children visiting Valinor, the island-homeland of the Elves in their sleep. Elves would visit children at night and comfort them if they had been chided or were upset; this theme, linking elves with children's dreams and nocturnal travelling was abandoned in Tolkien's writing. Along with Book of Lost Tales, Douglas Anderson shows that in The Hobbit, Tolkien again includes both the more serious'medieval' type of elves, such as Elrond and the Wood-elf king, frivolous elves, such as those at Rivendell. In 1937, having had his manuscript for The Silmarillion rejected by a publisher who disparaged all the "eye-splitting Celtic names" that Tolkien had given his Elves, Tolkien denied the names had a Celtic origin: Needless t
In J. R. R. Tolkien's legendarium, Tirion upon Túna was the city of the Noldor in Valinor, it was from here that Finwë ruled, where his sons Fëanor and Finarfin lived. The green hill of Túna was located in the steep-walled valley of Calacirya; this valley is the only pass through the Pelóri, the massive mountain-chain on the west of Valinor. Upon the crown of the hill the Elves raised Tilion: their largest settlement west of the sea; the walls and terraces were white, the sand in the streets was said to be of grains of diamond, white crystal stairs climbed from the fertile land beneath to the great gates. The centre of the city was dominated by Ingwë's tower, Mindon Eldaliéva, whose silver lantern shone far out to sea. Beneath the tower was the house of Finwë, first High King of the Noldor. Here was the Great Square, where the white tree Galathilion flourished, the site of Fëanor's infamous oath; the towers of the city could be seen reflected in the nearest part of the sea. After most of the Vanyarin Elves resettled further into Valinor to Valmar and Taniquetil, the rule of Tirion was given to Finwë.
From this time onwards Noldor lived in Tirion, though it is that as well some Teleri and Vanyar lived in the city at least as part-time residents, such as Finarfin's wife, the Telerin princess Earwen. Many years of bliss followed, it was during this time that Fëanor created the Silmarils. After Morgoth was released from three ages of imprisonment, he saw and began to desire the Silmarils, he came to Tirion and told Fëanor lies about his younger brother, saying that Fingolfin desired to usurp Fëanor's position as heir to Finwë. It was because of this that Fëanor, after a heated argument with Fingolfin, drew his sword threatening his brother's life. For this Fëanor was banished from Tirion by the Valar. Finwë went to Formenos with his elder son and Fingolfin became King of the Noldor in Tirion. After Morgoth murdered Finwë and stole the Silmarils, Fëanor assembled the Noldor at the Great Square, where he urged the elves to go with him back to Middle-earth, to avenge their king and reclaim the Silmarils, to see that their lives in Tirion were a prison brought upon them by the Valar.
In the end only a tenth of the population remained when Fëanor, his brothers and his and their children departed, though some followed their new king only reluctantly, some would soon after follow Finarfin back to Tirion. Nearly 600 years passed; when all the kingdoms of the elves in Middle-earth were in ruins, Eärendil sailed into the west in search of Valinor to ask for the assistance of the Valar in the war against Morgoth. Eärendil arrived in Tirion on a day of festival in Valinor when the city was all but empty, only when he had turned his back on the city and began to return was he approached by a herald of the Valar. More than 3,000 years followed before Tirion was for the first time seen by mortal eyes—soldiers of the king of Númenor, deceived by Sauron, landed in on the shores of Eldamar and camped around Túna, which the fleeing Elves emptied; when the men of Númenor were buried under falling hills, along with all the Undying Lands, was taken out of mortal reach forever. Ingwë, First King, High King of all Elves Finwë, Second King.
Fingolfin, second son of Finwë. Fëanor, first son of Finwë. Finarfin, third son of Finwë. In the early versions of Tolkien's mythology, the city was called Kôr; this is found in the History of Middle-earth books edited by Christopher Tolkien and published by Harper Collins from 1983 to 1990 in Volume I. House of Finwë
Middle-earth wars and battles
J. R. R. Tolkien's Middle-earth fantasy writings include many wars and battles set in the lands of Aman, Beleriand, Númenor, Middle-earth; these are related in his various books such as The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings, The Silmarillion, Unfinished Tales and other posthumously published books edited by his son Christopher Tolkien. These are given below in an in-universe, fictional chronology: The Battle of the Powers called the War of the Powers, occurred between the god-like Valar and their former member Melkor in primeval Middle-earth. After a long titanic conflict the Valar defeated Melkor, confined in a massive chain for three ages; the battle caused massive changes to Middle-earth's original geography. The Kinslayings are the collective term for the three battles fought among the Eldar; the first battle, the Kinslaying at Alqualondë, appears in print in The Silmarillion. It involves the Noldorin Elves under their king, Fëanor, against their fellow Elves, the Teleri whose Lord was Olwë, who did not take part in the battle.
Against the will of the godlike Valar, Fëanor had induced the Noldor to leave Valinor to make war upon the Dark Lord Morgoth in revenge for the murder of his father Finwë and the theft of his Silmarilli jewels. As the easiest route to Middle-earth was by sea, Fëanor and his sons led one host of the Noldor to the city of Alqualondë and asked the seafaring Teleri of Alqualondë for their vessels; the Teleri refused to help. Bitter fighting broke out and many of Elves on both sides were slain. Though the Teleri were armed, they were able to defend themselves to some degree until a second host of the Noldor, led by Fëanor's half-nephew Fingon, arrived together with some of his father Fingolfin's people. Fingon's people assumed erroneously that the Teleri had attacked the Noldor under orders of the Valar. In the end, many of the Teleri were slain and the ships taken. Afterward, the sea destroyed many of the boats to punish the Noldor for this cruel act. Though the Teleri forgave the Noldor by the end of the First Age of Middle-earth, they still refused to fight in the War of Wrath.
All Elves that followed Fëanor and continued towards Middle-earth fell under the Doom of Mandos. This episode appears in Tolkien's earliest Middle-earth-related writings, published in The Book of Lost Tales. In the earliest surviving version, the "Noldoli" steal the ships of the "Solosimpi" without any fighting; when a concept of a battle was developed, the location was first called "Kopas Alqalunten". In a late version of the legendarium, Galadriel fought on the side of the Teleri, her mother Eärwen's people, against the Fëanorians; the second battle is the Sack of Doriath made by the Sons of Fëanor. Caranthir and Curufin died there, Celegorm dies killing the son of Beren and Luthien. Although the fëanorians won the battle, they did not manage to obtain the Silmaril; the third battle in the Kinslaying is the attack by the Sons of Fëanor on the Mouths of Sirion where Elwing was attacked. The last Kinslaying is considered the cruellest of them all because many women and children were murdered by the Fëanorians.
And still the Silmaril is not taken back. It was stated by Eönwë herald of Manwë that because of these evil deeds the remaining Sons of Fëanor had lost all right to the Silmarils, when Maedhros and Maglor retrieved them, the Silmarils burned their hands, driving Maedhros to suicide and Maglor to wander the Earth forever; the battles between the Elves of Beleriand and the forces of Morgoth are referred to as the Battles of Beleriand, but as the War of the Jewels as the Silmarilli were behind them all. The battles spanned the last several centuries of the First Age. In J. R. R. Tolkien's fictional Middle-earth, the First Battle of Beleriand was, as the name suggests, the first battle of the Wars of Beleriand, fought by the Sindarin Elves, led by Elu Thingol, King of Doriath and Lord of Beleriand, against the armies of Morgoth, the Great Enemy and original Dark Lord; the First Battle of Beleriand was fought before the Noldor arrived, was fought by the Sindar and Laiquendi Elves. The Second Battle was Dagor-nuin-Giliath, fought by the Noldor following Fëanor and his Seven Sons, in which the Noldor were victorious but Fëanor was slain by Balrogs.
During this battle the Battle of Lhammoth was fought by the host of Fingolfin. The Third Battle was Dagor Aglareb. Various minor battles were fought during the Siege; the Fourth Battle was the Dagor Bragollach, in which the Siege was broken and Fingolfin was slain by Morgoth. The Fifth Battle was the Nírnaeth Arnoediad, in which the Noldor were utterly defeated and Fingon, Azaghâl and Huor are killed and Hurin captured. Years the Battle of Tumhalad, in which the elven forces under Orodreth and Túrin were defeated by Angband forces under Glaurung, led to the sack of Nargothrond, it was the last battle of the Elves of the kingdom of Nargothrond. It was fought on the plain of Tumhalad between the river Narog and its tributary, the river Ginglith. In year 510 FA the Fall of Gondolin takes place, it was fought between the Elves of Gondolin led by Turgon their king and the city's houses leaders and the hosts of Morgoth swarmed from Angband led by Gothmog. At the end the elves are defeated, the city is lost and destroyed, the king, most of the houses' leaders