Barzaz Breiz is a collection of Breton popular songs collected by Théodore Hersart de la Villemarqué and published in 1839. It was compiled from oral tradition and preserves traditional folk tales and music. Hersart de la Villemarqué grew up in the manor of Plessix in Nizon, near Pont-Aven, was half Breton himself; the collection was published in the original Breton language with a French translation. It achieved a wide distribution, as the Romantic generation in France that "discovered" the Basque language was beginning to be curious about all the submerged cultures of Europe and the pagan survivals just under the surface of folk Catholicism; the Barzaz Breiz brought Breton folk culture for the first time into European awareness. One of the oldest of the collected songs was the legend of Ys; the book was notable for the fact that La Villemarqué recorded the music of the ballads as well as the words. This was one of the first attempts to print Breton traditional music, except hymns; until this publication the so-called Matter of Britain was known only from references to some legends in French language Romances of the 13th and 14th centuries, in which much of the culture was transformed to suit Gallic hearers.
The book is divided into two parts. The first part collects ballads about historical legends and heroic deeds of Breton leaders, including Nominoe and the warriors of the Combat of the Thirty; the second part records local culture, concentrating on seasonal events. The publication of traditional folk literature was controversial at this time because of the dispute about the most famous of such collections, James Macpherson's The Poems of Ossian, which purported to be translated from ancient Celtic poetry, but was believed to have been written by MacPherson himself. After the publication of Barzaz Breiz, François-Marie Luzel criticised the work at a scholarly conference in 1868. At the 1872 Congress of the Breton Association at Saint-Brieuc, he argued that the songs had been manufactured in the manner of MacPherson, because, he said, he had never himself met with ballads in such elegant Breton and free of borrowed French words; the main problem raised by his opponents was that Villemarqué refused to show his notebooks to other scholars.
The dispute continued into the twentieth century. In 1907 La Villemarque's son, Pierre de la Villemarqué, published a defence of his father's work. However, in 1960 Francis Gourvil argued in a PhD. In 1974 Donatien Laurent rejected these accusations by demonstrating the authenticity of the material of the book thanks to the discovery in 1964 of Villemarqué's notebooks. Laurent's research was published in 1989. Laurent concluded that Villemarqué had rearranged the material he had collected in order to enliven and clean up the texts and music, but that this was common practice at the time, comparable to work of the Brothers Grimm; the first edition was published in 1839 in Paris by Éditions Delloye, in the form of books in 2 °-8. Reprinted in 1840, 1845 and, at Didier et Cie, 1846, the book was published in 1867 in Paris. In 1865 the standard English translation by Tom Taylor was published under the title Ballads and Songs of Brittany; the edition contained some of the original melodies "harmonized by Mrs. Tom Taylor", but omitted some of the ballads.
The 1867 edition was subsequently reprinted many times to the present day by the academic library Perrin, not counting the many English translations, Italian, so on. In 1981 a new edition appeared in pocket-sized format. In 1989 Mouladurioù Hor Yezh issued a Barzhaz Breizh with only the Breton text, but transcribed into modern spelling and including the musical score. In 1996, Coop Breizh published a pocket version of the book in French without the Breton text. In 1999, Editions du Layeur issued a reprint of the 1867 edition, by Yann-Fañch Kemener and collector, plus the foreword to the 1845 edition; the main merit is that he put Breton and French versions of each poem together ensuring a high readability. A compact disc accompanies the book provides a performance of twelve of the songs by Yann Fanch Kemener and "Maîtrise de Bretagne", solo and duo. Folk music Music of Brittany Barzaz Breiz, Google Books The Barzaz Breiz, 1000questions.net Introduction to Breton music
Ingelheim am Rhein
Ingelheim am Rhein is a town in the Mainz-Bingen district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany on the Rhine’s west bank. The town has been Mainz-Bingen’s district seat since 1996. From the half of the 8th century, the Ingelheim Imperial Palace, which served emperors and kings as a lodging and a ruling seat until the 11th century, was to be found here; the Rhenish-Hessian placename ending —heim might well go back to Frankish times, to say as far back as the 5th or 6th century. Settlements or estates took their lords’ names and were given this suffix, which means "home" in German; the name is recorded in documents as Ingilinhaim, Ingilenhaim, Hengilonheim, Engilinheim, Ingilunheim, Ingelesheim, Anglia sedes and Ingelnheim, among other forms. Since 1269, a distinction has been made between Nieder-Ingelheim and Ober-Ingelheim Ingelheim am Rhein lies in the north of Rhein Hessen on the so-called Rhein Knee, west of the state capital, Mainz; the Rhein forms the town's northern limit. Southwards, the town stretches into the valley of the river Selz, which empties into the Rhein in the constituent community of Frei-Weinheim or Ingelheim-Nord.
The constituent communities of Ingelheim-Mitte and Ingelheim-Süd are nestled against the corner of the so-called Mainzer Berg. The municipal area's lowest point is the harbour on the Rhein at 80.8 m above sea level. The two highest points are the Mainzer Berg at 247.8 m above sea level and the Westerberg at 247.5 m above sea level. An obelisk on the south side of the village in direction Wackernheim, marks the road begun by Charlemagne, completed by Napoleon. From this point a fine prospect of the entire Rheingau could be obtained; the municipal area's north-south extent is 7.9 km. Clockwise from the north, these are Geisenheim, Oestrich-Winkel on the Rhine's right bank, on the left bank Heidesheim am Rhein, the Verbandsgemeinde of Nieder-Olm, Gau-Algesheim and Bingen am Rhein. On 1 July 2019 Wackernheim and Heidesheim will be incorporated into the city of Ingelheim. Ingelheim is divided into six Stadtteile: Ingelheim-Mitte, Ingelheim-Nord, Ingelheim-Süd, Groß-Winternheim and Ingelheim-West. Before Ingelheim became a town in 1939, the first three centres bore the names Nieder-Ingelheim, Frei-Weinheim and Ober-Ingelheim.
Official changes notwithstanding, the old names are still quite used. The town lies in the temperate zone; the average yearly temperature in Ingelheim is 9.8 °C. The warmest months are July and August with average temperatures of 18.0 and 18.5 °C and the coldest month is January at 1.0 °C on average. The most precipitation falls in June and August with an average of 64 mm, the least in March with an average of 31 mm. Like all Rhenish Hesse, too, is sheltered from the weather by the Hunsrück, the Taunus, the Odenwald and the Donnersberg, thereby limiting the yearly precipitation to only 560 mm; the Ingelheim area was settled in prehistoric times. The place first earned itself particular importance, only under Charlemagne and his successors. Charlemagne had built the Ingelheim Imperial Palace here, where synods and Imperial diets were held in the time that followed, his son and successor, Emperor Louis the Pious, died on 20 June 840 in Ingelheim. In the High and Late Middle Ages, the Palatinate's, thereby Ingelheim's, importance shrank.
For German justice history, the Ingelheimer Oberhof is of particular importance, as a unique collection of judgments from the 15th and 16th centuries that it handed down has been preserved. Late 19th century Ingelheim was the residence of the Dutch writer Multatuli. In 1939, the self-administering municipalities of Nieder-Ingelheim, Ober-Ingelheim and Frei-Weinheim were merged into the Town of Ingelheim am Rhein. From the Second World War, Ingelheim emerged as the only unscathed town between Koblenz. Today, Ingelheim is a middle centre in Rhineland-Palatinate, a Great District-Bound Town and the seat of district administration for Mainz-Bingen. Furthermore, Ingelheim harbours the business Boehringer Ingelheim, active worldwide. In 2004, 36% of Ingelheim's inhabitants belonged to the Lutheran faith, 34% were Catholic, while 24% were without any religious faith; the six Catholic parishes belong, within the Roman Catholic Diocese of Mainz to the Deanery of Bingen. The five Evangelical parishes of the EKHN belong to the Provostship of Mainz, within this to the Deanery of Ingelheim.
Besides these, the Baptists, Religious humanists and Muslims each have small communities in Ingelheim, as do the Jehovah's Witnesses and Buddhists. Until 1942 there was a Jewish community. About 1850 200 Jewish inhabitants lived in Ober-Ingelheim, by 1933 there were still 134 all together in Oberingelheim and Niederingelheim. In 1840 and 1841, a synagogue, important to architectural history was built, it was destroyed on 9 November 1938 -- Kristallnacht. Many Jewish inhabitants lost their lives after being deported to the death camps during the time of the Third Reich. On 22 April 1972 the municipality of Groß-Winternheim was amalgamated
Drogo of Metz
Drogo known as Dreux or Drogon, was an illegitimate son of Frankish emperor Charlemagne by the concubine Regina. Drogo was born on 17 June 801 at Gaul; the Annales Weissemburgenses record Drogo’s birth as "802 aut 803 15 Kal Iul". Aachen was the winter palace of the Carolingian empire located in the north-east section of Gaul, close to the Saxon lands; this area is now in Germany. Einhard names "Drogonem et Hugum" as sons of Charlemagne by his concubine "Reginam". Drogo’s mother, was one of four concubines taken by Charlemagne in 800 after the death of his Alemannian wife who had borne him no children. Drogo had many half-brothers and sisters but only one full brother, the younger, he and his brother Hugh, their half-brother Thierry, were brought up in the palace of their half-brother Louis the Pious after their father died. In the collection of Einhard’s Charters, there is one written in 815 by Louis the Pious in which he grants a village situated on the banks of the Main River to Einhard and his wife.
This property was once owned by a Count Drogo. This person could be identified as Charlemagne's son Drogo, although he was only 14 years old in 815. Drogo's brother, was ordained and served as the abbot of Charroux, St-Quentin, Lobbes, St-Bertin and Noaille, he served as archchancellor to Louis the Pious from 834 to 840 and became archchaplain to Charles the Bald in 841 after the battle of Fontenoy. Hugh was killed in battle at Angoulême in June 844; the Annales Fuldenses record that "Hugo abbas, patruus Karoli et Rihboto abbas, Rhaban quoque signifer" was killed "844 VII Id Jun" in the battle in which "Pippini duces" defeated the army of Charles the Bald, King of the Franks. As one of the few children to outlive his father, Drogo's prospects for political power were favourable. Only one older son of Charlemagne remained, was eager to ensure his few opponents were placated. Forced out of the royal court when Louis the Pious became Emperor in 814, Drogo and Hugh were forcibly tonsured and "put under free custody into monasteries".
Drogo became a cleric in 818 and abbot of Luxeuil in 820. In 822, as a religious man, Louis performed penance, at his palace of Attigny near Vouziers in the Ardennes, before Pope Paschal I, a council of ecclesiastics and nobles of the realm, convened for the reconciliation of Louis with his three sons. In attendance were his three younger half-brothers, whom he soon installed as Bishop of Metz in 823, who he soon made Abbot of St-Quentin, Theodoric. Drogo became less significant at court and as a court figure by 829 – he had no formal position and did not become a player again until the 830s. Throughout the 830s Louis the Pious was busy with the rebellions of his sons and assorted counts, abbots and archbishops; this was a period when loyalty and oaths were of paramount importance so it is probable that Drogo’s loyalty to Louis the Pious would have been appreciated. Louis was re-installed as Emperor at Metz in 835 after his temporary deposition in 833-834. Drogo wielded much influence in the last years of Louis the Pious’ reign.
According to the Astronomer, Drogo was Louis the Pious’ daily confessor. It was Drogo who persuaded Louis to forgive his rebellious sons. Drogo remained in this position for the duration of his life. Drogo was the most prominent figure at Louis the Pious’ deathbed. On his deathbed, Louis asked Drogo to send the royal regalia to his son Lothar thus indicating the transfer of power. Drogo took charge of his remains and had them transported from the island in the Rhine where he died; the Annales Fuldenses record that "Druogonem archicapellum et Adalbertum comitem" were sent to the east bank of the Rhine in 840 to take the body to Metz where Drogo presided over the funeral rites. The Sepulchre of Louis the Pious in St. Arnulf in Metz has been considered as representative of the family tradition. Arnulf of Metz, mayor of the palace in Austrasia, is supposed to be the progenitor of the Carolingians, but in fact, Saint-Arnulf of Metz was a burial place for the women of the Carolingian family. Before or after Louis the Pious, no Carolingian king was buried there.
One could instead see this sepulchre as a sign of archbishop Drogo's ambition of elevating his city of Metz by making it the cradle of the Carolingian family. In all probability he wished to establish Saint- Arnoul, whose patron saint was a family ancestor, as the royal mausoleum of the Carolingians. In 844, when Sergius was elected Pope Sergius II, Emperor Lothar sent his son Louis to Rome accompanied by Drogo, raised from bishop to archbishop of Metz. Sergius appointed Drogo his Vicar apostolic for the Frankish lands of Germany. Drogo served as Vicar to Pope Leo IV and Benedict III in France. In October 844, the three sons of Louis the Pious met at Thionville to attempt to unite the three portions of the kingdom in peace. Drogo offered his support to Lothar, his control over the assembly came to nothing as the attempt was referred for future action and Drogo ceased to preside. Drogo supported Louis the Pious in 839-40 during the Third Civil War between his sons. Once Louis
Gascony is an area of southwest France, part of the "Province of Guyenne and Gascony" prior to the French Revolution. The region is vaguely defined, the distinction between Guyenne and Gascony is unclear. Most definitions put Gascony south of Bordeaux, it is divided between the region of Nouvelle-Aquitaine and the region of Occitanie. Gascony was inhabited by Basque-related people who appear to have spoken a language similar to Basque; the name Gascony comes from the same root as the word Basque. From medieval times until today, the Gascon language has been spoken, although it is classified as a regional variant of the Occitan language. Gascony is the land of d'Artagnan, who inspired Alexandre Dumas's character d'Artagnan in The Three Musketeers, as well as the land of Cyrano de Bergerac, who inspired the play of the same name by Edmond Rostand, it is home to Henry III of Navarre, who became king of France as Henry IV. In pre-Roman times, the inhabitants of Gascony were the Aquitanians, who spoke a non-Indo-European language related to modern Basque.
The Aquitanians inhabited a territory limited to the north and east by the Garonne River, to the south by the Pyrenees mountain range, to the west by the Atlantic Ocean. The Romans called this territory Aquitania, either from the Latin word aqua, in reference to the many rivers flowing from the Pyrenees through the area, or from the name of the Aquitanian Ausci tribe, in which case Aquitania would mean "land of the Ausci". In the 50s BC, Aquitania was conquered by lieutenants of Julius Caesar and became part of the Roman Empire. In 27 BC, during the reign of Emperor Augustus, the province of Gallia Aquitania was created. Gallia Aquitania was far larger than the original Aquitania, as it extended north of the Garonne River, in fact all the way north to the Loire River, thus including the Celtic Gauls that inhabited the regions between the Garonne and the Loire rivers. In 297, as Emperor Diocletian reformed the administrative structures of the Roman Empire, Aquitania was split into three provinces.
The territory south of the Garonne River, corresponding to the original Aquitania, was made a province called Novempopulania, while the part of Gallia Aquitania north of the Garonne became the province of Aquitanica I and the province of Aquitanica II. The territory of Novempopulania corresponded quite well to; the Aquitania Novempopulana or Novempopulania suffered like the rest of the Western Roman Empire from the invasions of Germanic tribes, most notably the Vandals in 407–409. In 416–418, Novempopulania was delivered to the Visigoths as their federate settlement lands and became part of the Visigoth kingdom of Toulouse, while other than the region of the Garonne river their actual grip on the area may have been rather loose; the Visigoths were defeated by the Franks in 507, fled into Spain and Septimania. Novempopulania became part of the Frankish Kingdom like the rest of southern France. However, Novempopulania was far away from the home base of the Franks in northern France, was only loosely controlled by the Franks.
During all the troubled and obscure period, starting from early 5th-century accounts, the bagaudae are cited, social uprisings against tax exaction and feudalization associated to Vasconic unrest. Old historical literature sometimes claims the Basques took control of the whole of Novempopulania in the Early Middle Ages, founding its claims on the testimony of Gregory of Tours, on the etymological link between the words "Basque" and "Gascon" – both derived from "Vascones" or "Wasconia", the latter being used to name the whole of Novempopulania. Modern historians reject this hypothesis, sustained by no archeological evidence. For Juan José Larrea, Pierre Bonnassie, "a Vascon expansionism in Aquitany is not proved and is not necessary to understand the historical evolution of this region"; this Basque-related culture and race is, whatever the origin, attested in Medieval documents, while their exact boundaries remain unclear. The word Vasconia evolved into Wasconia, into Gasconia; the gradual abandonment of the Basque-related Aquitanian language in favor of a local Vulgar Latin was not reversed.
The replacing local Vulgar Latin evolved into Gascon. It was influenced by the original Aquitanian language. Interestingly, the Basques from the French side of the Basque Country traditionally call anyone who does not speak Basque a "Gascon". Meanwhile, Viking raiders conquered several Gascon towns, among them Bayonne in 842–844, their attacks in Gascony may have helped the political disintegration of the Duchy until their defeat against William II Sánchez of Gascony in 982. In turn, the weakened ethnic polity known as Duchy of Wasconia/Wascones, unable to get round the general spread of feudalization, gave way to a myriad of counties founded by Gascon lords, his 1152 marriage to Eleanor of Aquitaine allowed the future Henry II to gain cont
The Vilaine is a river in Brittany, in the west of France. The river's source is in the Mayenne département, it flows out into the Atlantic Ocean at Pénestin in the Morbihan département, it is 218 km long. The river passes through 4 main towns. Three barrages were built around Vitré, Ille-et-Vilaine to alleviate flooding, while securing potable water supplies, they are amenities for recreational activities. 1978 Valière barrage 1982 Haute-Vilaine barrage 1995 Villaumur barrage The river has a flow ranging between 2 and 1500 m3/s The Vilaine is part of Brittany's canal system, built in the 19th century for small barges. The entire system was transferred to the Brittany Region in 2011. In Rennes the river connects to the Canal d'Ille et Rance hence the Rance estuary, which enters the English Channel at Saint-Malo. In Redon it crosses the Canal de Nantes à Brest, giving access to the Blavet and Nantes. Ille Meu Seiche Semnon Chère Don Oust Isac http://www.geoportail.fr River Vilaine navigation guide.
Maine is one of the traditional provinces of France. It corresponds to the former County of Maine, whose capital was the city of Le Mans; the area, now divided into the departments of Sarthe and Mayenne, counts about 857,000 inhabitants. In the 8th and 9th centuries there existed a Duchy of Cénomannie, which several of the Carolingian kings used as an appanage; this duchy was a march that may have included several counties including Maine, extended into Lower Normandy, all the way to the Seine. In 748, Pepin the Short Mayor of the Palace and thus the most powerful man in Francia after the king, gave this duchy to his half-brother Grifo. In 790 Charlemagne in turn gave it to Charles the Younger. Charlemagne's grandson, the future Charles the Bald, his son Louis the Stammerer inherited the title. At the height of the Scandinavian invasions Ragenold of Neustria held the title as well as the Neustrian march and the county of Maine, given to him on the death of Gauzfrid by Charles the Bald because Gauzfrid's children were too young to act in that capacity.
Ragenold, who may have been the son of Renaud d'Herbauges, died in 885 fighting the Vikings who were pillaging Rouen. The son-in-law of Charlemagne, was the count of Maine between 832 and 839. In the last half of the 9th century, Maine took on strategic importance because of invasions from Normandy and Brittany. Rorgon's son Gauzfrid in turn became Count of Maine, he fought against Salomon, King of Brittany and in 866 participated in the battle of Brissarthe alongside Robert the Strong, the Frankish Margrave of Neustria. In 924 King Rudolph of France was said to give Maine to the Norse nobleman Rollo, Duke of Normandy. Bordering the county of Anjou to the south and the Duchy of Normandy to the north, Maine became a bone of contention between the rulers of these more powerful principalities. Hugh III of Maine was forced to recognize Fulk Count of Anjou as his overlord. Sometime between 1045 and 1047 Hugh IV married Bertha, daughter of Odo II, Count of Blois and widow of Alan III, Duke of Brittany.
The Angevins did not want Maine to come under the influence of Blois, Count Geoffrey Martel invaded Maine. But the Normans did not want Maine to return to the Angevin orbit; the precise chronology is disputed, but it is clear that in 1051 Hugh IV died and the citizens of Le Mans opened their gate to the Angevins. Anjou wound up with effective control of most of the county, but the Normans did take several important strongholds on the Maine–Normandy border. Hugh IV's son Herbert II fled to the Norman court and his death in 1062 precipitated a succession crisis. Herbert died childless in 1062 after declaring William the Bastard Duke of Normandy, his heir, his sister Marguerite was engaged to William's eldest son, Robert Curthose and Herbert had taken refuge at William's court in 1056 when Geoffrey Martel, Duke of Anjou, invaded Le Mans. While the county was in Angevin hands, Anjou had its own succession problem. Duke William of Normandy claimed the county on their behalf of Herbert's young sister Margaret, betrothed to his son Robert Curthose.
The other claimant was Herbert's aunt Biota, a sister of Hugh IV, her husband Walter, Count of the Vexin. William invaded Maine in force in 1063 and despite stiff opposition Fulk IV, Count of Anjou, from local barons such as Geoffrey of Mayenne and Hubert de Sainte-Suzanne he controlled the county by the beginning of 1064. Biota and Walter were captured at the taking of Le Mans, they died sometime in 1063, poisoned, it was rumoured, though there is no hard evidence for this. Norman control of Maine secured the southern border of Normandy against Anjou and is one factor which enabled William to launch his successful invasion of England in 1066. In 1069 the citizens of Le Mans revolted against the Normans. Soon some of the Manceaux barons joined the revolt, the Normans were expelled in 1070, young Hugh V was proclaimed Count of Maine, he was the son of Azzo d'Este and his wife Gersendis, the other sister of Count Hugh IV. Azzo returned to Italy; the real power, was one of the Manceaux barons, Geoffrey of Mayenne, who may have been Gersendis' lover.
After Norman attacks in 1073, 1088, 1098 and 1099, Elias I succeeded his cousin Hugh V, who sold Maine to him in 1092 for ten thousand shillings. His daughter married Count of Anjou, who took Maine over in 1110 after the death of Elias. Henri Beauclerc, agreed to recognize him as Count of Maine so long as he acknowledged the Duke of Normandy as his overlord. Fulk's son Geoffrey Count of Anjou inherited Maine; when Geoffrey died in 1151, it passed to King Henry II of England. Since Henry had been Duke of Normandy since 1150, Anjou and Normandy all had the same ruler for the first time. Henry founded the Plantagenet dynasty in England. King Philip II of France attacked the Plantagenet holding, known as the Angevin Empire, being held by John, King of England; the Plantagenet loss of Normandy may have led to the increased sway of the House of Capet and thus to the Hundred Years' War, the French seneschal William des Roches took Touraine and Maine on behalf of the king. In 1331 the Count of Maine became a peer of the realm.
After the Battle of Verneuil in 1424, the English occupied Maine, John of Lancaster took the title of Duke. The English held Le Mans until 1448 and Fresnay until 1449. In 1481, Charles IV, Duke of Anjou bequeathed his lands to Louis XI of France, thus returning the county to the crown. At the beginning, a part of the Maine population supported the French revolution that took place in Par
Toulouse is the capital of the French department of Haute-Garonne and of the region of Occitanie. The city is on the banks of the River Garonne, 150 kilometres from the Mediterranean Sea, 230 km from the Atlantic Ocean and 680 km from Paris, it is the fourth-largest city in France, with 466,297 inhabitants as of January 2014. In France, Toulouse is called the "Pink City"; the Toulouse Metro area, with 1,312,304 inhabitants as of 2014, is France's fourth-largest metropolitan area, after Paris and Marseille, ahead of Lille and Bordeaux. Toulouse is the centre of the European aerospace industry, with the headquarters of Airbus, the Galileo positioning system, the SPOT satellite system, ATR and the Aerospace Valley, it hosts the European headquarters of Intel and CNES's Toulouse Space Centre, the largest space centre in Europe. Thales Alenia Space, ATR, SAFRAN, Liebherr-Aerospace and Astrium Satellites have a significant presence in Toulouse; the University of Toulouse is one of the oldest in Europe and, with more than 103,000 students, it is the fourth-largest university campus in France, after the universities of Paris and Lille.
The air route between Toulouse–Blagnac and Paris Orly is the busiest in Europe, transporting 2.4 million passengers in 2014. According to the rankings of L'Express and Challenges, Toulouse is the most dynamic French city; the city was the capital of the Visigothic Kingdom in the 5th century and the capital of the province of Languedoc in the Late Middle Ages and early modern period, making it the unofficial capital of the cultural region of Occitania. It is now the capital of the second largest region in Metropolitan France. A city with unique architecture made of pinkish terracotta bricks, which earned it the nickname la Ville Rose, Toulouse counts two UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the Canal du Midi, the Basilica of St. Sernin, the largest remaining Romanesque building in Europe, designated in 1998 because of its significance to the Santiago de Compostela pilgrimage route. Toulouse is in the south of France, north of the department of Haute-Garonne, on the axis of communication between the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean.
The city is traversed by the Canal de Brienne, the Canal du Midi and the rivers Garonne and Hers-Mort. Toulouse has a humid subtropical climate, with too much precipitation in the summer months preventing the city from being classified as a Mediterranean climate zone; the Garonne Valley was a central point for trade between the Pyrenees, the Mediterranean and the Atlantic since at least the Iron Age. The historical name of the city, Tolosa, it is of unknown meaning or origin from Aquitanian, or from Iberian, but has been connected to the name of the Gaulish Volcae Tectosages. Tolosa enters the historical period in the 2nd century BC. After the conquest of Gaul, it was developed as a Roman city of Gallia Narbonensis. In the 5th century, Tolosa fell to the Visigothic kingdom and became one of its major cities, in the early 6th century serving as its capital, before it fell to the Franks under Clovis in 507. From this time, Toulouse was the capital of Aquitaine within the Frankish realm. In 721, Duke Odo of Aquitaine defeated an invading Umayyad Muslim army at the Battle of Toulouse.
Odo's victory was a small obstacle to Muslim expansion into Christian Europe, Muslims occupied a large territory including Poitiers. Charles Martel, a decade won the Battle of Tours called the Battle of Poitiers; the Frankish conquest of Septimania followed in the 750s, a quasi-independent County of Toulouse emerged within the Carolingian sub-kingdom of Aquitaine by the late 8th century. The Battle of Toulouse of 844, pitting Charles the Bald against Pepin II of Aquitaine, was key in the Carolingian Civil War. During the Carolingian era, the town rose in status. In the 12th century, consuls took over the running of the town and these proved to be difficult years. In particular, it was a time of religious turmoil. In Toulouse, the Cathars tried to set up a community here, but were routed by Simon de Montfort's troops; the Dominican Order was founded in Toulouse in 1215 by Saint Dominic in this context of struggle against the Cathar heresy. The subsequent arrival of the Inquisition led to a period of religious fervour during which time the Dominican Couvent des Jacobins was founded.
Governed by Raimond II and a group of city nobles, Toulouse's urban boundaries stretched beyond its walls to the north and as far south as Saint Michel. In the Treaty of Paris of 1229, Toulouse formally submitted to the crown of France; the county's sole heiress Joan was engaged to Alphonse, Count of Poitiers, a younger brother of Louis IX of France. The marriage became legal in 1241, but it remained childless so that after Joan's death the county fell to the crown of France by inheritance. In 1229, University of Toulouse was established after the Parisian model, intended as a means to dissolve the heretic movement. Various monastic orders, like the congregation of the order of frères prêcheurs, were started, they found home in Les Jacobins. In parallel, a long period of inquisition began inside the Toulouse walls; the fear of repression obliged the notabilities to convert themselves. The inquisition lasted nearly 4