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Non-disclosure agreement

A non-disclosure agreement known as a confidentiality agreement, confidential disclosure agreement, proprietary information agreement or secrecy agreement, is a legal contract between at least two parties that outlines confidential material, knowledge, or information that the parties wish to share with one another for certain purposes, but wish to restrict access to or by third parties. Doctor–patient confidentiality, attorney–client privilege, priest–penitent privilege, bank–client confidentiality, Kickback agreements are examples not enshrined in a written contract between the parties, it is a contract through which the parties agree not to disclose information covered by the agreement. An NDA creates a confidential relationship between the parties to protect any type of confidential and proprietary information or trade secrets; as such, an NDA protects non-public business information. Like all contracts, they can not be enforced. NDAs are signed when two companies, individuals, or other entities are considering doing business and need to understand the processes used in each other's business for the purpose of evaluating the potential business relationship.

NDAs can be "mutual", meaning both parties are restricted in their use of the materials provided, or they can restrict the use of material by a single party. An employee can be required to sign an NDA or NDA-like agreement with an employer, protecting trade secrets. In fact, some employment agreements include a clause restricting employees' use and dissemination of company-owned confidential information. In legal disputes resolved by settlement, the parties sign a confidentiality agreement relating to the terms of the settlement. Examples of this agreement are The Dolby Trademark Agreement with Dolby Laboratories, the Windows Insider Agreement, the Halo CFP with Microsoft. In some cases, employees who are dismissed following their complaints about unacceptable practices, or discrimination against and harassment of themselves, may be paid compensation subject to an NDA forbidding them from disclosing the events complained about; such conditions in an NDA may not be enforceable in law, although they may intimidate the former employee into silence.

A non-disclosure agreement may be classified as unilateral, bilateral, or multilateral: A unilateral NDA involves two parties where only one party anticipates disclosing certain information to the other party and requires that the information be protected from further disclosure for some reason. A bilateral NDA involves two parties where both parties anticipate disclosing information to one another that each intends to protect from further disclosure; this type of NDA is common when businesses are considering some kind of joint merger. When presented with a unilateral NDA, some parties may insist upon a bilateral NDA though they anticipate that only one of the parties will disclose information under the NDA; this approach is intended to incentivize the drafter to make the provisions in the NDA more "fair and balanced" by introducing the possibility that a receiving party could become a disclosing party or vice versa, not an uncommon occurrence. A multilateral NDA involves three or more parties where at least one of the parties anticipates disclosing information to the other parties and requires that the information be protected from further disclosure.

This type of NDA eliminates the need for separate unilateral or bilateral NDAs between only two parties. E.g. A single multiparty NDA entered into by three parties who each intend to disclose information to the other two parties could be used in place of three separate bilateral NDAs between the first and second parties and third parties, third and first parties. A multilateral NDA can be advantageous because the parties involved review and implement just one agreement. However, this advantage can be offset by more complex negotiations that may be required for the parties involved to reach a unanimous consensus on a multilateral agreement. A non-disclosure agreement can protect any type of information, not known. However, non-disclosure agreements may contain clauses that will protect the person receiving the information so that if they lawfully obtained the information through other sources they would not be obligated to keep the information secret. In other words, the non-disclosure agreement only requires the receiving party to maintain information in confidence when that information has been directly supplied by the disclosing party.

However, it is sometimes easier to get a receiving party to sign a simple agreement, shorter, less complex and does not contain safety provisions protecting the receiver. Some common issues addressed in an NDA include: outlining the parties to the agreement. Modern NDAs will include a laundry list of types of items which are covered, including unpublished patent applications, know-how, financial information, verbal representations, customer lists, vendor lists, business practices/strategies, etc..


WRAF is a Christian radio station owned and operated by Radio Training Network, Inc. It is licensed to Toccoa Falls and serves the Athens metropolitan area along with much of Northeast Georgia, it features a Contemporary Christian music format. Three family ministries are included in the weekday schedule: Dr. James Dobson, Dr. David Jeremiah and Dr. Charles Stanley, it features news from Salem Communications. Its sister and companion station was WTXR; the station, along with WEPC, WPFJ, WTXR, translators W221AZ and W265AZ, was purchased from Toccoa Falls College effective July 25, 2016 for $2.1 million. The station relays its signal through various other radio stations and translators to broaden its coverage range: Query the FCC's FM station database for WRAF Radio-Locator information on WRAF Query Nielsen Audio's FM station database for WRAF Query the FCC's FM station database for WAHP Radio-Locator information on WAHP Query Nielsen Audio's FM station database for WAHP

Palazzo Magnani Feroni

The Palazzo Magnani Feroni is a Renaissance Palace in Florence, central Italy, dating back to the 15th century. It is built in the purest Florentine style and is decorated and adorned with statues and frescoes dating from the 16th century; the entrance-way dates back to the 17th century and leads to the iron gate decorated with the coat-of-arms of the Feroni family: an armour-clad arm, holding a sword and a golden lily. It is one of the oldest edifices in the historical San Frediano neighborhood, listed as one of the coolest neighborhoods in the world by Lonely Planet, the world's largest travel guide book publisher; the Del Puglieses, a distinguished family of the Florentine Republic, owned a residence in that area from the early fifteenth century and enlarged it in 1428 by acquiring eight additional smaller apartments, which the previous owner, Niccolò Serragli, had unified under a single roof. The Del Puglieses are remembered for their patronage of the arts and Giorgio Vasari writes that, in this location, Piero di Cosimo painted a number of stories on the walls of a room, Fra Bartolomeo a mounted St George atop a flight of stairs.

In the mid-sixteenth century, the palace was divided into two parts. The section towards the bridge became the Del Puglieses' property until their extinction, which occurred in the mid-nineteenth century, whereas the Marquis of Botta, who assembled an important collection of paintings there, inherited the Borgo Stella wing; the two wings were reconnected and, around the year 1770, the wealthy Francesco, baptized Giuseppe, Marquis Ubaldo Feroni, purchased the palace. It is known that, by 1769, a palace and several residences in the San Frediano neighborhood had been purchased and that the first phase of renovations ended in 1778. Subsequently and not long afterwards, in 1783, the venerable parish and adjacent monastery of San Frediano were suppressed and the Marquis Ubaldo Feroni purchased this land to extend all his property to the Piazza del Carmine. Another vast property of seventeen windows was built on the Piazza del Carmine and a generous and pleasant garden took up the entire interior area and that along Borgo Stella.

During the French occupation of Italy in the Napoleonic Wars, the Feroni marquises held formal parties and grand balls to celebrate official visits of a sovereign or during annual events, such as the Grand-Duchess' birthday. The period of Feroni's affluence waned and in 1821 the heirs of Senator Francesco Ubaldo ceded the magnificent property to new and prestigious owners, the Magnanis; the Napoleonic embargo drove the Magnanis to risky yet profitable speculation, as a result of which their net worth ballooned and obliged them to take up residence in the capital. Thus, they came to choose this palace as their residence, as it was one of the most spacious in the city and allowed them a suitable and sumptuous abode. Towards the end of the nineteenth century, the enormous property was inherited from the Magnanis by the Amerighis, an aristocratic family from Siena, which held the title through the end of the First World War; the Palazzo is today owned by IGG Inc. and is a suites hotel in the heart of Florence, with the highest panoramic roof terrace in the Oltrarno area from which you can see all the major monuments of the city.

In October 2017, it was selected among the 3 finalists for the prestigious 2018 Condé Nast Johansens Awards for Excellence in the category: Readers’ Award. Condé Nast is one of the world's biggest mass media companies. Official website


The County of Hanau-Münzenberg was a territory within the Holy Roman Empire. It emerged when the County of Hanau was divided in 1458, the other part being the county of Hanau-Lichtenberg. Due to common heirs both counties were merged from 1642 to 1685 and from 1712 to 1736. In 1736 the last member of the House of Hanau died and the Landgrave of Hessen-Kassel inherited the county; the county of Hanau-Münzenberg was positioned to the north of the river Main stretching from the West of Frankfurt am Main eastwards through the valley of the river Kinzig to Schlüchtern and into the Spessart mountains to Partenstein. Capital was the town of Hanau; the counts had castles in Windecken and Steinau an der Straße. For the following years population counts of Hanau-Münzenberg do exist: 1632: 5,140 families 1707: 6,706 families 1754: 48,000 inhabitants In 1452, after a reign of only one year, Count Reinhard III of Hanau died; the heir was Philip I, only four years old. For the sake of the continuity of the dynasty after years of political fighting, his relatives and other important decision-makers in the county agreed not to turn to the 1375 primogenitur statute of the family – one of the oldest in Germany – but to separate the administrative district of Babenhausen from the county of Hanau and let the heir's uncle and brother of the deceased, Philip I, have it in his own right as a county.

This arrangement of 1458 allowed him to have a befitting marriage and offspring entitled to inherit, so increased the chances of survival of the comital house. This created the Line of Hanau-Lichtenberg. On – to distinguish the "old" county from Hanau-Lichtenberg – the part of the county which stayed with Philip I was called Hanau-Münzenberg; the History of Hanau-Münzenberg is dominated by a large series of guardianships for counts still minor when inheriting the county from their fathers: Without interruption this happened during six accessions between 1512 and 1638. Always the counts died in their late 30th leaving behind a minor as successor. Most the reason was a heridary disease; the effect of this was that the politics of expansion which on the long term dominated the success of the Lordship of Hanau and the county of Hanau came to a halt when Philip I died in 1500. But early Hanau-Münzenberg participated in the Reformation, to be exact: its Lutheran version; the reformation was introduced during the reign of Philipp II: when church staff retired, their successor would be a Lutheran.

As early as 1523, the pastor Adolf Arborgast was included in the chapter of the St. Mary's church in Hanau, the central church of the county; when he was appointed, he explained that he wanted to spend little effort on vespers and the daily mass, but would instead concentrate on his sermons and putting forward the Gospel. The real reformer of Hanau was his successor Philipp Neunheller MA; the Catholic faith was never banned. The number of Catholic priests decreased, as they were not replaced when they retired. Under the reign of Philipp II started the project to replace the mediaeval fortifications of the town of Hanau by the latest in Renaissance-fortification available; this investment became necessary due to the introduction of modern artillery the mediaeval fortification could not withstand. The new walls were placed outside the mediaeval ones and included a settlement, "Vorstadt", which had developed outside the gates; when Philipp Ludwig I died in 1580 another guardianship had to be installed for the benefit of his successor, Philipp Ludwig II, still a minor.

Guardians became the Counts John VI, Count of Nassau-Dillenburg, Louis I, Count of Sayn-Wittgenstein and Philipp IV, Count of Hanau-Lichtenberg, replaced in 1585 by his son, Count Philipp V of Hanau-Lichtenberg. The dominating figure in this constallation became the Count of Nassau. Additionally Philipp Ludwig's widowed mother, Countess Magdalena of Waldeck, remarried on 9 December 1581 Count John VII, the Middle, of Nassau-Siegen, the son of Count John IV. In consequence Philipp Ludwig II and his younger brother, Count Albrecht, joined the Nassau-Dillenburg court, a centre of the Reformation movement in Germany and tied to the Electorate of the Palatinate of the Rhine; the new ideas he encountered here influenced his life and policies. By using his rights under the Cuius regio, eius religio rule, he changed the confession of his county to Calvinism in 1593, he succeeded with this nearly eveywhere in his sphere of influence, except in a few villages in the district Bornheimerberg, which surrounded Frankfurt and the condominiums shared with the Roman Catholic archbishop-elector of Mainz.

The villages in the vicinity of Frankfurt had strong ties to this Lutheran city and a majority of the villagers just went to Lutheran services in "foreign" Frankfurt territory. In the condominiums Philipp Ludwig II shared with Mainz he couldn't change anything — whether his subjects had become Lutheran during the reformation or had remained Roman Catholic. With his marriage in 1596 to Katharina Belgica, third daughter of William the Silent, he gained a personal connection to one of the leading personalities of Calvinism in Europe; the introduction of Calvinism and the location of the County of Hanau-Münzenberg, at only half a day's journey away from Frankfurt with its trade fairs, made Hanau an attractive place to settle for Calvinist refugees from France and from the Southern Netherlands. They were wealthy traders and were attractive subjects for a ruler in need of tax revenues. In 1597 and 1604, the co

Latvian orthography

Latvian orthography used a system based upon German phonetic principles, while the Latgalian dialect was written using Polish orthographic principles. The present-day Latvian orthography was developed by the Knowledge Commission of the Riga Latvian Association in 1908, was approved the same year by the orthography commission under the leadership of Kārlis Mīlenbahs and Jānis Endzelīns, its basis is the Latin script and it was introduced by law from 1920 to 1922 in the Republic of Latvia. For the most part it is phonetic in. Today, the Latvian standard alphabet consists of 33 letters; the modern standard Latvian alphabet uses 22 unmodified letters of the Latin alphabet. The Latvian alphabet lacks Q, W, X and Y; these letters are not used in Latvian for writing foreign geographical names. Džordžs Volkers Bušs. However, these four letters can be used in mathematics and sometimes in brand names: their names are kū, dubult vē, iks and igrek; the Latvian alphabet has a further eleven letters formed by adding diacritic marks to some letters.

The vowel letters A, I and U can take a macron to show length, unmodified letters being short. The letters C, S and Z, which in unmodified form are pronounced, can be marked with a caron; these marked letters, Č, Š and Ž are pronounced, respectively. The letters Ģ, Ķ, Ļ and Ņ are written with a small comma placed below, they represent the sounds, and. Non-standard varieties of Latvian add extra letters to this standard set; the letters F and H appear only in loanwords. The letters CH, Ō and Ŗ were used in the Latvian alphabet; the last of these stood for the palatalized dental trill /rʲ/, still used in some dialects but not in the standard language, hence the letter Ŗ was removed from the alphabet on 5 June 1946, when the Latvian SSR legislature passed a regulation that replaced it with R in print. Similar reforms replacing CH with H, Ō with O, were enacted over the next few years; the letters CH, Ō and Ŗ continue to be used in print throughout most of the Latvian diaspora communities, whose founding members left their homeland before the post-World War II Soviet-era language reforms.

An example of a publication in Latvia today, albeit one aimed at the Latvian diaspora, that uses the older orthography—including the letters CH, Ō and Ŗ—is the weekly newspaper Brīvā Latvija. Latvian has a phonetic spelling. There are only a few exceptions to this: The first is the letter E and its long variation Ē, which are used to write two sounds that represent the short and long versions of either or respectively: ēdu vs. ēdu and dzer vs. dzer The letter O indicates both the short and long, the diphthong. These three sounds are written as O, Ō and Uo in Latgalian, some Latvians campaign for the adoption of this system in standard Latvian. However, the majority of Latvian linguists argue that o and ō are found only in loanwords, with the Uo sound being the only native Latvian phoneme; the digraph Uo was discarded in 1914, the letter Ō has not been used in the standard orthography since 1946. Example: robots vs. robots. Latvian orthography does not distinguish intonation homographs: sējums vs sējums, tā vs tā.

Some spellings based on morphology exist. Latvian orthography uses digraphs Dz, Dž and Ie; the old orthography was based on that of German and did not represent the Latvian language phonemically. At the beginning it was used to write religious texts for German priests to help them in their work with Latvians; the first writings in Latvian were chaotic: there were as many as twelve variations of writing Š. In 1631 the German priest Georg Mancelius tried to systematize the writing, he wrote long vowels according to their position in the word — a short vowel followed by h for a radical vowel, a short vowel in the suffix and vowel with a diacritic mark in the ending indicating two different accents. Consonants were written following the example of German with multiple letters; the old orthography was used until the 20th century when it was replaced by the modern orthography. Lack of software support of diacritics has caused an unofficial style of orthography called translit, to emerge for use in situations when the user is unable to access Latvian diacritic marks on the computer or using cell phone.

It uses only letters of the ISO basic Latin alphabet, letters not used in standard orthography are omitted. In this style, diacritics are replaced by digraphs: ā, ē, ī, ū - aa, ee, ii, uu ļ, ņ, ģ, ķ - lj, nj, gj, kj š - sh Some people may find it difficult to use such methods and either write without any indication of missing diacritic marks or use digraphs only if the diacritic mark in question would make a semantic difference. There is yet another style, sometimes called "Pokémonism", characterised by use of some elements of leet, use of non-Latvian letters, use of c instead of ts, use of z in endings, use of mixed case. Standard QWERTY keyboards are used for writing in Latvian; some keyboard layouts use a modifier key AltGr (most notable of such

Rauf Parekh

Rauf Parekh is an Urdu lexicographer, humorist and a Pakistani newspaper columnist. Born in Karachi on August 26, 1958, Parekh was educated in Karachi. Having obtained MA and PhD degrees in Urdu from the University of Karachi, he worked for the Urdu Lughat Board or Urdu Dictionary Board, Karachi, as Chief Editor from 2003 to 2007. Farman Fatehpuri, president of the Urdu Lughat Board, said in an interview, "The Urdu Lughat Board plans to publish 22 volumes containing 300,000 words, give or take a few hundred words." He praised Rauf Parekh for bringing out two volumes of the Urdu Lughat in two years. Urdu Lughat Board began its work in 1958, the first volume of the Urdu Lughat came out in 1967. In 2017, Rauf Parekh teaches Urdu at the University of Karachi and writes a weekly literary column in Dawn newspaper. In addition to writing research articles, humorous essays and critical writings, he has written over 20 books; some of his books are: Urdu Lughat Awwaleen Urdu Slang Lughat Urdu Lughat Navisi The Oxford Urdu-English Dictionary Asri Adab Aur Samaji Rujhanaat Allama Iqbal by Atiya Begum Pride of Performance Award by the President of Pakistan in 2018'Dabistanon ka dabistan: Karachi', volume 2, by Ahmed Hussain Siddiqi, Muhammad Hussain Academy, Karachi, 2005