A doppelgänger is a non-biologically related look-alike or double of a living person, sometimes portrayed as a ghostly or paranormal phenomenon and seen as a harbinger of bad luck. Other traditions and stories equate a doppelgänger with an evil twin. In modern times, the term twin stranger is used; the word "doppelgänger" is used in a more general and neutral sense, in slang, to describe any person who physically resembles another person. The word doppelgänger is a loanword from the German Doppelgänger, a compound noun formed by combining the two nouns Doppel and Gänger; the singular and plural forms are the same in German, but English prefers the plural "doppelgängers". The first known use, in the different form Doppeltgänger, occurs in the novel Siebenkäs by Jean Paul, in which he explains his newly coined word by a footnote – while the word Doppelgänger appears, but with a quite different meaning. Like all nouns in German, the word is written with an initial capital letter. Doppelgänger and Doppelgaenger are equivalent spellings, Doppelganger is different and would correspond to a different pronunciation.
In English, the word should be written with a lower-case letter unless it is the first word of a sentence or part of a title. It is further common to drop the umlaut on the letter "a", writing "doppelganger". English-speakers have only applied this German word to a paranormal concept. Francis Grose's, Provincial Glossary of 1787 used the term fetch instead, defined as the "apparition of a person living." Catherine Crowe's book on paranormal phenomena, The Night-Side of Nature helped make the German word well-known. However, the concept of alter egos and double spirits has appeared in the folklore, religious concepts, traditions of many cultures throughout human history. In Ancient Egyptian mythology, a ka was a tangible "spirit double" having the same memories and feelings as the person to whom the counterpart belongs; the Greek Princess presents an Egyptian view of the Trojan War in which a ka of Helen misleads Paris, helping to stop the war.. This is depicted in Euripides' play Helen. In Norse mythology, a vardøger is a ghostly double, seen performing the person's actions in advance.
In Finnish mythology, this is called having an etiäinen, "a firstcomer". The doppelgänger is a version of the Ankou, a personification of death, in Breton and Norman folklore. Izaak Walton claimed that English metaphysical poet John Donne saw his wife's doppelgänger in 1612 in Paris, on the same night as the stillbirth of their daughter. German playwright Goethe described an experience in his autobiography Dichtung und Wahrheit in which he and his double passed one another on horseback. In addition to describing the doppelgänger double as a counterpart to the self, Percy Bysshe Shelley's drama Prometheus Unbound makes reference to Zoroaster meeting "his own image walking in the garden". Lord Byron uses doppelgänger imagery to explore the duality of human nature. In The Devil's Elixir, a man murders the brother and stepmother of his beloved princess, finds his doppelgänger has been sentenced to death for these crimes in his stead, liberates him, only to have the doppelgänger murder the object of his affection.
This was one of E. T. A. Hoffmann's early novels. Fyodor Dostoyevsky's novel The Double presents the doppelgänger as an opposite personality who exploits the character failings of the protagonist to take over his life. Charles Williams' Descent into Hell has character Pauline Anstruther seeing her own doppelgänger all through her life. Clive Barker's story "Human Remains" in his Books of Blood is a doppelgänger tale, the doppelgänger motif is a staple of Gothic fiction. In Stephen King's book, The Outsider, the antagonist is able to use the DNA of individuals to become their near perfect match through a science-fictional ability to transform physically; the allusion to it being a doppelganger is made by the group trying to stop it from killing again. The group discusses other examples of fictional doppelgangers that occurred throughout history to provide some context. In The CW supernatural drama series, The Vampire Diaries, actress Nina Dobrev portrayed the roles of several doppelgangers; the series focused on the doppelgangers of the sweet & genuine Elena and the malevolent & bitchy Katherine.
With the advent of social media, there have been several reported cases of people finding their "twin stranger" online, a modern term for a doppelgänger. Twinstrangers.net is a website where users can upload a photo of themselves and facial recognition software attempts to match them with another user of like appearance. The site reports that it has found numerous living doppelgängers—including three living doppelgängers of its founder Niamh Geaney. Heautoscopy is a term used in psychiatry and neurology for the hallucination of "seeing one's own body at a distance", it can occur as a symptom in schizophrenia and epilepsy, is considered a possible explanation for doppelgänger phenomena. Criminologists find a practical application in the concepts of facial familiarity and similarity due to the instances of wrongful convictions based on eyewitness testimony. In one case, a person spent 17 years behind bars persistently denying any involvement with the crime of which he was accused, he was released after someone was found who shared a striking resemblance and the same first name.
Alter ego Capgras delusion Doppelganger Week Evil twin Fetch Fylgja Sy
Library of Congress
The Library of Congress is the research library that serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States. It is the oldest federal cultural institution in the United States; the Library is housed in three buildings on Capitol Hill in Washington, D. C.. The Library's functions are overseen by the Librarian of Congress, its buildings are maintained by the Architect of the Capitol; the Library of Congress has claimed to be the largest library in the world. Its "collections are universal, not limited by subject, format, or national boundary, include research materials from all parts of the world and in more than 450 languages."The Library of Congress moved to Washington in 1800 after sitting for 11 years in the temporary national capitals in New York City and Philadelphia. The small Congressional Library was housed in the United States Capitol for most of the 19th century until the early 1890s. Most of the original collection had been destroyed by the British in 1814 during the War of 1812, the library sought to restore its collection in 1815.
They bought Thomas Jefferson's entire personal collection of 6,487 books. After a period of slow growth, another fire struck the Library in its Capitol chambers in 1851, again destroying a large amount of the collection, including many of Jefferson's books. After the American Civil War, the Library of Congress grew in both size and importance, which sparked a campaign to purchase replacement copies for volumes, burned; the Library received the right of transference of all copyrighted works to deposit two copies of books, maps and diagrams printed in the United States. It began to build its collections, its development culminated between 1888 and 1894 with the construction of a separate, extensive library building across the street from the Capitol; the Library's primary mission is to research inquiries made by members of Congress, carried out through the Congressional Research Service. The Library is open to the public, although only high-ranking government officials and Library employees may check out books and materials.
James Madison is credited with the idea of creating a congressional library, first making such a proposition in 1783. The Library of Congress was subsequently established April 24, 1800 when President John Adams signed an act of Congress providing for the transfer of the seat of government from Philadelphia to the new capital city of Washington. Part of the legislation appropriated $5,000 "for the purchase of such books as may be necessary for the use of Congress... and for fitting up a suitable apartment for containing them." Books were ordered from London, the collection consisted of 740 books and three maps which were housed in the new United States Capitol. President Thomas Jefferson played an important role in establishing the structure of the Library of Congress. On January 26, 1802, he signed a bill that allowed the president to appoint the Librarian of Congress and establishing a Joint Committee on the Library to regulate and oversee it; the new law extended borrowing privileges to the President and Vice President.
The invading British army burned Washington in August 1814 during the War of 1812 and destroyed the Library of Congress and its collection of 3,000 volumes. These volumes had been left in the Senate wing of the Capitol. One of the few congressional volumes to survive was a government account book of receipts and expenditures for 1810, it was taken as a souvenir by British Admiral George Cockburn, whose family returned it to the United States government in 1940. Within a month, Thomas Jefferson offered to sell his personal library as a replacement. Congress accepted his offer in January 1815; some members of the House of Representatives opposed the outright purchase, including New Hampshire Representative Daniel Webster who wanted to return "all books of an atheistical and immoral tendency." Jefferson had spent 50 years accumulating a wide variety of books in several languages and on subjects such as philosophy, law, architecture, natural sciences, studies of classical Greece and Rome, modern inventions, hot air balloons, submarines, fossils and meteorology.
He had collected books on topics not viewed as part of a legislative library, such as cookbooks. However, he believed, he remarked: I do not know that it contains any branch of science which Congress would wish to exclude from their collection. Jefferson's collection was unique in that it was the working collection of a scholar, not a gentleman's collection for display. With the addition of his collection, the Library of Congress was transformed from a specialist's library to a more general one, his original collection was organized into a scheme based on Francis Bacon's organization of knowledge. He grouped his books into Memory and Imagination, which broke down into 44 more subdivisions; the Library followed Jefferson's organization scheme until the late 19th century, when librarian Herbert Putnam began work on a more flexible Library of Congress Classification structure that now applies to more than 138 million items. In 1851, a fire destroyed two thirds of the Jefferson collection, with only 2,000 books remaining.
By 2008, the Librarians of Congress had found replacements for all but 300 of the works that were in Jefferson's original collection. On December 22, 1851 the largest fire in the Library's history destroyed 35,000 books, about two–thi
Blu-ray or Blu-ray Disc is a digital optical disc data storage format. It was designed to supersede the DVD format, is capable of storing several hours of video in high-definition and ultra high-definition resolution; the main application of Blu-ray is as a medium for video material such as feature films and for the physical distribution of video games for the PlayStation 3, PlayStation 4, Xbox One. The name "Blu-ray" refers to the blue laser used to read the disc, which allows information to be stored at a greater density than is possible with the longer-wavelength red laser used for DVDs; the plastic disc is 120 millimetres in diameter and 1.2 millimetres thick, the same size as DVDs and CDs. Conventional or pre-BD-XL Blu-ray discs contain 25 GB per layer, with dual-layer discs being the industry standard for feature-length video discs. Triple-layer discs and quadruple-layer discs are available for BD-XL re-writer drives. High-definition video may be stored on Blu-ray discs with up to 2160p resolution and at up to 60 frames per second.
DVD-Video discs were limited to a maximum resolution of 576p. Besides these hardware specifications, Blu-ray is associated with a set of multimedia formats; the BD format was developed by the Blu-ray Disc Association, a group representing makers of consumer electronics, computer hardware, motion pictures. Sony unveiled the first Blu-ray disc prototypes in October 2000, the first prototype player was released in April 2003 in Japan. Afterwards, it continued to be developed until its official release on June 20, 2006, beginning the high-definition optical disc format war, where Blu-ray Disc competed with the HD DVD format. Toshiba, the main company supporting HD DVD, conceded in February 2008, released its own Blu-ray Disc player in late 2009. According to Media Research, high-definition software sales in the United States were slower in the first two years than DVD software sales. Blu-ray faces competition from the continued sale of DVDs. Notably, as of January 2016, 44% of U. S. broadband. The information density of the DVD format was limited by the wavelength of the laser diodes used.
Following protracted development, blue laser diodes operating at 405 nanometers became available on a production basis, allowing for development of a more-dense storage format that could hold higher-definition media. Sony started two projects in collaboration with Panasonic, TDK, applying the new diodes: UDO, DVR Blue, a format of rewritable discs that would become Blu-ray Disc; the core technologies of the formats are similar. The first DVR Blue prototypes were unveiled at the CEATEC exhibition in October 2000 by Sony. A trademark for the "Blue Disc" logo was filed February 9, 2001. On February 19, 2002, the project was announced as Blu-ray Disc, Blu-ray Disc Founders was founded by the nine initial members; the first consumer device arrived in stores on April 10, 2003: the Sony BDZ-S77, a US$3,800 BD-RE recorder, made available only in Japan. But there was no standard for prerecorded video, no movies were released for this player. Hollywood studios insisted that players be equipped with digital rights management before they would release movies for the new format, they wanted a new DRM system that would be more secure than the failed Content Scramble System used on DVDs.
On October 4, 2004, the name "Blu-ray Disc Founders" was changed to the Blu-ray Disc Association, 20th Century Fox joined the BDA's Board of Directors. The Blu-ray Disc physical specifications were completed in 2004. In January 2005, TDK announced that they had now developed an ultra-hard yet thin polymer coating for Blu-ray discs. Cartridges used for scratch protection, were no longer necessary and were scrapped; the BD-ROM specifications were finalized in early 2006. AACS LA, a consortium founded in 2004, had been developing the DRM platform that could be used to securely distribute movies to consumers. However, the final AACS standard was delayed, delayed again when an important member of the Blu-ray Disc group voiced concerns. At the request of the initial hardware manufacturers, including Toshiba and Samsung, an interim standard was published that did not include some features, such as managed copy; the first BD-ROM players were shipped in mid-June 2006, though HD DVD players beat them to market by a few months.
The first Blu-ray Disc titles were released on June 20, 2006: 50 First Dates, The Fifth Element, House of Flying Daggers, Underworld: Evolution, xXx, MGM's The Terminator. The earliest releases used the same method used on standard DVDs; the first releases using the newer VC-1 and AVC formats were introduced in September 2006. The first movies using 50 GB dual-layer discs were introduced in October 2006; the first audio-only albums were released in May 2008. The first mass-market Blu-ray Disc rewritable drive for the PC was the BWU-100A, released by Sony on July 18, 2006, it recorded both single and dual-layer BD-Rs as well as BD-REs and had a suggested retail price of US $699. As of June 2008, more than 2,500 Blu-ray Disc titles were available in Australia
Directors Guild of America
The Directors Guild of America is an entertainment guild that represents the interests of film and television directors in the United States motion picture industry and abroad. Founded as the Screen Directors Guild in 1936, the group merged with the Radio and Television Directors Guild in 1960 to become the modern Directors Guild of America; as a union that seeks to organize an individual profession, rather than multiple professions across an industry, the DGA is a craft union. It represents members of the directorial team; the guild has various training programs whereby successful applicants are placed in various productions and can gain experience working in the film or television industry. As of 2017, the guild had more than 16,000 members; the DGA headquarters are on Sunset Boulevard in Hollywood, with satellite offices in New York and Chicago and coordinating committees in San Francisco and London. According to DGA's Department of Labor records, the guild's reported membership classifications account for 1,532 "retirees", 323 "suspended" members, 5 "life" members, compared to 13,577 "active" members.
"Suspended" members are ineligible to vote in the union. DGA contracts cover some non-members, known as agency fee payers; these non-members number 172, or about 1% of the size of the union's membership. The agreements signed between the guild and film and television production companies make various stipulations covering pay and working conditions for guild members and require that all those employed in the relevant fields on a film made by that company are guild members. Guild members are prevented from working for companies that have not signed an agreement with the DGA; this sometimes leads production companies that have no such agreement to form new companies, purely for the purpose of making a particular film, which do sign an agreement with the DGA. The Guild enters into negotiations with the AMPTP, the organization that represents the studios and production companies every three years to update and renew the Basic Agreement and the Freelance Live and Tape Television Agreement, the DGA's two major agreements.
The DGA negotiates minimum compensation levels. Many DGA members have agents; the DGA agreements secure residual payments for the reuse of members’ work in film and new media. Other than wages and basic working conditions, the DGA has a particular role in protecting the creative rights of film and TV directors; such protections that the guild provides include defining the director's role, with examples, the principle of "one director to a picture" and the right to prepare a director's cut or edit. Each of these protections is to help offset the power that producers can have over a director during the film-making process; the DGA hosts an important precursor to the Academy Awards. In its 69-year history, the DGA Award for Outstanding Directorial Achievement in Feature Film has been a near perfect barometer for both the Best Director, in some cases, the Best Picture Academy Award. Only seven times has the DGA Award winner not won the corresponding Best Director Academy Award. Honorees are awarded with a statue manufactured by Society Awards.
The rule that a film can only have one single director was adopted to preserve the continuity of a director's vision and to avoid producers and actors lobbying for a director's credit, or studios hiring multiple directors for a single film or television episode. The rule is waived only for directorial teams recognized by the DGA who have a history of working together and sharing a common vision. Examples include The Wachowskis, Jonathan Dayton and Valerie Faris, Hughes brothers, Russo Brothers, Phil Lord and Christopher Miller and the Coen brothers; the Coens for years divided credit, with Ethan taking producing credit, Joel taking directing credit, both of them sharing the writing credit until The Ladykillers in 2004. An example of the DGA refusing to recognize a directorial team was Robert Rodriguez and Frank Miller for Sin City. In the past, the DGA has engaged in disputes with the Writers Guild of America over possessory credits, first used in the 1915 film The Birth of a Nation; the WGA tried to limit possessory credits to writers, but has always been opposed by the DGA, leaving directors free to try to negotiate such credits if they wish.
Not all Hollywood directors are DGA members. Notable exceptions include Robert Rodriguez. Quentin Tarantino directed six feature films before becoming a DGA member, in 2012; those who are not members of the guild are unable to direct for the larger movie studios, which are signatories to the guild's agreements that all directors must be guild members. Thomas Schlamme has been president of the DGA since 2017; the following are the past Presidents of the Screen Directors Guild and the DGA: Alan Smithee Runaway production Stage Directors and Choreographers Society Official website
Jonathan Niven Cryer is an American actor and television director. Born into a show business family, Cryer made his motion picture debut as a teenaged photographer in the 1984 romantic comedy No Small Affair. In 1998, he wrote and produced the independent film Went to Coney Island on a Mission from God... Be Back by Five. Although Cryer gained fame with his early film roles, it took several years to find success on television. In 2003, Cryer was cast as Alan Harper on the CBS sitcom Two and a Half Men, for which he won two Primetime Emmy Awards in 2009 and 2012. Cryer received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame for Television in 2011. Cryer's other film appearances include Superman IV: The Quest for Peace, Hiding Out, Hot Shots, Tortured and Hit by Lightning, he has a recurring role in the CBS drama series NCIS, playing Dr. Cyril Taft. After appearing on the podcast Crime Writers On... it was announced Cryer is joining the team at the Undisclosed podcast for their second season. Cryer was born in New York.
His mother, Gretchen Cryer, is a playwright, songwriter and singer. His father, Donald David Cryer, is an actor and singer who studied to be a minister. Cryer's paternal grandfather, Rev. Dr. Donald W. Cryer, was a well-known Methodist minister, he has two sisters and Shelly. When Cryer was twelve years old, he decided; when his mother heard this, she thought he should have a backup plan, joked: "Plumbing is a pretty good career." Cryer attended Stagedoor Manor Performing Arts Training Center for several summers as a teenager, is a 1983 graduate of the Bronx High School of Science. He was classmates with film director Boaz Yakin. To his mother's "great disappointment", Cryer skipped college and went to the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art in London, United Kingdom for a summer short course in Shakespeare. Cryer's first professional acting effort was as David in the Broadway play Torch Song Trilogy, replacing Matthew Broderick, whom he "closely resembled". Cryer was an understudy and replacement for Broderick in Neil Simon's Brighton Beach Memoirs in 1989.
At age 19, Cryer appeared in the 1984 romantic comedy film No Small Affair, in the lead role as Charles Cummings, after the original production with Matthew Broderick was shut down due to a heart attack by director Martin Ritt. He went on to have small roles in films and television movies, he made his breakthrough as Phil "Duckie" Demster in the John Hughes-scripted film Pretty in Pink. In an interview with the Daily News, Cryer's mother said that after Pretty in Pink, she started getting calls from teenage girls from all over the world, who would leave hysterical, giggling messages on her answering machine. In 1989, he got the lead role in the TV comedy series The Famous Teddy Z, his performance gained the show was canceled after the first season. A year he starred with Charlie Sheen in the Jim Abrahams comedy Hot Shots!, received positively. Cryer is linked to the Brat Pack. In a March 2009 interview on Anytime with Bob Kushell, Cryer stated that he had auditioned for St. Elmo's Fire but was not cast in a role.
In 1993, he was asked to audition for the role of Chandler Bing on Friends, while doing a play in London. His reading was videotaped by a British casting agent but the tape failed to arrive in the U. S. before the network had made its final decision. In 1995, he was cast as Bob in the sitcom Partners, like his prior show The Famous Teddy Z, was canceled after its first season. In an interview with Time Out New York he stated, "Hey, every show I'm in goes down. Think about this: George Clooney was in 28 pilots, or something, it means nothing". After guest starring on shows such as Dharma & Greg and The Outer Limits, he wrote and produced the film, Went to Coney Island on a Mission from God... Be Back by Five, it gained positive reviews from critics. Leonard Maltin from Playboy Magazine called it "a breath of fresh air"; that same year, Cryer landed in another TV series, the Fox sitcom Getting Personal, alongside Vivica A. Fox and Duane Martin. Although the show was picked up for a second season after its abbreviated spring run, it was canceled that fall, after airing 17 episodes in total.
In 2000, he was cast. For the third time, Cryer starred in a show, canceled after its first season. Cryer's long run of unsuccessful TV projects ended three years later. Against the wishes of CBS executives and due to a friendship with Charlie Sheen, he was cast in 2003 to portray Alan Harper on the hit comedy series Two and a Half Men, he has earned seven Primetime Emmy Award nominations and two wins for his acting work on the show. In a comment on the show's high ratings, he said: "When you’re on a show that's fighting for survival every week, you stop trusting your instincts, because you think, ‘My instincts haven't worked so far.’ But when people like the show and are watching it in great numbers, it takes a huge amount of pressure off you. It allows you to trust your instincts and go with what has worked for you before." After former co-star Charlie Sheen's departure from the series, Cryer's character became the show's main protagonist throughout the final four seasons due to the show
James Francis Ivory is an American film director and screenwriter. For many years he worked extensively with Indian-born film producer Ismail Merchant, his domestic as well as professional partner, with screenwriter Ruth Prawer Jhabvala. All three were principals in Merchant Ivory Productions. For his work on Call Me by Your Name, which he wrote and produced, Ivory won awards for Best Adapted Screenplay from the Academy Awards, British Academy of Film and Television Arts, Writers Guild of America, the Critics' Choice Awards, the Scripter Awards, among others. Upon winning the Oscar and BAFTA at the age of 89, Ivory became the oldest-ever winner in any category for both awards. Ivory was born in Berkeley, the son of Hallie Millicent and Edward Patrick Ivory, a sawmill operator, he grew up in Oregon. He attended the University of Oregon, from which he received a degree in fine arts in 1951. Ivory is a recipient of the Lawrence Medal, UO's College of Design's highest honor for its graduates, his papers are held by University Archives.
He attended the University of Southern California School of Cinematic Arts, where he directed the short film Four in the Morning. He wrote and produced Venice: Theme and Variations, a half-hour documentary submitted as his thesis film for his master's degree in cinema; the film was named by The New York Times in 1957 as one of the ten best non-theatrical films of the year. He graduated from USC in 1957. Ivory met producer Ismail Merchant at a screening of Ivory's documentary The Sword and the Flute in New York City in 1959. In May 1961, Merchant and Ivory formed the film production company Merchant Ivory Productions. Merchant and Ivory were long-term life partners, their professional and romantic partnership lasted 44 years, from 1961 until Merchant's death in 2005. Their partnership has a place in the Guinness Book of World Records for the longest partnership in independent cinema history; until Merchant's death in 2005, they produced 40 films, including a number of films that received Academy, BAFTA and Golden Globe awards among many others.
Ivory directed 17 theatrical films for Merchant Ivory, novelist Ruth Prawer Jhabvala was the screenwriter for 22 of their productions in addition to another film produced by Merchant Ivory after Merchant's death. Of this collaboration, Ismail Merchant once commented: "It is a strange marriage we have at Merchant Ivory... I am an Indian Muslim, Ruth is a German Jew, Jim is a Protestant American. Someone once described us as a three-headed god. Maybe they should have called us a three-headed monster!" In 1985 A Room with a View, based on the E. M. Forster novel, was nominated for eight Academy Awards, including Best Picture and Best Director, won three, for Jhabvala's adaptation of Forster's novel as well as for Best Costume and Best Production Design. A Room With a View was voted Best Film of the year by the Critic's Circle Film Section of Great Britain, the British Academy of Film and Television Arts, the National Board of Review in the United States and in Italy, where the film won the Donatello Prize for Best Foreign Language Picture and Best Director.
In 1987, Maurice received a Silver Lion Award for Best Director at the Venice Film Festival as well as Best Film Score for Richard Robbins and Best Actor Awards for co-stars James Wilby and Hugh Grant. This was followed in 1990 by Mr. and Mrs. Bridge, adapted by Jhabvala from the novels by Evan S. Connell; this film received an Oscar nomination for Best Actress, as well as Best Actress and Best Screenplay from the New York Film Critics Circle. In 1992 Ivory directed another film adapted from Howards End; the film was nominated for nine Academy awards, including Best Picture and Best Director, won three: Best Actress, Best Screenplay – Adaptation, Best Art Direction/Set Decoration. The film won Best Picture at the British Academy of Film and Television Arts Awards, as well as awards for Best Picture, Best Actress for Emma Thompson and Best Director for Ivory from the National Board of Review; the Directors Guild of America awarded the D. W. Griffith award, its highest honor, to Ivory for his work.
At the 1992 Cannes Film Festival the film won the 45th Anniversary Prize. Howards End was followed by The Remains of the Day, which in turn was nominated for eight Academy Awards, including Best Picture and Best Director. For his work in Call Me by Your Name, Ivory received an Academy Award for Best Adapted Screenplay, a Critics' Choice Movie Award for Best Adapted Screenplay, Writers Guild of America Award for Best Adapted Screenplay, BAFTA Award for Best Adapted Screenplay, USC Scripter Award for Best Screenplay, he was nominated for the AACTA International Award for Best Screenplay, the Gotham Independent Film Award for Best Screenplay. At 89, James Ivory is the oldest person to be nominated or win an Academy Award for screenwriting. Four in the Morning Venice: Theme and Variations The Sword and the Flute The Householder starring Shashi Kapoor The Delhi Way narrated by Leo Genn Shakespeare Wallah starring Felicity Kendal, Shashi Kapoor * co-writer The Guru starring Michael York, Rita Tushingham *also co-writer Bombay Talkie starring Jennifer Kendal, Shashi Kapoor * co-writer Adventures of a Brown Man in Search of Civilization Savages starring Sam Waterston, Asha Puthli Autobiography of a Princess starrin
Paley Center for Media
The Paley Center for Media the Museum of Television & Radio and the Museum of Broadcasting, founded in 1975 by William S. Paley, is an American cultural institution in New York and Los Angeles dedicated to the discussion of the cultural and social significance of television and emerging platforms for the professional community and media-interested public, it was renamed The Paley Center for Media on June 5, 2007, to encompass emerging broadcasting technologies such as the Internet, mobile video, podcasting, as well as to expand its role as a neutral setting where media professionals can engage in discussion and debate about the evolving media landscape. With an ever-growing collection of content broadcast on radio and television, the Paley Center has two branches; the New York City branch is in the heart of Midtown Manhattan at 25 West 52nd Street between 5th and 6th Avenues. The Los Angeles branch is located at 465 N Beverly Drive in Beverly Hills, near Rodeo Drive; the original Museum of Broadcasting, founded in 1975 with a $2 million gift by William S. Paley, opened in Manhattan on November 9, 1976, occupying two floors in an office building at 1 East 53rd Street, near the corner of 53rd Street and Fifth Avenue.
This was adjacent to the Doubleday Book Store on Fifth Avenue. The Museum of Broadcasting's name was changed to The Museum of Television & Radio with the September 12, 1991 move into the William S. Paley Building. Designed by Philip Johnson and located at 25 West 52nd Street, the 16-story building was itself renamed The Paley Center for Media in 2007, it has two front entrances: the one on the left is for office staff, the main entrance on the right for the general public. The Alexander Mackendrick film Sweet Smell of Success has an exterior location scene with different angles revealing how the neighborhood looked in the years before the building was constructed; the ground-level floor of the New York museum features the ticket and information area and the Steven Spielberg Gallery, used for exhibitions and fund-raising events. Reservations to use the Library are made at the front desk. In addition to the elevator, a staircase on the first floor leads down to the large basement-level theater.
The fourth floor has numerous computers, used by visitors to locate programming in the collection. When a selection is made, it can be watched on the computer. Computers are available both for groups; the Museum of Television & Radio in Los Angeles at 465 North Beverly Drive in Beverly Hills, opened March 18, 1996 in a new building designed by Richard Meier and named for Leonard H. Goldenson; when the Los Angeles building opened, it featured a collection duplicated from the tapes in the New York collection. Rooms are named for the celebrity sponsors: the Danny Thomas Lobby, the Aaron Spelling Reception Area and the Garry Marshall Pool. Screenings are held in the 150-seat John H. Mitchell Theatre; the Ahmanson Radio Listening Room has headphones for use with five pre-programmed channels. The Paley Center for Media is committed to the idea that many television and radio programs are significant works and should be preserved for posterity's sake. Instead of collecting artifacts and memorabilia, the Paley Center comprises screening rooms, including two full-sized theaters.
Nearly 160,000 television shows and radio programs are available in the Paley Center's library, during each visit, viewers can select and watch shows at individual consoles, radio programs are accessed through these same consoles. Some television programs are from the 1940s with radio programs dating back to the 1920s; the earliest TV program in the Museum's collection is a silent film of NBC's 1939 production of Dion Boucicault's melodrama The Streets of New York, with Norman Lloyd, George Coulouris, Jennifer Jones. The museum does not permit it to leave the premises. Viewing copies of television programs are Hi-8mm; the originals are kept in a vault outside of New York City, the collection is being digitized. The Paley Center has acquired many lost episodes of classic television shows and has produced documentary features about the history and impact of television and radio. In recent years, the Center has sponsored advance viewing of the pilot episodes of each network's new programs. Television and radio shows are added to the collection after archival discoveries and through donations from individuals and organizations.
In 2002, the Museum held a showing of the unseen rehearsal film of Rodgers and Hammerstein's Cinderella telecast from March 17, 1957. This rehearsal was found in the CBS vault while the Museum was on a quest for other "lost" Cinderella materials, it had been believed that on the night of the live broadcast the show was preserved on both kinescope and videotape and transmitted to the West Coast. Seeking either of these, Jane Klain, the Director of Research at the New York facility, asked CBS to search their vaults; the CBS database listed three 16mm films featuring five-minute segments of Julie Andrews performing in the show. When the earliest one was brought from the CBS vault, it was discovered to be the full dress rehearsal; the Center is known for its many discoveries involving daytime game shows. Episodes of destroyed shows such as High Rollers, Celebrity Sweepstakes, The Money Maze, the Chuck Woolery version of Wheel of Fortune, To Say the Least, daytime Hollywood Squares episodes are all available for viewing in the library.
Episodes of other game shows such as Tattletales, Let's Make a Deal, The Gong Show are in the library. Seminars and interviews with public figures are conducted all of which are reco