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Noorvik, Alaska

Noorvik is a Inupiat city in the Northwest Arctic Borough in the U. S. state of Alaska. As of the 2010 census, the population of the city was 668, up from 634 in 2000. Located in the NANA Region Corp, Noorvik has close ties with the largest city in the region, Kotzebue. Residents speak a dialect of Inupiaq known as Noorvik Inupiaq. Noorvik was the first town to be counted in the 2010 census. Noorvik is located at 66°50′14″N 161°2′12″W. Noorvik is located on the right bank of the Nazuruk Channel of the Kobuk River, 76 km east of Kotzebue. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.3 square miles, of which, 1.0 square mile of it is land and 0.4 square miles of it is water. Noorvik first appeared on the 1920 U. S. Census as an unincorporated village, it formally incorporated in 1964. As of the census of 2000, there were 634 people, 136 households, 113 families residing in the city; the population density was 658.7 people per square mile. There were 157 housing units at an average density of 163.1 per square mile.

The racial makeup of the city was 4.89% White, 90.06% Native American, 4.89% from two or more races, 0.16% Pacific Islander. There were 136 households out of which 58.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.5% were married couples living together, 18.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 16.9% were non-families. 14.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 1.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 4.66 and the average family size was 5.19. In the city, the age distribution of the population shows 44.5% under the age of 18, 10.6% from 18 to 24, 26.2% from 25 to 44, 11.5% from 45 to 64, 7.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 21 years. For every 100 females, there were 135.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 134.7 males. The median income for a household in the city was $51,964, the median income for a family was $52,708. Males had a median income of $34,750 versus $24,583 for females.

The per capita income for the city was $12,020. About 9.4% of families and 7.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.6% of those under age 18 and 3.8% of those age 65 or over. Noorvik means "a place, moved to" in Inupiaq; the village was established by Kowagmuit Inupiat fishermen and hunters from Deering in the early 1900s. Other settlers came from a few miles upriver; the Aqqaluk Noorvik School, operated by the Northwest Arctic Borough School District, serves the community. As of 2017 it had 12 teachers and 186 students, with Alaska Natives and Native Americans, making up 94% and 1% of the student body Subsistence wildlife harvests in five northwest Alaska communities, 2001-2003: results of a household survey / by Kawerak, Inc. Maniilaq Association, the Alaska Department of Fish and Game. Hosted by Alaska State Publications Program

He Learned About Women

He Learned About Women is a 1932 American pre-Code comedy film directed by Lloyd Corrigan and written by Lloyd Corrigan, Harlan Thompson and Ray Harris. The film stars Stuart Erwin, Susan Fleming, Alison Skipworth, Gordon Westcott, Grant Mitchell and Sidney Toler; the film was released on November 1932, by Paramount Pictures. "Story of youth who comes into fortune and prepares to see life." "Alison Skipworth joins the cast as a would be swindler who doesn't quite succeed as she plans" "a childlike playboy inherits the family fortune and gets himself a worldly butler who teaches him how to behave in a manner befitting his wealth and social station" "A debonair butler shows his wealthy master how to be a sophisticated man of the world" "When hermit Peter Potter Kendall II inherits fifty million dollars, his attorney, James Drake, appoints Peter's valet, J. F. Wilson, to teach Peter about the world leaves for Europe...." Stuart Erwin as Peter Potter Kendall II Susan Fleming as Joan Allen Alison Skipworth as Mme.

Vivienne Pompadour Gordon Westcott as Eddie Clifford Grant Mitchell as Appleby Sidney Toler as Wilson Tom Ricketts as Augus Claude King as Drake Gertrude Norman Gertrude Messenger Geneva Mitchell Dorothy Granger Irving Bacon as Stage Door Man He Learned About Women on IMDb Counter, Bill. ""He Learned About Women"". Historic L. A. Theatres In Movies. "Guide to the Samuel Stark Film stills: photographs, 1925-1972". Online Archive of California: California Digital Library

History of the Royal Australian Air Force

The Royal Australian Air Force traces its history back to the Imperial Conference held in London in 1911, where it was decided aviation should be developed within the Armed Forces of the British Empire. Australia implemented this decision, the only country to do so, by approving the establishment of the Central Flying School in 1912; the location for the proposed school was to be at Duntroon, Australian Capital Territory, but in July 1913 Point Cook, was announced as the preferred location. The first flights by CFS aircraft took place there in March 1914; the Australian Flying Corps was formed as a Militia unit, with staff and students to be selected from the Citizen Forces. After an abortive deployment to German New Guinea at the end of 1914 as part of the Australian Naval and Military Expeditionary Force, it earned a most creditable reputation in both Palestine and France during World War I as a part of the Australian Imperial Force; the Australian Flying Corps remained part of the Australian Army until 1919, when it was disbanded along with the AIF.

Although the Central Flying School continued to operate at Point Cook, military flying ceased until 1920, when the Australian Air Corps was formed. The Australian Air Force was formed on 31 March 1921. King George V approved the prefix "Royal" in June 1921 and it became effective on 31 August 1921; the RAAF became the second Royal air arm to be formed in the British Commonwealth, following the British Royal Air Force. The service was expanded during World War II and at its height, it was the fourth largest air force in the world, consisting of 53 squadrons based in the Pacific and a further 17 in Europe. In 1911, the Imperial Conference, held in London determined that the armed forces of the British Empire needed to develop an aviation branch. At the time, aircraft were a newly emerging technology, but Australia implemented the decision, the only country to do so; the first step taken by the government was to approve the establishment of the Central Flying School in 1912. It had been proposed to establish the school at Duntroon, in the Australian Capital Territory, where the Royal Military College had been established in 1911, but in July 1913 it was determined that Point Cook, was the preferred location.

The Australian Flying Corps was subsequently formed as a Militia unit, with staff and students to be selected from the Citizen Forces, the first flights by CFS aircraft took place in March 1914. Soon after the outbreak of World War I in August 1914, the AFC sent aircraft to assist the Australian Naval and Military Expeditionary Force in capturing German colonies in what is now north-west New Guinea; these colonies surrendered however, before the planes were unpacked. The first operational flights did not occur until 27 May 1915, when the Mesopotamian Half Flight was called upon to assist the Indian Army in protecting British oil interests in what is now Iraq; the corps saw action in Egypt, Palestine and on the Western Front throughout the remainder of World War I. By the end of the war, four squadrons – Nos. 1, 2, 3 and 4 – had seen active service. The AFC was disbanded along with the rest of the Australian Imperial Force in 1919, following the end of hostilities. Although the Central Flying School continued to operate at Point Cook, military flying ceased until 1920, when the Australian Air Corps was formed.

The following year, this was separated from the Army on 31 March 1921, when the Australian Air Force was formed as an independent service. Upon formation, the RAAF had more aircraft than personnel, with 21 officers and 128 other ranks, just 170 aircraft, it had been planned to expand the force to 1,500 personnel – three-quarters permanent staff and one quarter reserves – who would serve in six squadrons: two of fighter aircraft, two of reconnaissance aircraft, two squadrons of seaplanes. These plans were scuttled a year after formation due to budget constraints and until 1924, the service's strength remained steady at just 50 officers and 300 other ranks. A improved economic situation in 1925 allowed the re-raising of Nos. 1 and 3 Squadrons, which were composite units equipped with fighters and bombers. In the decade, they were reorganised with No. 1 Squadron becoming a bomber formation, while No. 3 focused on army co-operation roles. Throughout the inter-war years the fledgling RAAF focused on local defence and providing training opportunities to Australia's naval and military forces.

It undertook aerial survey missions, meteorological flights, public displays, provision of defence aid to the civil community, undertaking search and rescue missions and bush fire patrols. In the late 1930s, the force was expanded amidst concerns about a future war in Europe. Additional squadrons were raised and bases established away from the south-east coast, including airbases in Western Australia and the Northern Territory; this expansion saw the RAAF increase its personnel from under 1,000 in 1935 to around 3,500 in 1939, the establishment of a force of 12 squadrons, with plans for a further six, by the outbreak of World War II in Septembe

Manius Manilius

Manius Manilius was a Roman Republican orator and distinguished jurist who had a long military career. It is unclear if he was related to the Manius Manilius, degraded by Cato the Censor for embracing his wife in broad daylight in Cato's censorship from 184 BC to 182 BC. Manilius was proconsul of Spain in 155 BC when he led an unsuccessful campaign against the Lusitani, who defeated him under the leadership of Punicus, he became consul in 149 BC with Lucius Marcius Censorinus. He unsuccessfully besieged Carthage at the beginning the Third Punic War, was replaced by Calpurnius Piso in 149 after suffering a heavy defeat at Nepheris, a Carthaginian stronghold south of the city. In Cicero's De oratore, Manilius was depicted as a member of the Scipionic Circle. In the work, Cicero describes Manilius as a "representative of the broad education required of the orator, of old-fashioned generosity in helping others with his legal knowledge". Manilius is a leading character in Cicero's De Re Publica, though it appears large portions of his dialogue occurred in parts of that work which are now lost.

It was the same ex-consul Manius Manilius, the author of a collection of formulae for contracts of sale. His works were still read in the classical period, he was cited by such authors as Varro and Brutus

1975 Māori land march

The Māori Land March of 1975, arguably New Zealand's most notable hikoi, was a protest movement led by the group Te Rōpū Matakite created by Maori leader Whina Cooper. The march started in Northland on September 14, travelling the length of the North Island arriving in Wellington on October 13 1975. In 1953, the government under Prime Minister Sidney Holland forced the Maori Affairs Act to use so-called unproductive Māori land. Anyone who wanted could now report unused land to the Māori Land Court and apply to borrow the land through an appointed trustee; the Maori Affairs Amendment Act 1967 introduced compulsory conversion of Māori freehold land with four or fewer owners into general land. It increased the powers of the Maori Trustee to compulsorily acquire and sell so-called uneconomic interests in Māori land. Māori worried; as the protests increased, the Māori realized that the New Zealand Māori Council, which had existed since 1962, the Māori Women’s Welfare League, founded in 1951, were not strong enough to represent their rights and political demands as their previous advocacy groups.

In early March 1975, a Hui was called at Te Puea Marae in Mangere, with 79-year-old Whina Cooper present. Cooper had earned much recognition and respect over the many years of her social and political engagement among the Māori and was one of the few women in the Māori community recognized as a leader; the idea of a ‘Maori Land March’ from Te Hapua in the far north to Parliament was discussed. The aim would be to dramatise the entire package of Maori demands and aspirations which had yet to be addressed; the march would focus on the most iconic element of Maori hopes: the land. The planned land march would combine the forces of Nga Tamatoa type radicalism with the wishes and protocols of traditionalist elders, attracting the support of Maori from both urban areas and rural Marae throughout the country; the march was to be focused on the ‘twin themes of landlessness and cultural loss’. The following four months were used for fundraising. In August all preparations were made and support and accommodation provided at the various marae.

Fifty marchers left Te Hāpua in the far north on 14 September for the 1000-km walk to Wellington. Led by 79-year-old Cooper, the hīkoi grew in strength; as it approached towns and cities, local people joined to offer moral support. The marchers stopped overnight at different Marae, on which Cooper led discussions about the purpose of the march. Leaflets were distributed explaining why the march was required titled'Why We March.' The march, accompanied by two trucks and a bus, led in 29 days from Te Hapua. Upon arriving at Parliament, Whina Cooper presented a petition signed by 60,000 people from around New Zealand to Prime Minister Bill Rowling; the petition called for an end to monocultural land laws which excluded Māori cultural values, asked for the ability to establish legitimate communal ownership of land within iwi. The hikoi represented a watershed moment in the burgeoning Māori cultural renaissance of the 1970s, it brought unprecedented levels of public attention to the issue of alienation of Māori land, established a method of protest, reused in the following decades, such as the occupation of the land at Bastion Point.

This action brought treaty issues to public attention more than at any time since the 19th century. The march was documented in Te Matakite o Aotearoa - The Māori Land March a film available via New Zealand on Screen

Tensor contraction

In multilinear algebra, a tensor contraction is an operation on a tensor that arises from the natural pairing of a finite-dimensional vector space and its dual. In components, it is expressed as a sum of products of scalar components of the tensor caused by applying the summation convention to a pair of dummy indices that are bound to each other in an expression; the contraction of a single mixed tensor occurs when a pair of literal indices of the tensor are set equal to each other and summed over. In the Einstein notation this summation is built into the notation; the result is another tensor with order reduced by 2. Tensor contraction can be seen as a generalization of the trace. Let V be a vector space over a field k; the core of the contraction operation, the simplest case, is the natural pairing of V with its dual vector space V∗. The pairing is the linear transformation from the tensor product of these two spaces to the field k: C: V ∗ ⊗ V → k corresponding to the bilinear form ⟨ f, v ⟩ = f where f is in V∗ and v is in V.

The map C defines the contraction operation on a tensor of type, an element of V ∗ ⊗ V. Note that the result is a scalar. Using the natural isomorphism between V ∗ ⊗ V and the space of linear transformations from V to V, one obtains a basis-free definition of the trace. In general, a tensor of type is an element of the vector space V ⊗ ⋯ ⊗ V ⊗ V ∗ ⊗ ⋯ ⊗ V ∗. Applying the natural pairing to the kth V factor and the lth V∗ factor, using the identity on all other factors, defines the contraction operation, a linear map which yields a tensor of type. By analogy with the case, the general contraction operation is sometimes called the trace. In tensor index notation, the basic contraction of a vector and a dual vector is denoted by f ~ = f γ v γ, shorthand for the explicit coordinate summation f γ v γ = f 1 v 1 + f 2 v 2 + ⋯ + f n v n. Since a general mixed dyadic tensor is a linear combination of decomposable tensors of the form f ⊗ v, the explicit formula for the dyadic case follows: let T = T i j e i ⊗ e j be a mixed dyadic tensor.

Its contraction is T i j e i ⋅ e j = T i j δ i j = T j j = T 1 1 + ⋯ + T n n. A general contraction is denoted by labeling one covariant index and one contravariant index with the same letter, summation over that index being implied by the summation convention; the resulting contracted tensor inherits the remaining indices of the original tensor. For example, contracting a tensor T of type on the second and third indices to create a new tensor U of type is written as T a b b c = ∑ b T a b b c = T a 1 1 c + T a 2 2 c + ⋯ + T a n n c = U a c. By contrast, let T = e i ⊗ e j be an unmixed dyadic tensor; this tensor does not contract. As in the previous example, contraction on a pair of indices that are either both contravariant or both covariant is not p