South East Queensland
South East Queensland is a bio-geographical and administrative region of the state of Queensland in Australia, which contains 3.5 million people out of the state's population of 4.8 million. The area covered by South East Queensland varies, depending on the definition of the region, though it tends to include Queensland's three largest cities: the capital city Brisbane, its most common use is for political purposes, covers 22,420 square kilometres and incorporates 11 local government areas, extending 240 kilometres from Noosa in the north to the Gold Coast and New South Wales border in the south, 140 kilometres west to Toowoomba. South East Queensland was the first part of Queensland to be explored by Europeans. Settlements arose in the Brisbane and Ipswich areas with activity by European immigrants spreading in all directions from there. Various industries such as timber cutting and agriculture developed at locations around the region from the 1840s onwards. Transport links have been shaped by the range of terrains found in South East Queensland.
The economy of South East Queensland supports and relies on a wide diversity of agricultural manufacturing industries and tourism. The region has TransLink. South East Queensland, classified as an interim Australian bioregion, comprises 7,804,921 hectares and includes the Moreton Basin, South Burnett, the Scenic Rim along with ten other biogeographic subregions; the term South East Queensland has no equivalent political representation. The area covers many lower house seats at the federal and state levels; as Queensland has no upper house, there are no Legislative Council provinces or regions to bear the name either. South East Queensland was home to around 20,000 Aboriginals prior to British occupation; the local tribes of the area were the Yuggurapul of the Central Brisbane area. According to history researchers the Aboriginal population declined to around 10,000 over the next 60 years. Early explorers in the area including Matthew Flinders, Allan Cunningham, John Oxley and Patrick Logan. Around 1839, European settlers were able to move into the region.
Logging was the first industry to develop. The first railway built in Queensland linked Grandchester to Ipswich in 1865 along a narrow 1067 mm gauge. Major floods were experienced in 1893, 1974 and 2011. In 2005, the region suffered its worst drought in recorded history. Queensland's third highest peak, Mount Barney, is located in the south of the region; the Cunningham Highway passes southwest to the Darling Downs via Cunninghams Gap. Several highways including the Bruce Highway, Warrego Highway and the Pacific Motorway link to the adjoining regions; the region is mountainous. McPherson Range, Teviot Range, D'Aguilar Range, Little Liverpool Range, Blackall Range as well as the Springbrook Plateau and Tamborine Mountain Plateau. Isolated volcanic peaks are found at the Glass House Mountains. Along the coast are several large islands including Bribie Island, Moreton Island and North Stradbroke Island with many smaller islands in Moreton Bay. Several major water supply and flood mitigation dams have been constructed here.
The Western Corridor Recycled Water Scheme and Gold Coast Desalination Plant were built to counter the effects of drought in South East Queensland. South East Queensland consists of the following regions, each of, a local government area: Brisbane – the capital and largest city of Queensland; the Brisbane metropolitan area consists of the City of Brisbane, as well as the following local governments: Ipswich City – an outer-suburban city with an industrial and mining heritage west of Brisbane. Logan City – a residential area between Brisbane and the Gold Coast. Moreton Bay Region – a residential area between Brisbane and the Sunshine Coast. Redland City – a residential and agricultural area on the shores of Moreton Bay to the south-east of Brisbane. City of Gold Coast – a major tourist and retirement destination to the south of Brisbane, the largest non-capital city in Australia. Sunshine Coast Region – a coastal tourist and agricultural region to the north of Brisbane; the Glass House Mountains are a symbol of this region.
West Moreton, a rural area in the Great Dividing Range consisting of: Toowoomba City – the Toowoomba city is included in both the South East Queensland region and within Western Downs region due to its importance to both regions as a gateway city providing access to the west of the state. Lockyer Valley Region – an agricultural area west of Ipswich, known for its fruit and vegetable production. Scenic Rim Region – a pastoral area inland from the Gold Coast known for its scenic mountains and villages. Somerset Region – a pastoral area north west of Brisbane and location of two major dams supplying South East Queensland with water; this area is known as the Brisbane Valley. The Tweed Shire is within NSW but is included in planning processes for SEQ. While not part of the
Sunshine Coast, Queensland
Sunshine Coast is a peri-urban area and the third most populated area in the Australian state of Queensland. Located 100 km north of the state capital Brisbane in South East Queensland on the Pacific Ocean coastline, its urban area spans 60 km of coastline and hinterland from Pelican Waters to Tewantin; the estimated urban population of Sunshine Coast as at June 2015 was 302,122, making it the 9th most populous in the country. The area was first settled by Europeans in the 19th century with development progressing until tourism became an important industry; the area has several coastal hubs at Caloundra, Kawana Waters and Noosa Heads. Nambour and Maleny have developed as primary commercial centres for the hinterland, although Maleny falls outside the urban area defined by the ABS that this article refers to; the Sunshine Coast, as a term recognised by most Australians, is the district defined in 1967 as "the area contained in the Shires of Landsborough and Noosa, but excluding Bribie Island".
Its use is colloquial however. Since 2014, the Sunshine Coast district has been split into two local government areas, the Sunshine Coast Region and the Shire of Noosa, which administer the southern and northern parts of the Sunshine Coast respectively. James Cook on the deck of HM Bark Endeavour in 1770 became the first known white person to sight the Glass House Mountains, located south-west of Caloundra. In the 1820s, the Sunshine Coast saw its first white inhabitants: three castaways who shared the life of the local Aborigines for eight months. Thereafter, during the 1830s to 1840s, the district became home to numerous runaway convicts from the Moreton Bay penal colony to the south. In 1842, Governor George Gipps had the entire Sunshine Coast and hinterland from Mt Beerwah north to Eumundi declared a "Bunya Bunya Reserve" for the protection of the bunya tree after Andrew Petrie advised him of the importance of bunya groves in Aboriginal culture. However, during the 1840s and 1850s, the Bunya Bunya Reserve and its vicinity became the scene of some of the most bitter skirmishes of Australia's "Black War".
The Blackall Range, on account of the tri-annual Bunya Festival, served as both a hideout and rallying point for attacks against white settlement. By the 1850s timber cutters and cattlemen had started exploiting the area. Many of the Sunshine Coast's towns began as simple ports or jetties for the timber industry during the 1860s and 1870s, as the area once had magnificent stands of forest; the region's roads began as snigging tracks for hauling timber. Timbergetters used the region's creeks and lakes as seaways to float out their logs of cedar – the resultant wood being shipped as far afield as Europe. During the Gympie Gold Rush, prospectors scaled the Sunshine Coast mountains to develop easier roadways to and from the gold fields of Gympie. After construction of the railway line to Gympie, the coastal and river towns, being ports for the early river-trade, were bypassed. By the 1890s diverse small-farming had replaced the cattle-and-timber economy of earlier decades. Sugar cane and pineapples proved important produce for the district.
Many small hamlets and towns now emerged. Produce was taken by horse to Landsborough to Eudlo in 1891. After World War II, the Sunshine Coast grew into a favoured holiday and surfing destination; this tendency was further expanded in the development boom of the 1970s. Around the same time, various tourist/theme parks were created – the most iconic being the Big Pineapple in Woombye. During the 1960s and 1970s, the Sunshine Coast attracted persons drawn to alternative lifestyles; these newcomers developed a range of craft industries, co-operatives and spiritual centres in the hinterlands. After the 1980s, the Sunshine Coast experienced rapid population growth; as of 2016 it had become one of the fastest-growing regions in Australia. As the region becomes residential, most of the district's distinctive small farms – tropical-fruit and sugar-cane farms have disappeared, as have most of its theme parks; the Moreton sugar mills closure in 2003 removed a market for the district's 120 cane growers, harvesting cane in the region.
Instead, businesses concerned with retail and tourism have assumed increasing importance. In 2008, The Shire of Noosa, Shire of Maroochy and City of Caloundra merged to form the Sunshine Coast Region; the 2007 referendum conducted by the Australian Electoral Commission and leading to the merger remained controversial in Noosa Shire, where 95% of voters had rejected amalgamation. In March 2013, a second referendum resulted in 81% of residents voted to leave the amalgamated Sunshine Coast Region. On 9 November 2013 an election resulted in Noel Playford being elected to take office as mayor on 1 January 2014 with the new council; the Shire of Noosa was re-established on 1 January 2014. This resulted in two geopolitical areas occupying the area recognised as'The Sunshine Coast'; the Sunshine Coast Region, governed by the Sunshine Coast Council and the Shire of Noosa, governed by Noosa Shire Council. Major rivers of the Sunshine Coast include Noosa River, Maroochy River, Mooloolah River and the Stanley River.
The region includes several lakes such as Lake Weyba. Ewen Maddock Dam, Wappa Dam and Baroon Pocket Dam have been built for water storage. Several stretches of the Sunshine Coast are lined with unbroken beaches – from Sunshine Beach near Noosa to Coolum Beach.
The crimson rosella is a parrot native to eastern and south eastern Australia, introduced to New Zealand and Norfolk Island. It is found in, but not restricted to, mountain forests and gardens; the species as it now stands has subsumed two former separate species, the yellow rosella and the Adelaide rosella. Molecular studies show one of the three red-coloured races, P. e. nigrescens, is genetically more distinct. The crimson rosella was described by Johann Friedrich Gmelin in the 13th edition of Systema Naturae in 1788 as Psittacus elegans; the binomial name had been used by Clusius to describe the hawk-headed parrot in 1605, however this predates the start of Linnean taxonomy. The crimson rosella had been described and named by John Latham in 1781 as the Beautiful Lory, as the Pennantian Parrot in 1787; however he did not give the species a binomial name until 1790, when he named it Psittacus pennantii. Nicholas Aylward Vigors defined the genus Platycercus in 1825, based on the distinctive architecture of the feathers in the tail and wing, designated the crimson rosella as the type species.
Today, the red-coloured races are known as the crimson rosella, with the alternate names Red Lowry, Pennant's parakeet, Campbell parakeet, mountain parrot, mountain lowry or just plain lowry heard. Cayley reported that the first two alternate names were most common in the early part of the twentieth century. On Norfolk Island it is called red parrot; the yellow rosella known by a variety of alternate common names including Murrumbidgee lowry, murray rosella, swamp lowry and yellow-rumped parakeet, was described as Platycercus flaveolus by John Gould, who gave it the last common name mentioned. It was reduced to subspecies status once hybridization was noted where ranges overlap, however some authorities maintain the hybridization is not widespread and hence preserve its specific status; this view is in the minority, however. In 1941, Herbert Condon proposed that the yellow and Adelaide rosellas be reclassified as subspecies of the crimson rosella; the name blue-cheeked rosella was proposed for the united species elegans, but was not taken up.
Platycercus elegans is a medium-sized Australian parrot at 36 cm long, much of, tail. There are seven subspecies, three of which are crimson; the red is replaced by yellow in the case of var. flaveolus and a mixture of red and yellow in the Adelaide rosella. Adults and juveniles show strikingly different colouration in south-eastern populations, with predominantly greenish-olive body plumage on the juvenile, most persistent on the nape and breast. Juveniles are said to ` ripen' as they turn from green to red. All races have blue cheeks and black-scalloped blue-margined wings and predominantly blue tail with predominantly red coloration; the crimson rosella’s blue tail feathers are one of the favourite decorations of the satin bowerbird. The bill is pale grey and the iris dark brown. There is little sexual dimorphism in crimson rosellas; the most noticeable difference between genders is that males are up to 15% larger, have a larger and wider beak. P. elegans the nominate race of Victoria and eastern New South Wales.
P. elegans nigrescens, occurring on Queensland's northeastern coast, P. elegans melanoptera on Kangaroo Island. The main distinctions between these is size: nigrescens is the smallest of the three and melanoptera is the largest; the juveniles of P. e. nigrescens lack the greenish immature plumage of the other subspecies of crimson rosella. The yellow rosella, which lives along the Murray River and several of its tributaries, was reclassified as a subspecies, P. elegans flaveolus, of the crimson as the two were found to interbreed where their ranges overlap. The main difference between the two is that the crimson areas replaced with light yellow and the tail more greenish; the Adelaide rosella of Adelaide and the surrounding area was thought to be a separate species, but is presently believed to be a hybrid swarm, having originated through interbreeding of the crimson and yellow rosellas. Both of these still interbreed with the Adelaide rosella where its range crosses theirs, it exhibits variation in its plumage from dark orange-red in the south of its distribution to a pale orange-yellow in the north.
Variants that are close to the yellow race are designated subadelaidae. The crimson rosella occurs from southeastern South Australia, through Tasmania and coastal New South Wales into southeastern Queensland. A disparate population occurs in North Queensland. Around 1910, a small number of crimson rosellas were released off the Otago Heads, New Zealand, along with eastern rosellas; these interbred and by the 1950s no pure crimson rosellas remained. This mixed population has remained there since. Crimson rosellas were present in Wellington City from 1963 through the early 1990s as an introduced species. Two crimson rosellas were recorded from the Tararua foothills in 1971, it is now thought to be extinct in the wild in New Zealand. They have been introduced to Norfolk Island, where they are known as "red parrots", to distinguish them from the native Norfolk Island parakeet or "green parrots". Crimson rosellas are common in coastal and mountain forests at all altitudes, they live in forests and woodlands, preferring older and wetter forests.
They can be found in tropical and temperate rainforests, both wet and dry sclerophyllous forests, riparian forests, woodlands, all the way from sea level up to the tree line. They will live in human-affected areas such as farmlands, fire-breaks, p
A greenway is "a strip of undeveloped land near an urban area, set aside for recreational use or environmental protection". However, the term can in fact include "a scenic road" and though many are in urban areas, there are some rural greenways, as for example the Monadnock-Sunapee Greenway, a hiking trail in southern New Hampshire. A greenway is a trail found in both urban and rural settings, created out of a disused railway, canal towpath, utility or similar right of way, or derelict industrial land. Rail trails are one of the most common forms of greenway, they resemble linear parks. In Southern England, the term refers to ancient trackways or green lanes those found on chalk downlands, like the Ridgeway; the American author Charles Little in his 1990 book, Greenways for America, defines a greenway as: a linear open space established along either a natural corridor, such as a riverfront, stream valley or ridgeline, or overland along a railroad right-of-way converted to recreational use, a canal, scenic road or other route.
It is a landscaped course for pedestrian or bicycle passage. The term greenway comes from the green in green belt and the way in parkway, implying a recreational or pedestrian use rather than a typical street corridor, as well as an emphasis on introducing or maintaining vegetation, in a location where such vegetation is otherwise lacking; some greenways include community gardens as well as typical park-style landscaping of trees and shrubs. They tend to have a contiguous pathway. Greenways resemble linear parks. Though wildlife corridors are greenways, because they have conservation as their primary purpose, they are not managed as parks for recreational use, may not include facilities such as public trails. Tom Turner analyzed greenways in London looking for common patterns among successful examples, he was inspired by the pattern language technique of architect Christopher Alexander. Turner concluded there are seven types, or'patterns', of greenway which he named: parkway, paveway, skyway and cycleway.
The European Greenways Association defines it as "communication routes reserved for non-motorised journeys, developed in an integrated manner which enhances both the environment and quality of life of the surrounding area. These routes should meet satisfactory standards of width and surface condition to ensure that they are both user-friendly and low-risk for users of all abilities.". Charles Little describes five general types of greenways: Urban riverside greenways created as part of a redevelopment program along neglected run-down, city waterfronts. Recreational greenways, featuring paths and trails of various kinds relatively long distance, based on natural corridors as well as canals, abandoned rail beds, public rights-of-way. Ecologically significant natural corridors along rivers and streams and less ridgelines, to provide for wildlife migration and species interchange, nature study and hiking. Scenic and Historic routes along a road, highway or waterway, the most representative of them making an effort to provide pedestrian access along the route or at least places to alight from the car.
Comprehensive greenway systems or networks based on natural landforms such as valleys or ridges but sometimes an opportunistic assemblage of greenways and open spaces of various kinds to create an alternative municipal or regional green infrastructure. Greenways are vegetated and multi-purpose, they incorporate a bikeway within a linear park. In urban design, they are a component of planning for bicycle walkability. Greenways are found in rural areas as well as urban. Corridors redeveloped as greenways travel through both city and country, connecting them together. In rural areas greenways serve the purpose of providing residents access to open land managed as parks, as contrasted with land, vegetated but inappropriate for public use, such as agricultural land. Where the historic rural road network has been enlarged and redesigned to favor highspeed automobile travel, greenways provide an alternative for people who are elderly, less mobile or seeking a reflective pace. Greenways are found globally.
However, most examples are known to be in North America. In Australia, a foreshoreway is a greenway that provides a public right-of-way along the edge of the sea, open to both walkers and cyclists. Foreshoreways include oceanways, resemble promenades and boardwalks. Foreshoreways are concerned with the idea of sustainable transport and the term is used to avoid the suggestion that the route favours either pedestrians or cyclists. A foreshoreway is accessible to both pedestrians and cyclists and gives them the opportunity to move unimpeded along the seashore. Dead end paths that offer public access only to the ocean are not part of a foreshoreway. A foreshoreway corridor includes a number of traffic routes that provide access along an oceanfront, including: walking along the beach edge of foreshore off-road greenway edge of road off-road greenway on road bikeway on road private vehicles routes on road public transport corridorA major example is The Gold Coast Oceanway along beaches in Gold Coast, Queensland, a shared use pedestrian and cyclist pathway
Eastern ground parrot
The eastern ground parrot of Australia is one of only five ground-dwelling parrots in the world, the others being its closest relatives, the western ground parrot, the rare night parrot, the somewhat related Antipodes parakeet, the unrelated endangered kakapo from New Zealand. The colouration of the three Pezoporus species and the kakapo is similar – yellowish green with darker barring, somewhat reminiscent of the head and back of the wild-type budgerigar; this is not an indication of a true relationship, but either adaptation to a particular lifestyle or a feature retained from ancestral parrots. When disturbed, a ground parrot flies swiftly just above the ground before dropping back into the vegetation; the presence of the bird is only revealed by its characteristic dusk and dawn call, a clear whistling sequence of notes which rise in pitch before fading. It is silent in flight. Traditionally, two subspecies are recognized within the eastern ground parrot, but recent molecular studies show no genetic differentiation between the two east coast individuals and the individuals from Tasmania.
Until the western ground parrot was considered a subspecies but is now considered a separate species. The eastern ground parrot occurs in fragmented populations near the coast in southern Queensland, New South Wales and Victoria and is considered vulnerable on the schedules of the NSW Threatened Species Conservation Act. There are estimated to be 4000 breeding birds, it has become extinct in South Australia. The Tasmanian ground parrot is not considered threatened at state level and is most common in south west Tasmania. Up to 30 cm long. Plumage grass green, each feather with black and yellow markings. Immatures as adults, but with duller plumage. Extreme southeast of Queensland to southwest Australia. Marshy coastal plain without trees, reed beds with low bushes, restricted to button grass areas. Only found in certain localities. Breeding period from September to January. World Parrot Trust Parrot Encyclopedia - Species Profiles
Coolum Beach, Queensland
Coolum Beach is a beachside town and suburb of the Sunshine Coast Region, Australia and is the name of the beach around which the town is based. In the 2016 census, Coolum Beach had a population of 8,497 people; the name is derived from the local Undumbi word gulum or guloom, meaning "blunt" or "headless", referring to the shape of Mount Coolum, which has no peak. According to Aboriginal legend, Ninderry knocked off Coolum's head and it fell into the ocean and is now Mudjimba Island; the Coolum district was the traditional land of the Inabara or Yinneburra clan of the Undanbi Tribe. In turn, they were part of the larger group of the Kabi Kabi. In 1823, the first Europeans to pass through Coolum were castaways and shipwrecked sailors; the first land selection in Coolum was made in 1871 by Grainger Ward - a pastoral lease of 255 hectares. Here, Ward ran upwards of 300 head of cattle. In 1881, Mark Blasdall selected his own lease of 252 hectares. Blasdall was the first to plan sugarcane in the area and to cut timber.
He built two huts and a sawmill as well as clearing Coolum Creek, thus enabling steampships to enter to load timber and deliver supplies. By 1882 the steampships'Tadorna Radjah' and'Gneering' began to travel from Brisbane to Coolum creek. In 1883 the first Coolum land was freehold and by 1884, Blasdall was declared insolvent and his land freeholded; the first permanent settler of Coolum was William Perry-Keene and his family in 1905. His home was called "Green Hills" and was situated at the corner of Beach Road and Key West Avenues. Between 1906 and 1912 many people settled permanently in the region. By 1912 there were eight to 12 families living in the district. In 1909, Coulsin established a mailboat service on the Maroochy River; this provided the first regular connection between Coolum and the railhead at Yandina. In 1911, a horse-drawn tramline and punt loading facilities were built at Coolum Creek. Construction of the first paved road to Coolum was undertaken between 1922 and 1925; this provided vehicle access from Coolum to Yandina.
In 1923, the tramline to Coolum was opened and unscheduled passenger services began. Over this time considerable expansion of the sugarcane industry took place. Cane farming provided the main source of financial stability in the district until the advent of tourism in the 1960s; the Coolum Library opened in 1989 with a major refurbishment in 1997. In 2002 Coolum hosted the Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting, replacing the 2001 meeting, postponed and moved from Brisbane in the wake of the September 11 attacks. In 2006 Australian census, the population of Coolum was 7,744. Mount Coolum dominates the landscape, can be seen from most of Coolum. Mount Coolum National Park provides a 1.6 km bush walk up the mountain to 360 degree views of the coast. The track was upgraded in 2012 to improve safety and accessibility. Coolum State School is located at the entrance to the town off the Sunshine Motorway. Coolum State High School is located in the outskirts of the town near neighbouring town Peregian Beach on the David Low Way.
The Sunshine Coast Regional Council operates a public library at 6 Park Street. Coolum Beach is a popular day trip and holiday destination; the town is focused around the beach, patrolled by life savers and offers swimming and surfing, in its day it is known as one of the best breaks in Queensland. Parks, a boardwalk, esplanade shops, the surf lifesaver club surround the beach. Over the last five years Coolum Beach has seen heavy development, with new buildings for retail business and holiday apartments. Sunbus, a division of TransLink operates local buses; the nearest railway station is in Nambour, from where there are Queensland Rail trains to Roma Street railway station in Brisbane as well as a line to Ipswich and North Gympie. Notable people who are from or have lived in Coolum include: Essena O'Neill, internet celebrity who left social media Julian Wilson, professional surfer competing in the World Surf League Men’s Tour. University of Queensland: Queensland Places: Coolum Beach 2. An Island Surrounded by Land.
Queensland is the second-largest and third-most populous state in the Commonwealth of Australia. Situated in the north-east of the country, it is bordered by the Northern Territory, South Australia and New South Wales to the west, south-west and south respectively. To the east, Queensland is bordered by the Coral Pacific Ocean. To its north is the Torres Strait, with Papua New Guinea located less than 200 km across it from the mainland; the state is the world's sixth-largest sub-national entity, with an area of 1,852,642 square kilometres. As of 15 May 2018, Queensland has a population of 5,000,000, concentrated along the coast and in the state's South East; the capital and largest city in the state is Australia's third-largest city. Referred to as the "Sunshine State", Queensland is home to 10 of Australia's 30 largest cities and is the nation's third-largest economy. Tourism in the state, fuelled by its warm tropical climate, is a major industry. Queensland was first inhabited by Torres Strait Islanders.
The first European to land in Queensland was Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon in 1606, who explored the west coast of the Cape York Peninsula near present-day Weipa. In 1770, Lieutenant James Cook claimed the east coast of Australia for the Kingdom of Great Britain; the colony of New South Wales was founded in 1788 by Governor Arthur Phillip at Sydney. Queensland was explored in subsequent decades until the establishment of a penal colony at Brisbane in 1824 by John Oxley. Penal transportation ceased in 1839 and free settlement was allowed from 1842; the state was named in honour of Queen Victoria, who on 6 June 1859 signed Letters Patent separating the colony from New South Wales. Queensland Day is celebrated annually statewide on 6 June. Queensland was one of the six colonies which became the founding states of Australia with federation on 1 January 1901; the history of Queensland spans thousands of years, encompassing both a lengthy indigenous presence, as well as the eventful times of post-European settlement.
The north-eastern Australian region was explored by Dutch and French navigators before being encountered by Lieutenant James Cook in 1770. The state has witnessed frontier warfare between European settlers and Indigenous inhabitants, as well as the exploitation of cheap Kanaka labour sourced from the South Pacific through a form of forced recruitment known at the time as "blackbirding"; the Australian Labor Party has its origin as a formal organisation in Queensland and the town of Barcaldine is the symbolic birthplace of the party. June 2009 marked the 150th anniversary of its creation as a separate colony from New South Wales. A rare record of early settler life in north Queensland can be seen in a set of ten photographic glass plates taken in the 1860s by Richard Daintree, in the collection of the National Museum of Australia; the Aboriginal occupation of Queensland is thought to predate 50,000 BC via boat or land bridge across Torres Strait, became divided into over 90 different language groups.
During the last ice age Queensland's landscape became more arid and desolate, making food and other supplies scarce. This led to the world's first seed-grinding technology. Warming again made the land hospitable, which brought high rainfall along the eastern coast, stimulating the growth of the state's tropical rainforests. In February 1606, Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon landed near the site of what is now Weipa, on the western shore of Cape York; this was the first recorded landing of a European in Australia, it marked the first reported contact between European and Aboriginal Australian people. The region was explored by French and Spanish explorers prior to the arrival of Lieutenant James Cook in 1770. Cook claimed the east coast under instruction from King George III of the United Kingdom on 22 August 1770 at Possession Island, naming Eastern Australia, including Queensland,'New South Wales'; the Aboriginal population declined after a smallpox epidemic during the late 18th century. In 1823, John Oxley, a British explorer, sailed north from what is now Sydney to scout possible penal colony sites in Gladstone and Moreton Bay.
At Moreton Bay, he found the Brisbane River. He established a settlement at what is now Redcliffe; the settlement known as Edenglassie, was transferred to the current location of the Brisbane city centre. Edmund Lockyer discovered outcrops of coal along the banks of the upper Brisbane River in 1825. In 1839 transportation of convicts was ceased, culminating in the closure of the Brisbane penal settlement. In 1842 free settlement was permitted. In 1847, the Port of Maryborough was opened as a wool port; the first free immigrant ship to arrive in Moreton Bay was the Artemisia, in 1848. In 1857, Queensland's first lighthouse was built at Cape Moreton. A war, sometimes called a "war of extermination", erupted between Aborigines and settlers in colonial Queensland; the Frontier War was notable for being the most bloody in Australia due to Queensland's larger pre-contact indigenous population when compared to the other Australian colonies. About 1,500 European settlers and their alli