In earth science, erosion is the action of surface processes that removes soil, rock, or dissolved material from one location on the Earth's crust, transports it to another location. This natural process is caused by the dynamic activity of erosive agents, that is, ice, air, plants and humans. In accordance with these agents, erosion is sometimes divided into water erosion, glacial erosion, snow erosion, wind erosion, zoogenic erosion, anthropogenic erosion; the particulate breakdown of rock or soil into clastic sediment is referred to as physical or mechanical erosion. Eroded sediment or solutes may be transported just a few millimetres, or for thousands of kilometres. Natural rates of erosion are controlled by the action of geological weathering geomorphic drivers, such as rainfall; the rates at which such processes act control. Physical erosion proceeds fastest on steeply sloping surfaces, rates may be sensitive to some climatically-controlled properties including amounts of water supplied, wind speed, wave fetch, or atmospheric temperature.
Feedbacks are possible between rates of erosion and the amount of eroded material, carried by, for example, a river or glacier. Processes of erosion that produce sediment or solutes from a place contrast with those of deposition, which control the arrival and emplacement of material at a new location. While erosion is a natural process, human activities have increased by 10-40 times the rate at which erosion is occurring globally. At well-known agriculture sites such as the Appalachian Mountains, intensive farming practices have caused erosion up to 100x the speed of the natural rate of erosion in the region. Excessive erosion causes both "on-site" and "off-site" problems. On-site impacts include decreases in agricultural productivity and ecological collapse, both because of loss of the nutrient-rich upper soil layers. In some cases, the eventual end result is desertification. Off-site effects include sedimentation of waterways and eutrophication of water bodies, as well as sediment-related damage to roads and houses.
Water and wind erosion are the two primary causes of land degradation. Intensive agriculture, roads, anthropogenic climate change and urban sprawl are amongst the most significant human activities in regard to their effect on stimulating erosion. However, there are many prevention and remediation practices that can curtail or limit erosion of vulnerable soils. Rainfall, the surface runoff which may result from rainfall, produces four main types of soil erosion: splash erosion, sheet erosion, rill erosion, gully erosion. Splash erosion is seen as the first and least severe stage in the soil erosion process, followed by sheet erosion rill erosion and gully erosion. In splash erosion, the impact of a falling raindrop creates a small crater in the soil, ejecting soil particles; the distance these soil particles travel can be as much as 0.6 m vertically and 1.5 m horizontally on level ground. If the soil is saturated, or if the rainfall rate is greater than the rate at which water can infiltrate into the soil, surface runoff occurs.
If the runoff has sufficient flow energy, it will transport loosened soil particles down the slope. Sheet erosion is the transport of loosened soil particles by overland flow. Rill erosion refers to the development of small, ephemeral concentrated flow paths which function as both sediment source and sediment delivery systems for erosion on hillslopes. Where water erosion rates on disturbed upland areas are greatest, rills are active. Flow depths in rills are of the order of a few centimetres or less and along-channel slopes may be quite steep; this means that rills exhibit hydraulic physics different from water flowing through the deeper, wider channels of streams and rivers. Gully erosion occurs when runoff water accumulates and flows in narrow channels during or after heavy rains or melting snow, removing soil to a considerable depth. Valley or stream erosion occurs with continued water flow along a linear feature; the erosion is both downward, deepening the valley, headward, extending the valley into the hillside, creating head cuts and steep banks.
In the earliest stage of stream erosion, the erosive activity is dominantly vertical, the valleys have a typical V cross-section and the stream gradient is steep. When some base level is reached, the erosive activity switches to lateral erosion, which widens the valley floor and creates a narrow floodplain; the stream gradient becomes nearly flat, lateral deposition of sediments becomes important as the stream meanders across the valley floor. In all stages of stream erosion, by far the most erosion occurs during times of flood when more and faster-moving water is available to carry a larger sediment load. In such processes, it is not the water alone
James VI and I
James VI and I was King of Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567 and King of England and Ireland as James I from the union of the Scottish and English crowns on 24 March 1603 until his death in 1625. The kingdoms of Scotland and England were individual sovereign states, with their own parliaments and laws, though both were ruled by James in personal union. James was the son of Mary, Queen of Scots, a great-great-grandson of Henry VII, King of England and Lord of Ireland, positioning him to accede to all three thrones. James succeeded to the Scottish throne at the age of thirteen months, after his mother was compelled to abdicate in his favour. Four different regents governed during his minority, which ended in 1578, though he did not gain full control of his government until 1583. In 1603, he succeeded the last Tudor monarch of England and Ireland, Elizabeth I, who died childless, he continued to reign in all three kingdoms for 22 years, a period known after him as the Jacobean era, until his death in 1625 at the age of 58.
After the Union of the Crowns, he based himself in England from 1603, only returning to Scotland once in 1617, styled himself "King of Great Britain and Ireland". He was a major advocate of a single parliament for Scotland. In his reign, the Plantation of Ulster and British colonisation of the Americas began. At 57 years and 246 days, James's reign in Scotland was longer than those of any of his predecessors, he achieved most of his aims in Scotland but faced great difficulties in England, including the Gunpowder Plot in 1605 and repeated conflicts with the English Parliament. Under James, the "Golden Age" of Elizabethan literature and drama continued, with writers such as William Shakespeare, John Donne, Ben Jonson, Sir Francis Bacon contributing to a flourishing literary culture. James himself was a talented scholar, the author of works such as Daemonologie, The True Law of Free Monarchies, Basilikon Doron, he sponsored the translation of the Bible into English that would be named after him: the Authorised King James Version.
Sir Anthony Weldon claimed that James had been termed "the wisest fool in Christendom", an epithet associated with his character since. Since the latter half of the 20th century, historians have tended to revise James's reputation and treat him as a serious and thoughtful monarch, he was committed to a peace policy, tried to avoid involvement in religious wars the Thirty Years' War that devastated much of Central Europe. He tried but failed to prevent the rise of hawkish elements in the English Parliament who wanted war with Spain. James was the only son of Mary, Queen of Scots, her second husband, Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley. Both Mary and Darnley were great-grandchildren of Henry VII of England through Margaret Tudor, the older sister of Henry VIII. Mary's rule over Scotland was insecure, she and her husband, being Roman Catholics, faced a rebellion by Protestant noblemen. During Mary's and Darnley's difficult marriage, Darnley secretly allied himself with the rebels and conspired in the murder of the Queen's private secretary, David Rizzio, just three months before James's birth.
James was born on 19 June 1566 at Edinburgh Castle, as the eldest son and heir apparent of the monarch automatically became Duke of Rothesay and Prince and Great Steward of Scotland. He was baptised "Charles James" or "James Charles" on 17 December 1566 in a Catholic ceremony held at Stirling Castle, his godparents were Charles IX of France, Elizabeth I of England, Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy. Mary refused to let the Archbishop of St Andrews, whom she referred to as "a pocky priest", spit in the child's mouth, as was the custom; the subsequent entertainment, devised by Frenchman Bastian Pagez, featured men dressed as satyrs and sporting tails, to which the English guests took offence, thinking the satyrs "done against them". James's father, was murdered on 10 February 1567 at Kirk o' Field, Edinburgh in revenge for the killing of Rizzio. James inherited his father's titles of Duke of Earl of Ross. Mary was unpopular, her marriage on 15 May 1567 to James Hepburn, 4th Earl of Bothwell, suspected of murdering Darnley, heightened widespread bad feeling towards her.
In June 1567, Protestant rebels imprisoned her in Loch Leven Castle. She was forced to abdicate on 24 July 1567 in favour of the infant James and to appoint her illegitimate half-brother, James Stewart, Earl of Moray, as regent; the care of James was entrusted to the Earl and Countess of Mar, "to be conserved and upbrought" in the security of Stirling Castle. James was anointed King of Scots at the age of thirteen months at the Church of the Holy Rude, Stirling, by Adam Bothwell, Bishop of Orkney, on 29 July 1567; the sermon at the coronation was preached by John Knox. In accordance with the religious beliefs of most of the Scottish ruling class, James was brought up as a member of the Protestant Church of Scotland, the Kirk; the Privy Council selected George Buchanan, Peter Young, Adam Erskine, David Erskine as James's preceptors or tutors. As the young king's senior tutor, Buchanan subjected James to regular beatings but instilled in him a lifelong passion for literature and learning. Buchanan sought to turn James into a God-fearing, Protestant king who accepted the limitations of monarchy, as outlined in his treatise De Jure Regni apud Scotos.
In 1568, Mary escaped from her i
James Jardine was a Scottish civil engineer and geologist. He was the first person to determine mean sea level, he built tunnels and bridges, including for the Innocent Railway, built reservoirs including Glencorse, Harlaw for Edinburgh Water Company, Cobbinshaw for the Union Canal. Jardine was born in Dumfriesshire, on 30 November 1776, the son of a farmer, he was educated at the University of Edinburgh. He studied mathematics under Prof John Playfair, he was a friend of Thomas Telford and they collaborated on several projectsFollowing studies at the Firth of Tay, he was the first person in the world to calculate mean sea level. From 1796 to 1808 he lectured in mathematics at the University of Edinburgh. From 1811 he began a series of harbour designs, beginning with Saltcoats; this was followed by Perth, major extensions to Leith Docks, Eyemouth. In 1812 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, his proposers were John Leslie, Thomas Allan. In 1813 he received the commission to drain the final waters of the Nor Loch to create Princes Street Gardens, the final waters of the Burgh Loch to create The Meadows both in Edinburgh.
In 1819 he was appointed as the first engineer for the newly-formed Edinburgh Water Company. He built an 8.5-mile pipeline from the Crawley springs, completed in 1823, which provided Edinburgh's first reliable supply of drinking water from outside the city. With Thomas Telford acting as chief designer, he oversaw the construction of a new reservoir at Glencorse, chiefly designed to supply compensation water to enable mills on the River Esk to continue operating, after some of the water from the Glencorse Burn was extracted to boost water supplies for Edinburgh, he was involved at the start of construction of two more reservoirs for the Edinburgh Water Company, at Threipmuir and Harlaw, but they were completed by James Leslie in 1847 and 1848, as he retired in 1846. Following his work on the Glencorse Reservoir, he was commissioned to undertake similar improvements in Perth and Glasgow, he re-engineered Loch Leven, reducing its water level by creating its first outlet. He did much of the engineering on the Union Canal, including creation of Cobbinshaw Reservoir as its water supply.
From 1826 he worked on the Edinburgh and Dalkeith Railway line, creating its St. Leonards branch, now called the Innocent Railway; this includes a tunnel under the southern edge of Arthur's Seat plus the Glenesk Viaduct. He embarked on other, more northerly railway projects: Ardrossan, Inveralmond, he worked on several projects with Thomas Telford, including provision of mathematical calculations to establish the required chain strength to hold the Menai Straits suspension bridge. He was unsuccessful in his designs for Dean Bridge in the City Observatory, he retired at age 70 in 1846. He died at 18 Queen Street, one of the most prestigious addresses in Edinburgh, he never had no children. He is buried in Warriston Cemetery, in the upper section, on the main east west path near the old East Gate, he is buried with other family members including his nephew William Alexander Jardine, a civil engineer. His gravestone is lying flat on its face having been toppled by a tree falling in strong winds in 2018.
He is known to have trained the railway engineer Alexander Adie. and the civil engineer James Anderson. He was a long time friend of the botanist Daniel Ellis, a Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh and they attended Society meetings together. Gazetteer for Scotland: James Jardine
Edinburgh is the capital city of Scotland and one of its 32 council areas. Part of the county of Midlothian, it is located in Lothian on the Firth of Forth's southern shore. Recognised as the capital of Scotland since at least the 15th century, Edinburgh is the seat of the Scottish Government, the Scottish Parliament and the supreme courts of Scotland; the city's Palace of Holyroodhouse is the official residence of the monarch in Scotland. The city has long been a centre of education in the fields of medicine, Scots law, philosophy, the sciences and engineering, it is the second largest financial centre in the United Kingdom and the city's historical and cultural attractions have made it the United Kingdom's second most popular tourist destination, attracting over one million overseas visitors each year. Edinburgh is Scotland's second most populous city and the seventh most populous in the United Kingdom; the official population estimates are 488,050 for the Locality of Edinburgh, 513,210 for the City of Edinburgh, 1,339,380 for the city region.
Edinburgh lies at the heart of the Edinburgh and South East Scotland city region comprising East Lothian, Fife, Scottish Borders and West Lothian. The city is the annual venue of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland, it is home to national institutions such as the National Museum of Scotland, the National Library of Scotland and the Scottish National Gallery. The University of Edinburgh, founded in 1582 and now one of four in the city, is placed 18th in the QS World University Rankings for 2019; the city is famous for the Edinburgh International Festival and the Fringe, the latter being the world's largest annual international arts festival. Historic sites in Edinburgh include Edinburgh Castle, the Palace of Holyroodhouse, the churches of St. Giles and the Canongate, the extensive Georgian New Town, built in the 18th/19th centuries. Edinburgh's Old Town and New Town together are listed as a UNESCO World Heritage site, managed by Edinburgh World Heritage since 1999. "Edin", the root of the city's name, derives from Eidyn, the name for this region in Cumbric, the Brittonic Celtic language spoken there.
The name's meaning is unknown. The district of Eidyn centred on the dun or hillfort of Eidyn; this stronghold is believed to have been located at Castle Rock, now the site of Edinburgh Castle. Eidyn was conquered by the Angles of Bernicia in the 7th century and by the Scots in the 10th century; as the language shifted to Old English, subsequently to modern English and Scots, The Brittonic din in Din Eidyn was replaced by burh, producing Edinburgh. Din became dùn in Scottish Gaelic, producing Dùn Èideann; the city is affectionately nicknamed Auld Reekie, Scots for Old Smoky, for the views from the country of the smoke-covered Old Town. Allan Ramsay said. A name the country people give Edinburgh from the cloud of smoke or reek, always impending over it."Thomas Carlyle said, "Smoke cloud hangs over old Edinburgh,—for since Aeneas Silvius's time and earlier, the people have the art strange to Aeneas, of burning a certain sort of black stones, Edinburgh with its chimneys is called'Auld Reekie' by the country people."A character in Walter Scott's The Abbot says "... yonder stands Auld Reekie--you may see the smoke hover over her at twenty miles' distance."Robert Chambers who said that the sobriquet could not be traced before the reign of Charles II attributed the name to a Fife laird, Durham of Largo, who regulated the bedtime of his children by the smoke rising above Edinburgh from the fires of the tenements.
"It's time now bairns, to tak' the beuks, gang to our beds, for yonder's Auld Reekie, I see, putting on her nicht -cap!"Some have called Edinburgh the Athens of the North for a variety of reasons. The earliest comparison between the two cities showed that they had a similar topography, with the Castle Rock of Edinburgh performing a similar role to the Athenian Acropolis. Both of them had fertile agricultural land sloping down to a port several miles away. Although this arrangement is common in Southern Europe, it is rare in Northern Europe; the 18th-century intellectual life, referred to as the Scottish Enlightenment, was a key influence in gaining the name. Such luminaries as David Hume and Adam Smith shone during this period. Having lost most of its political importance after the Union, some hoped that Edinburgh could gain a similar influence on London as Athens had on Rome. A contributing factor was the neoclassical architecture that of William Henry Playfair, the National Monument. Tom Stoppard's character Archie, of Jumpers, said playing on Reykjavík meaning "smoky bay", that the "Reykjavík of the South" would be more appropriate.
The city has been known by several Latin names, such as Aneda or Edina. The adjectival form of the latter, can be seen inscribed on educational buildings; the Scots poets Robert Fergusson and Robert Burns used Edina in their poems. Ben Jonson described it as "Britaine's other eye", Sir Walter Scott referred to it as "yon Empress of the North". Robert Louis Stevenson a son of the city, wrote, "Edinburgh is what Paris ought to be"; the colloquial pronunciation "Embra" or "Embro" has been used, as in Robert Garioch's Embro to the Ploy. The earliest known human habitation in the Edinburgh area was at Cramond, where evidence was found of a Mesolithi
Princes Street Gardens
Princes Street Gardens are two adjacent public parks in the centre of Edinburgh, lying in the shadow of Edinburgh Castle. The Gardens were created in two phases in the 1770s and 1820s following the long draining of the Nor Loch and building of the New Town, beginning in the 1760s; the loch, situated on the north side of the town, was an artificial creation forming part of its medieval defences and made expansion northwards difficult. The water was habitually polluted from sewage draining downhill from the Old Town. In 1846 the railway was built in the valley to connect the Edinburgh-Glasgow line at Haymarket with the new northern terminus of the North British line from Berwick-upon-Tweed at Waverley Station; the gardens run along the south side of Princes Street and are divided by The Mound, on which the National Gallery of Scotland and the Royal Scottish Academy are located. East Princes Street Gardens run from The Mound to Waverley Bridge, cover 8.5 acres. The larger West Princes Street Gardens cover 29 acres and extend to the adjacent churches of St. John's and St. Cuthbert's, near Lothian Road in the west.
The Gardens are the best known parks in Edinburgh, having the highest awareness and visitor figures for both residents and visitors to the city. In 1846, the Edinburgh and Glasgow Railway company constructed a sunken railway line along the southern edge of the Gardens to join its Haymarket terminus to a new General Station adjoining the North British Railway Company's North Bridge terminus; this involved constructing the Haymarket Tunnel, 910 metres long, between the western end of the gardens and Haymarket Station. A shorter tunnel was dug through the Mound dividing the East and West Gardens. East Princes Street Gardens originated after a dispute between Edinburgh Corporation and the early New Town proprietors, among whom was the philosopher David Hume who resided in St. David Street, a side street off Princes Street. In 1771 the council acquired the land as part of the First New Town development, it began feuing ground on the south side of Princes Street for the building of houses and workshops for a coach-builder and a furniture-maker.
After a failed petition to the council the proprietors raised two actions in the Court of Session to halt the building and to condemn the Corporation for having contravened their feuing terms by which they had pre-supposed open ground and a vista south of the street. After the Court found in favour of the council on the first point the decision was appealed to the House of Lords and overturned, but when the Court again supported the council on the second point, the matter was submitted to judicial arbitration; this resulted in a judgement that the houses could be completed which allowed the North British Hotel to be built on the site, that the adjacent furniture-maker's premises must not rise above the level of Princes Street and that the ground westwards for half the length of Princes Street "shall be kept and preserved in perpetuity as pleasure-grounds to be dressed up at the expense of the town council as soon as may be." Along the south side of Princes Street are many monuments. In the East Gardens most prominent is the Scott Monument, a Neo-Gothic spire built in 1844 to honour Sir Walter Scott.
Within East Princes Street Gardens there are statues of the explorer David Livingstone, the publisher and Lord Provost Adam Black and the essayist Professor John Wilson, who wrote under the pseudonym Christopher North. There is a small commemorative stone honouring the volunteers from the Lothians and Fife who fought in the Spanish Civil War; every year, in the weeks leading up to Christmas, the East Gardens are transformed into'Winter Wonderland'. This includes a variety of amusement park rides and the Christmas Market, which has food and gifts from all around the world; the most notable attractions are the ice rink and the 33 metre high Ferris wheel dubbed'The Edinburgh Eye'. In 2018, the National Gallery of Scotland launched a £22 million scheme to create new exhibition spaces directly accessible from the East Gardens. Due to open in 2021, this will involve new steps and access paths. In October 2018, 52 trees were cut down by the City of Edinburgh Council, in an area of the gardens stretching from the Gallery to the Scott Monument.
Some members of the public were shocked by the unexpected number of trees removed. At the beginning of November 2018, scaffolding was erected for Christmas Market stalls, facilitated by the removal of the trees. West Princes Street Gardens were the private property of "the Princes Street Proprietors" who overlooked them from their houses on the western half of the street; this was passed to them from the council in 1816 and the gardens were opened to subscribers in the New Town in 1821. Dogs, cricket and smoking were prohibited under their rules, people using bath-chairs had to present a doctor's certificate to the Committee of the garden attesting to their ailment not being contagious. An application by the Scottish Association for Suppressing Drunkenness that the gardens be opened during Christmas and New Year "with the object of keeping parties out of the dram shops" led to them being opened to the general public on Christmas Day, New Year's Day and one other day in the year. In 1876, despite much opposition from residents, the town council reacquired the ground for use as a public park.
The new park was laid out by the City Architect Robert Mo
The Cowgate is a street in Edinburgh, located about 550 yards southeast of Edinburgh Castle, within the city's World Heritage Site. The street is part of the lower level of Edinburgh's Old Town, which lies below the elevated streets of South Bridge and George IV Bridge; the Cowgate can be quite gloomy and dark in sections. It meets the Grassmarket at Holyrood Road to the east; the street's name is recorded from 1428, in various spellings, as Cowgate and in 1498 as Via Vaccarum. It is derived from the medieval practice of herding cattle down the street on market days. Gate is a Scots language word for "way" or "road", a cognate of similar words in other Germanic languages. Describing the street in the 1581 edition of their atlas of major cities Civitates orbis terrarum, Georg Braun and Frans Hogenberg said the Cow Gate was where "...the noble families and city councillors have their residences, together with other princely houses and palaces most handsome to behold."Between the mid 18th and mid 20th centuries the Cowgate was a poor overcrowded slum area.
In the 19th century it was home to much of the city's Irish immigrant community and nicknamed "Little Ireland". In the evening of 7 December 2002, a fire started above the Belle Angele nightclub off the Cowgate, it swept up through the eight storey structure to other buildings on Cowgate and above it on South Bridge. The complicated nature of the buildings, with narrow alleys and entrances from the same building onto streets at different heights, complicated efforts to fight the fire, was called a "rabbit warren" by Lothian and Borders Fire Brigade, it took. 150 people were forced to flee the flames. The University of Edinburgh School of Informatics on South Bridge was badly damaged. Little current research data was lost in the fire due to offsite backups. In 2005 work began on a new building, the Informatics Forum, occupied mid-2008. Destroyed was the Gilded Balloon, a major venue for the Edinburgh Fringe, offices for both the Gilded Balloon and Underbelly venues housed in an 1823 listed warehouse by Thomas Hamilton.
The Gilded Balloon moved to premises in Teviot Row House. The First Minister of Scotland appealed to the UNESCO World Heritage Fund for money to assist in the redevelopment of the site; the site has been temporarily used as a Fringe venue again, becoming the C venues' Urban Garden during the 2007 and 2008 Festival. The gap site was acquired by the property developer Whiteburn, who were granted planning permission in January 2009 to build a new mixed-use development using the site and existing adjacent buildings. Construction began in 2012 and was completed in late 2013; the main components of the development are a small Sainsbury's supermarket, a 259-bed Ibis Hotel, restaurants, a nightclub and a vennel. In 2016, protesters camped out in Cowgate to prevent the building of luxury hotel by Jansons Property; the protesters argued that the development might damage Edinburgh's UNESCO status, would displace homeless people, would remove a medical facility for the homeless and would block the natural light of the Edinburgh Central Library.
MSP Andy Wightman offered his support to the campaign. The oldest building lies to the west end, but is sandwiched between other larger buildings and missed, it stands on the south side of the street, just west of where George IV Bridge crosses over the Cowgate. This is the Magdalen Chapel, a 16th-century almshouse chapel built with monies left by Michael MacQueen in 1537. Work was completed in 1544 and it operated as a hospital almshouse under the control of MacQueen's widow, Janet Rynd until her death in 1553, when it passed to the Incorporation of Hammermen; the entrance as seen from the Cowgate was rebuilt in 1613. The spire was added in 1620. St Cecilia's Hall by Robert Mylne was built for the Musical Society of Edinburgh in 1763, it now houses a small Georgian concert space and an important collection of early keyboard instruments owned by Edinburgh University. St. Patrick's Roman Catholic Church stands at the east end of the Cowgate, it dates from 1772 but was extensively remodelled in 1929 following demolition of the tenements along the north side of the Cowgate which obscured its frontage.
Both the National Library of Scotland and the Edinburgh Central Library have their lower floors on the Cowgate, with public access being on George IV Bridge above. Janet Boyman, executed for witchcraft on 29 December 1572. James Connolly, Irish revolutionary was born in 1868 at number 107 Cowgate. Football club Hibernian F. C. was founded by congregants of St Patrick's Roman Catholic Church in the Cowgate in August 1875 - the club was based at St Patrick's until the early 1890s, cups the club won from this period are still displayed in the church. Canon John Gray and priest was a curate at St. Patrick's. Venerable Margaret Sinclair lived at Blackfriars Street, just off the Cowgate. Map showing the Cowgate Chapter XXXI - The Cowgate in Old and New Edinburgh by James Grant, published by Cassell in the 1880s'SoCo' proposal for the Cowgate fire gap site
James III of Scotland
James III was King of Scots from 1460 to 1488. James was an unpopular and ineffective monarch owing to an unwillingness to administer justice a policy of pursuing alliance with the Kingdom of England, a disastrous relationship with nearly all his extended family. However, it was through his marriage to Margaret of Denmark that the Orkney and Shetland islands became Scottish, his reputation as the first Renaissance monarch in Scotland has sometimes been exaggerated, based on attacks on him in chronicles for being more interested in such unmanly pursuits as music than hunting and leading his kingdom into war. In fact, the artistic legacy of his reign is slight when compared to that of his successors, James IV and James V; such evidence as there is consists of portrait coins produced during his reign that display the king in three-quarter profile wearing an imperial crown, the Trinity Altarpiece by Hugo van der Goes, not commissioned by the king, an unusual hexagonal chapel at Restalrig near Edinburgh inspired by the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem.
James was born to James II of Mary of Guelders. His exact date and place of birth have been a matter of debate. Claims were made that he was born in May 1452, or 10 or 20 July 1451; the place of birth was either the St Andrews Castle, depending on the year. His most recent biographer, the historian Norman Macdougall, argued for late May 1452 at St Andrews, Fife, he succeeded his father James II on 3 August 1460 and was crowned at Kelso Abbey, Roxburghshire, a week later. During his childhood, the government was led by three successive factions, first the King's mother, Mary of Guelders James Kennedy, Bishop of St Andrews, Gilbert, Lord Kennedy Robert, Lord Boyd; the Boyd faction made itself unpopular with the king, through self-aggrandisement. Lord Boyd's son Thomas was married to the king's sister Mary. However, the family negotiated the king's marriage to Margaret of Denmark, daughter of Christian I of Denmark in 1469 as a part of ending the annual fee owed to Norway for the Western Isles, receiving Orkney and Shetland.
When James permanently annexed the islands to the crown in 1472, Scotland reached its greatest territorial extent. James married the 15 year old Margaret of Denmark in July 1469 at Edinburgh. Christian I of Denmark gave the Shetland Islands to Scotland as a dowry; the service was overseen by Abbot Archibald Crawford. The marriage produced three sons: James IV of Scotland James Stewart, Duke of Ross John Stewart, Earl of Mar Conflict broke out between James and the Boyd family following the marriage to Princess Mary. Robert and Thomas Boyd were out of the country involved in diplomacy when their regime was overthrown. Mary's marriage was declared void in 1473; the family of Sir Alexander Boyd was executed by James in 1469. James became powerful enough to attempt to manage the Lord of the Isles who ruled over the Western Isles and Highlands of Scotland in 1475; the treaty made by the Lords with England at Ardtornish in 1462 was used as evidence of their usurpation of royal power. John of Islay, Earl of Ross, Lord of the Isles was censured for making his son Angus his lieutenant and for besieging Rothesay Castle in the Isle of Bute.
John, Lord of the Isles was ordered to appear for trial in Edinburgh on 1 December and when he did not attend, he was declared forfeit. The Earls of Lennox, Argyll and Huntly were ordered to put the forfeiture in practice. John, Lord of the Isles, came to Edinburgh in July 1476 and the forfeiture was rescinded, but he resigned to the crown the Earldom of Ross, lands in Kintyre and Knapdale, the offices of Sheriff of Inverness and Nairn. James made John a Lord of Parliament as Lord of the Isles. In April 1478 Parliament required John to answer for his assistance to rebels who held Castle Sween against the crown. In December John received confirmation of his 1476 charters. James's policies during the 1470s revolved around ambitious continental schemes for territorial expansion and alliance with England. Between 1471 and 1473 he suggested annexations or invasions of Brittany and Guelders; these unrealistic aims resulted in parliamentary criticism since the king was reluctant to deal with the more humdrum business of administering justice at home.
In 1474 a marriage alliance was agreed to with Edward IV of England by which the future James IV of Scotland was to marry Princess Cecily of York, daughter of Edward IV and Elizabeth Woodville. It might have been a sensible move for Scotland, but it went against the traditional enmity of the two countries dating back to the reign of Robert I and the Wars of Independence, not to mention the vested interests of the border nobility; the alliance, therefore was at least one of the reasons why the king was unpopular by 1479. During the 1470s conflict developed between the king and his two brothers, Duke of Albany, John, Earl of Mar. Mar died suspiciously in Edinburgh in 1480 and his estates were forfeited given to a royal favourite, Robert Cochrane. Albany fled to France in 1479, breaking the alliance with England, but by 1479 the alliance was collapsing and war with England existed on an intermittent level in 1480–1482. In 1482 Edward IV launched a full-scale invasion led by the Duke of Gloucester, the future Richard III, including the