Saskatchewan is a prairie and boreal province in western Canada, the only province without a natural border. It has an area of 651,900 square kilometres, nearly 10 percent of, fresh water, composed of rivers and the province's 100,000 lakes. Saskatchewan is bordered on the west by Alberta, on the north by the Northwest Territories, on the east by Manitoba, to the northeast by Nunavut, on the south by the U. S. states of North Dakota. As of late 2018, Saskatchewan's population was estimated at 1,165,903. Residents live in the southern prairie half of the province, while the northern boreal half is forested and sparsely populated. Of the total population half live in the province's largest city Saskatoon, or the provincial capital Regina. Other notable cities include Prince Albert, Moose Jaw, Swift Current, North Battleford and the border city Lloydminster. Saskatchewan is a landlocked province with large distances to moderating bodies of waters; as a result, its climate is continental, rendering severe winters throughout the province.
Southern areas have warm or hot summers. Midale and Yellow Grass near the U. S. border are tied for the highest recorded temperatures in Canada with 45 °C observed at both locations on July 5, 1937. In winter, temperatures below −45 °C are possible in the south during extreme cold snaps. Saskatchewan has been inhabited for thousands of years by various indigenous groups, first explored by Europeans in 1690 and settled in 1774, it became a province in 1905, carved out from the vast North-West Territories, which had until included most of the Canadian Prairies. In the early 20th century the province became known as a stronghold for Canadian social democracy; the province's economy is based on agriculture and energy. Saskatchewan's current lieutenant governor is the current premier is Scott Moe. In 1992, the federal and provincial governments signed a historic land claim agreement with First Nations in Saskatchewan; the First Nations received compensation and were permitted to buy land on the open market for the bands.
Some First Nations have used their settlement to invest in urban areas, including Saskatoon. Its name derived from the Saskatchewan River; the river was known as kisiskāciwani-sīpiy in the Cree language. As Saskatchewan's borders follow the geographic coordinates of longitude and latitude, the province is a quadrilateral, or a shape with four sides. However, the 49th parallel boundary and the 60th northern border appear curved on globes and many maps. Additionally, the eastern boundary of the province is crooked rather than following a line of longitude, as correction lines were devised by surveyors prior to the homestead program. Saskatchewan is part of the Western Provinces and is bounded on the west by Alberta, on the north by the Northwest Territories, on the north-east by Nunavut, on the east by Manitoba, on the south by the U. S. states of North Dakota. Saskatchewan has the distinction of being the only Canadian province for which no borders correspond to physical geographic features. Along with Alberta, Saskatchewan is one of only two land-locked provinces.
The overwhelming majority of Saskatchewan's population is located in the southern third of the province, south of the 53rd parallel. Saskatchewan contains two major natural regions: the Boreal Forest in the north and the Prairies in the south, they are separated by an aspen parkland transition zone near the North Saskatchewan River on the western side of the province, near to south of the Saskatchewan River on the eastern side. Northern Saskatchewan is covered by forest except for the Lake Athabasca Sand Dunes, the largest active sand dunes in the world north of 58°, adjacent to the southern shore of Lake Athabasca. Southern Saskatchewan contains another area with sand dunes known as the "Great Sand Hills" covering over 300 square kilometres; the Cypress Hills, located in the southwestern corner of Saskatchewan and Killdeer Badlands, are areas of the province that were unglaciated during the last glaciation period, the Wisconsin glaciation. The province's highest point, at 1,392 metres, is located in the Cypress Hills less than 2 km from the provincial boundary with Alberta.
The lowest point is the shore of Lake Athabasca, at 213 metres. The province has 14 major drainage basins made up of various rivers and watersheds draining into the Arctic Ocean, Hudson Bay and the Gulf of Mexico. Saskatchewan receives more hours of sunshine than any other Canadian province; the province lies far from any significant body of water. This fact, combined with its northerly latitude, gives it a warm summer, corresponding to its humid continental climate in the central and most of the eastern parts of the province, as well as the Cypress Hills. Drought can affect agricultural areas during no precipitation at all; the northern parts of Saskatchewan – from about La Ronge northward – have a subarctic climate with a shorter summer season. Summers can get hot, sometimes above 38 °C during the day, with humidity decreasing from northeast to southwest. Warm southern winds blow from the plains and intermontane regions of
An amphibious aircraft or amphibian is an aircraft that can take off and land on both land and water. Fixed-wing amphibious aircraft are seaplanes that are equipped with retractable wheels, at the expense of extra weight and complexity, plus diminished range and fuel economy compared to planes designed for land or water only; some amphibians are fitted with reinforced keels which act as skis, allowing them to land on snow or ice with their wheels up. Floatplanes have floats that are interchangeable with wheeled landing gear however in cases where this is not practical amphibious floatplanes, such as the amphibious version of the DHC Otter, incorporate retractable wheels within their floats. Many amphibian aircraft are of the flying boat type; these aircraft, those designed as floatplanes with a single main float under the fuselage centerline, require outrigger floats to provide lateral stability so as to avoid dipping a wingtip, which can destroy an aircraft if it happens at speed, or can cause the wingtip to fill with water and sink if stationary.
While these impose weight and drag, amphibious aircraft face the possibility of these getting hit when operating from a runway. A common solution is to make them retractable as those found on the Consolidated Catalina however these are heavier than fixed floats; some aircraft may have the tip floats removed for extended use from land. Other amphibians, such as the Dornier Seastar use stub wings called sponsons, mounted with their own lower surfaces nearly with the ventral "boat-hull" shaped fuselage surface to provide the needed stability, while floatplane amphibians avoid the problem by dividing their buoyancy requirements between two floats, much like a catamaran; some non-amphibious seaplanes may be mistaken for amphibians which carry their own beaching gear - this is a wheeled dolly or temporary set of wheels used to move a flying boat or floatplane from the water and allow it to be moved around on land but can appear as a conventional undercarriage. These are not built to take the impact of the aircraft landing on them.
An amphibian can leave the water without anyone getting in the water to attach beaching wheels, yet a functional undercarriage is heavy and impacts the aircraft's performance, isn't required in all cases, so an aircraft may be designed to carry its own. An occasional problem with amphibians is with ensuring the wheels are in the correct position for landing. In normal operation, the pilot uses a checklist. Since amphibians can land with them up or down though, the pilot must take extra care to ensure they are correct for the chosen landing place. Landing wheels up on land may damage the keel, while landing wheels down on water will always flip the aircraft upside down, causing substantial damage. Amphibious aircraft are heavier and slower, more complex and more expensive to purchase and operate than comparable landplanes but are more versatile. If they cannot hover or land vertically, for some jobs they compete favorably with helicopters and do so at a lower cost. Amphibious aircraft can be much faster and have longer range than comparable helicopters, can achieve nearly the range of land based aircraft, as an airplane's wing is more efficient than a helicopter's lifting rotor.
This makes an amphibious aircraft, such as the Grumman Albatross and the Shin Meiwa US-2, useful for long-range air-sea rescue tasks. In addition, amphibious aircraft are useful as "Bushplanes" engaging in light transport in remote areas, where they are required to operate not only from airstrips, but from lakes and rivers. In the United Kingdom, traditionally a maritime nation, a large number of amphibians were built between the wars, starting from 1918 with the Vickers Viking and the early 1920s Supermarine Seagull and were used for exploration and military duties including search and rescue, artillery spotting and anti-submarine patrol; the most notable being the Short Sunderland which carried out many anti-submarine patrols over the North Atlantic on sorties of 8 – 12 hours duration. These evolved throughout the interwar period to culminate in the post World War 2 Supermarine Seagull, to have replaced the wartime Walrus and the Sea Otter but was overtaken by advances in helicopters. Starting in the mid-1920s and running into the late 1930s in the United States, Sikorsky produced an extensive family of amphibians that were used for exploration and as airliners around the globe, helping pioneer many overseas air routes where the larger flying boats could not go, helping to popularize amphibians in the US.
The Grumman Corporation, late-comers to the game, introduced a pair of light utility amphibious aircraft - the Goose and the Widgeon during the late 1930s for the civilian market. However, their military potential could not be ignored, many were ordered by the US Armed forces and their allies during World War II. Not coincidentally, the Consolidated Catalina was redeveloped from being a pure flying boat into an amphibian during the war. After the war, the United States military ordered hundreds of the Grumman Albatross and its variants for a variety of roles, like the pure flying boat was made obsolete by helicopters which could operate in sea conditions far beyond wh
De Havilland Canada DHC-6 Twin Otter
The de Havilland Canada DHC-6 Twin Otter marketed as the Viking Air DHC-6 Twin Otter, is a Canadian 19-passenger STOL utility aircraft developed by de Havilland Canada and produced by Viking Air. The aircraft's fixed tricycle undercarriage, STOL capabilities, twin turboprop engines and high rate of climb have made it a successful commuter passenger airliner as well as a cargo and medical evacuation aircraft. In addition, the Twin Otter has been popular with commercial skydiving operations, is used by the United States Army Parachute Team and the United States Air Force's 98th Flying Training Squadron. Development of the aircraft began in 1964, with the first flight on May 20, 1965. A twin-engine replacement for the single-engine DHC-3 Otter retaining DHC's renowned STOL qualities, its design features included double-slotted trailing-edge flaps and ailerons that work in unison with the flaps to boost STOL performance; the availability of the 550 shp Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-20 turboprop in the early 1960s made the concept of a twin more feasible.
To bush operators, the improved reliability of turboprop power and the improved performance of a twin-engine configuration made it an popular alternative to the piston-powered Otter, flying since 1951. The first six aircraft produced were designated Series 1, indicating that they were prototype aircraft; the initial production run consisted of Series 100 aircraft, serial numbers seven to 115 inclusive. In 1968, Series 200 production began with serial number 116. Changes made at the beginning of Series 200 production included improving the STOL performance, adding a longer nose, equipped with a larger baggage compartment, fitting a larger door to the rear baggage compartment. All Series 1, 100, 200 aircraft and their variants were fitted with the 550-shaft-horsepower PT6A-20 engines. In 1969, the Series 300 was introduced, beginning with serial number 231. Both aircraft performance and payload were improved by fitting more powerful PT6A-27 engines; this was a 680 hp engine, flat-rated to 620 hp for use in the Series 300 Twin Otter.
The Series 300 proved to be the most successful variant by far, with 614 Series 300 aircraft and their subvariants sold before production in Toronto by de Havilland Canada ended in 1988. In 1976, a new -300 would have cost $700,000 and is still worth more than $2.5 million in 2018 despite the -400 introduction, many years after the -300 production ceased. After Series 300 production ended, the remaining tooling was purchased by Viking Air of Victoria, British Columbia, which manufactures replacement parts for all of the out-of-production de Havilland Canada aircraft. On February 24, 2006, Viking purchased the type certificates from Bombardier Aerospace for all the out-of-production de Havilland Canada aircraft; the ownership of the certificates gives Viking the exclusive right to manufacture new aircraft. On July 17, 2006, at the Farnborough Air Show, Viking Air announced its intention to offer a Series 400 Twin Otter. On April 2, 2007, Viking announced that with 27 orders and options in hand, it was restarting production of the Twin Otter, equipped with more powerful Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-34 engines.
As of November 2007, 40 firm orders and 10 options had been taken and a new final assembly plant was established in Calgary, Alberta. Zimex Aviation of Switzerland received the first new production aircraft, serial number 845, in July 2010. By mid-2014, Viking had built 55 new aircraft at its Calgary facility; the production rate as of summer 2014 was about 24 aircraft per year. In April 2015, Viking announced a reduction of the production rate to 18 aircraft per year. On June 17, 2015, Viking further announced a partnership with a Chinese firm, Reignwood Aviation Group; the group will purchase 50 aircraft and become the exclusive representatives for new Series 400 Twin Otters in China. Major changes introduced with the Series 400 include Honeywell Primus Apex integrated avionics, deletion of the AC electrical system, deletion of the beta backup system, modernization of the electrical and lighting systems, use of composites for nonload-bearing structures such as doors; the 100th Series 400 Twin Otter was displayed at the July 2017 EAA AirVenture Oshkosh.
38% are operated as regional airliners, 31% in military aviation or special missions, 26% in industrial support and 5% in private air charter. Additionally, 70 are on regular landing gear wheels, 18 are configured as straight or amphibious floatplanes, 10 have tundra tires and 2 have wheel skis. Twin Otters could be delivered directly from the factory with floats, skis, or tricycle landing gear fittings, making them adaptable bush planes for remote and northern areas. Areas including Canada and the United States, had much of the demand. Many Twin Otters still serve in the far north, but they can be found in Africa, Asia and other regions where bush planes are the optimum means of travel, their versatility and maneuverability have made them popular in areas with difficult flying environments such as Papua New Guinea. In Norway, the Twin Otter paved the way for the network of short-field airports, connecting rural areas with larger towns; the Twin Otter showed outstanding reliability, remained in service until 2000 on certain routes.
Widerøe of Norway was, at one time, the world's largest operator of Twin Otters. During one period of its tenure in Norway, the Twin Otter fleet achieved over 96,000 cycles per year. A number of commuter airlines in
Ottawa is the capital city of Canada. It stands on the south bank of the Ottawa River in the eastern portion of southern Ontario. Ottawa borders Gatineau, Quebec; as of 2016, Ottawa had a city population of 964,743 and a metropolitan population of 1,323,783 making it the fourth-largest city and the fifth-largest CMA in Canada. Founded in 1826 as Bytown, incorporated as Ottawa in 1855, the city has evolved into the political centre of Canada, its original boundaries were expanded through numerous annexations and were replaced by a new city incorporation and amalgamation in 2001 which increased its land area. The city name "Ottawa" was chosen in reference to the Ottawa River, the name of, derived from the Algonquin Odawa, meaning "to trade". Ottawa has the most educated population among Canadian cities and is home to a number of post-secondary and cultural institutions, including the National Arts Centre, the National Gallery, numerous national museums. Ottawa has the highest standard of living in low unemployment.
With the draining of the Champlain Sea around ten thousand years ago, the Ottawa Valley became habitable. Local populations used the area for wild edible harvesting, fishing, trade and camps for over 6500 years; the Ottawa river valley has archaeological sites with arrow heads and stone tools. Three major rivers meet within Ottawa, making it an important trade and travel area for thousands of years; the Algonquins called the Ottawa River Kichi Sibi or Kichissippi meaning "Great River" or "Grand River". Étienne Brûlé regarded as the first European to travel up the Ottawa River, passed by Ottawa in 1610 on his way to the Great Lakes. Three years Samuel de Champlain wrote about the waterfalls in the area and about his encounters with the Algonquins, using the Ottawa River for centuries. Many missionaries would follow the early traders; the first maps of the area used the word Ottawa, derived from the Algonquin word adawe, to name the river. Philemon Wright, a New Englander, created the first settlement in the area on 7 March 1800 on the north side of the river, across from the present day city of Ottawa in Hull.
He, with five other families and twenty-five labourers, set about to create an agricultural community called Wrightsville. Wright pioneered the Ottawa Valley timber trade by transporting timber by river from the Ottawa Valley to Quebec City. Bytown, Ottawa's original name, was founded as a community in 1826 when hundreds of land speculators were attracted to the south side of the river when news spread that British authorities were constructing the northerly end of the Rideau Canal military project at that location; the following year, the town was named after British military engineer Colonel John By, responsible for the entire Rideau Waterway construction project. The canal's military purpose was to provide a secure route between Montreal and Kingston on Lake Ontario, bypassing a vulnerable stretch of the St. Lawrence River bordering the state of New York that had left re-supply ships bound for southwestern Ontario exposed to enemy fire during the War of 1812. Colonel By set up military barracks on the site of today's Parliament Hill.
He laid out the streets of the town and created two distinct neighbourhoods named "Upper Town" west of the canal and "Lower Town" east of the canal. Similar to its Upper Canada and Lower Canada namesakes "Upper Town" was predominantly English speaking and Protestant whereas "Lower Town" was predominantly French and Catholic. Bytown's population grew to 1,000 as the Rideau Canal was being completed in 1832. Bytown encountered some impassioned and violent times in her early pioneer period that included Irish labour unrest that attributed to the Shiners' War from 1835 to 1845 and political dissension evident from the 1849 Stony Monday Riot. In 1855 Bytown was incorporated as a city. William Pittman Lett was installed as the first city clerk guiding it through 36 years of development. On New Year's Eve 1857, Queen Victoria, as a symbolic and political gesture, was presented with the responsibility of selecting a location for the permanent capital of the Province of Canada. In reality, Prime Minister John A. Macdonald had assigned this selection process to the Executive Branch of the Government, as previous attempts to arrive at a consensus had ended in deadlock.
The "Queen's choice" turned out to be the small frontier town of Ottawa for two main reasons: Firstly, Ottawa's isolated location in a back country surrounded by dense forest far from the Canada–US border and situated on a cliff face would make it more defensible from attack. Secondly, Ottawa was midway between Toronto and Kingston and Montreal and Quebec City. Additionally, despite Ottawa's regional isolation it had seasonal water transportation access to Montreal over the Ottawa River and to Kingston via the Rideau Waterway. By 1854 it had a modern all season Bytown and Prescott Railway that carried passengers and supplies the 82-kilometres to Prescott on the Saint Lawrence River and beyond. Ottawa's small size, it was thought, would make it less prone to rampaging politically motivated mobs, as had happened in the previous Canadian capitals; the government owned the land that would become Parliament Hill which they thought would be an ideal location for the Parliament Buildings. Ottawa was th
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
Embraer EMB 110 Bandeirante
The Embraer EMB 110 Bandeirante is a Brazilian general purpose 15–21 passenger twin-turboprop light transport aircraft designed by Embraer for military and civil use. The EMB 110 was designed by the French engineer Max Holste following the specifications of the IPD-6504 program set by the Brazilian Ministry of Aeronautics in 1965; the goal was to create a general purpose aircraft, suitable for both civilian and military roles with a low operational cost and high reliability. The first prototype, with the military designation YC-95, was flown on 26 October 1968. and two other prototypes were built, known as EMB 100. By 1969 an order was placed for 80 production aircraft, by now known as EMB 110 Bandeirante, for the Brazilian Air Force with the newly formed aircraft company Embraer; the Bandeirante received its Brazilian airworthiness certificate at the end of 1972. and on 9 February 1973 was made the first delivery to FAB. Further development of the EMB 110 was halted by the manufacturer in order to shift focus to the larger and pressurized 30-seat EMB 120 Brasilia.
On Dec 15, 2010, the Brazilian Air Force first flew an upgraded EMB 110 equipped with modern avionics equipment. Designated as the C/P-95, the aircraft has had several new systems installed by Israeli firm Elbit Systems' Brazilian subsidiary, Aeroeletronica; the Brazilian Air Force has an active fleet of 96 EMB-110s. Deliveries started to the Brazilian Air Force in February 1973; the passenger model first flew on 9 August 1972 and entered commercial service on 16 April 1973 with the now defunct Brazilian airline company Transbrasil. Over the next 21 years Embraer built 494 aircraft in numerous configurations for a variety of roles. Production was halted in 1990. YC-95 or EMB 100 – Prototype, powered by two 550 shp Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-20 turboprop engines. Three built. EMB 110 Initial production version, powered by 680 shp PT6A-27 engines – Twelve seat military transport for the Brazilian Air Force, who designate it the C-95. 60 built. EMB 110A – Radio calibration version for the Brazilian Air Force.
Three built. EC-95B – Calibration version for the Brazilian Air Force. EMB 110B – Aerial survey, aerial photography version. Seven built, six as R-95 for the Brazilian Air Force. EMB 110C – The first commercial model, similar to C-95, a 15-seat passenger version. EMB 110C – Three navalised EMB 110Cs sold to the Chilean Navy. EMB 110E Executive version of EMB 110C. Six to eight seats. EMB 110E Modified version of EMB 110E. EMB 110K Stretched version with 0.85 m fuselage plug and 750 shp PT6A-34 engines and fitted with ventral fin. EMB 110K1 – Cargo transport version for the Brazilian Air Force, with cargo door in rear fuselage. 20 built, designated C-95A. EMB 110P Dedicated commuter version of EMB 110C for Brazilian airlines, powered by PT6A-27 or -34 engines. EMB 110P1 – Quick change civil cargo/passenger transport version based on EMB 110K1, with same rear cargo door. EMB 110P2 – Dedicated civil passenger version of EMB 110P1, without cargo door. EMB 111A Patrulha – Maritime patrol version for the Brazilian Air Force.
The aircraft has the Brazilian Air Force designation P-95 Bandeirulha. Two were leased to the Argentine Navy during the Falklands War due to the retirement of their last SP-2H Neptune and until the introduction of modified L-188 Electras. P-95B – EMB 111AN – Six maritime patrol aircraft sold to the Chilean Navy. C-95B – Quick change cargo/passenger version for the Brazilian Air Force. EMB 110P1 SAR – Search and rescue version. EMB 110P/A – 18 seat passenger version, intended for export. EMB 110P1/A – Mixed passenger/freight version with enlarged cargo door. EMB 110P1/41 – Cargo/passenger transport aircraft. EMB 110P1K/110K – Military version. C-95C – The Brazilian Air Force version of the EMB 110P2. EMB 110P2 EMB 110P2/A – Modifications for airline commuter role, seating up to 21 passengers. EMB 110P2/41 – 21-seat pressurised commuter airliner. EMB 110S1 – Geophysical survey version. SC-95 – Search and rescue version for the Brazilian Air Force. XC-95 – Rain research version for the Brazilian Air Force.
C/P-95 – Updated version with modernised avionics. In October 2018, 50 years after its first flight and 498 deliveries, about 150 were still operating at airlines, air taxis, government entities, air forces around the world. In 2017, the Brazilian Air Force was operating 48 EMB-110. In 2016, 38 Bandeirantes were still in Airline service with 14 operators, 30 in North/South America and 8 in Asia Pacific & Middle East: 7: Wiggins Airways 5: Payam Air and Royal Air Freight 4: Transportes Aereos Guatemaltecos 3: Abaete Linhas Aereas and CM Airlines 2: Air Rarotonga and Pineapple Air 1: Southwest Air, Cat Island Air, LeAir Charter Services and MAP Linhas Aereas Data from Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1988–89General characteristics Crew: 2 Capacity: 18 passengers Length: 15.10 m Wingspan: 15.33 m Height: 4.92 m Wing area: 29.10 m² Airfoil: NACA 23016 at root, NACA 23012 at tip Aspect ratio: 8.1:1 Empty weight: 3,393 kg Max. Takeoff weight: 5,900 kg Powerplant: 2 × Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-34 turboprop engines, 559 kW eachPerformance Cruise speed: 341 km/h – econ cruise at 3,050 m Range: 1,964 km Service ceiling: 6,550 m Rate of climb: 8.3 m/s 27 February 1975: a VASP Embraer EMB 110 Bandeirante registration PP-SBE operating flight 640 from São Paulo-Congonhas to Bauru crashed after take-off from Congonhas.
All 2 crew members and 13 passengers died. 22 January 1976: a Transbrasil Embraer EMB 110C Bandeirante registration PT-TBD operating flight 107 from Chapecó to Erechim