SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Nord (French department)

Nord is a department in the far north of France. It was created from the western halves of the historical counties of Flanders and Hainaut, the Bishopric of Cambrai; the modern coat of arms was inherited from the County of Flanders. Nord is the country's most populous department, it contains the metropolitan region of Lille, the fifth-largest urban area in France after Paris, Lyon and Toulouse. Within the department is located the part of France where the French Flemish dialect of Dutch is still spoken as a native language; the distinct French Picard dialect, Ch'ti is spoken here. Tribes of the Belgae, such as the Menapii and Nervii were the first peoples recorded in the area known as Nord. During the 4th and 5th Centuries, Roman rulers of Gallia Belgica secured the route from the major port of Bononia to Colonia, by co-opting Germanic peoples north-east of this corridor, such as the Tungri. In effect, the area known as Nord became an isogloss between the Germanic and Romance languages. Saxon colonisation of the region from the 5th to the 8th centuries shifted the isogloss further south so that, by the 9th century, most people north of Lille spoke a dialect of Old Dutch.

This has remained evident in the place names of the region. After the County of Flanders became part of France in the 9th century, the isogloss moved north and east. During the 14th Century, much of the area came under the control of the Duchy of Burgundy and in subsequent centuries was therefore part of the Habsburg Netherlands and the Spanish Netherlands. Areas that constituted Nord were ceded to France by treaties in 1659, 1668, 1678, becoming the Counties of Flanders and Hainaut, part of the Bishopric of Cambrai. On 4 March 1790, during the French Revolution, Nord became one of the original 83 departments created to replace the counties. Modern government policies making French the only official language have led to a decline in use of the Dutch West Flemish dialect. There are 20,000 speakers of a sub-dialect of West Flemish in the arrondissement of Dunkirk and it appears that this particular sub-dialect will be extinct within decades. There is, however. Nord is part of the current Hauts-de-France region and is surrounded by the French departments of Pas-de-Calais and Aisne, as well as by Belgium and the North Sea.

Situated in the north of the country along the western half of the Belgian frontier, the department is unusually long and narrow. Its principal city is Lille, which with nearby Roubaix and Villeneuve d'Ascq constitutes the center of a cluster of industrial and former mining towns totalling over a million inhabitants. Other important cities are Valenciennes and Dunkirk; the principal rivers are the following: Yser, Escaut, Sambre Nord is the most populated department, with a population of 2,617,939 and an area of 5,743 km². The President of the Departmental Council is the unaffiliated right-winger Jean-René Lecerf; the first President of the Fifth Republic, General Charles de Gaulle, was born in Lille in the department on 22 November 1890. At the forefront of France's 19th century industrialisation, the area suffered during World War I and now faces the economic and environmental problems associated with the decline of coal mining with its neighbours following the earlier decline of the Lille-Roubaix textile industry.

Until the department was dominated economically by coal mining, which extended through the heart of the department from neighbouring Artois into central Belgium. Cantons of the Nord department Communes of the Nord department Arrondissements of the Nord department French Flemish Université Lille Nord de France INSEE Prefecture website General Council website Nord at Curlie

Declarative learning

Declarative learning is acquiring information that one can speak about. The capital of a state is a declarative piece of information, while knowing how to ride a bike is not. Episodic memory and semantic memory are a further division of declarative information. There are two ways to learn a telephone number: memorize it using your declarative memory, or use it many times to create a habit. Habit learning is called procedural memory Declarative memory uses your medial temporal lobe and enables you to recall the telephone number at will. Procedural memory activates the telephone number only when you are at the telephone, uses your right-hemisphere's skill, pattern recognition. Research indicates habit memory compete with each other during distraction; when in doubt, the brain chooses habit memory. Several researchers at the UCLA tested the hypothesis that distraction can change the way a task is learned. In their experiment, they played a series of high and low tones while asking subjects to do a simple probabilistic classification task.

In the single task case, subjects only learned to predict the weather. In the dual task case, subjects were asked to count the number of high pitched tones; the ability to use the learned knowledge was found to be about the same in either case. However, subjects were better at identifying cue-associations when trained under ST rather than DT conditions. Furthermore, fMRI showed activity in the hippocampus was associated with performance under ST, but not DT conditions, whereas activity in the putamen showed the opposite correlation; the authors concluded that while distraction may not decrease the level of learning, it can result in a reduced ability to flexibly use that knowledge Declarative learning is an important skill that we use to acquire new information, such as in education. Declarative learning can be seen as what we know, for example we know that Paris is the capital of France. Sleep deprivation and learning have continually been linked together; the common belief is that sleep deprivation can affect children when they are learning at school or in any daily task.

However, different types of learning are processed differently and have different outcomes when a child is sleep deprived. A study conducted by Csabi, Janacesk and Nemeth looked at the impairment of declarative and nondeclarative learning when a child is sleep deprived. Nondeclarative learning was measured by having children perform an Alternating Serial Reaction Time task; this task had a dog's head appear in four empty circles. Every time the dog's head appeared the child had to press the corresponding letter as and as possible. Declarative learning was measured by "The War of the Ghosts" test, a recall test where the children were told a short story consisting of thirty-six sentences and had to recall it after hearing it; the study showed that nondeclarative learning was preserved and not affected when sleep deprived children took the ASRT task. However, declarative learning declined in the face of sleep-deprivation. Declarative Learning can be associated with tasks that require a greater amount of attention, such as learning in school.

Therefore, the lack of sleep a child obtains can affect declarative learning and can affect how well a child learns during school overall. Research focusing on children has looked at different ways of utilizing declarative learning when it comes to memorizing tasks. Backhaus, Born and Junghanns conducted a study to see if sleeping after a task enhances declarative learning in children. Children between the ages of nine and twelve were given a word association task consisting of forty related word pairs; the lists of words were repeated continuously until the child participating could recall at least twenty words out of the forty given. The child was allowed to go to sleep for the night and was tested for recall right after they had woken up; the child was asked to go about their day and was tested for recall during the day. The study showed that declarative learning and retention increased only after an interval of sleep that followed learning; this research provides evidence of sleep in the role of declarative learning, sleep consolidation, as well as stresses the importance of sleep for declarative learning during childhood.

Declarative learning is not affected by sleeping but can be affected by levels of stress as well as hormones. In a study conducted by Espin et al. stress and menstrual cycle phases in women, were tested for their effect on declarative learning in young adults. Participants were asked to participate in a Trier Social Stress Test where they were asked to give a speech to a simulated committee about why they deserved the position for their dream job. If the participant did not finish their speech in five minutes the committee would ask standardized questions the researchers had provided. After the speech the participant was asked to complete a five-minute arithmetic task; the TSST was set up to induce stress in the participants before they proceeded to the declarative learning task. For the Declarative Learning task the participants were asked to complete a Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Task, which has the participants look over a set of words and asks them to recall as many as they can; the study showed that if women were not exposed to the TSST task before the RAVLT there was an increase of declarative learning and recall when compared to the men.

However, when the participants were exposed to the TSST task before the RAVLT declarative learning and recall were equal for both men and women. Wome

Kenny Clements

Kenneth Henry Clements is an English former footballer who played as a defender in the Football League for Manchester City, in two spells, between 1971 and 1979 and between 1985 and 1988, Oldham Athletic and Shrewsbury Town, was player-manager of League of Ireland club Limerick. He made 282 appearances for Manchester City in all competitions, scoring twice, he was an unused substitute. After retiring from football, Clements opened a driving school in the Oldham area, resumed his interest in painting, he now works as a chauffeur for Manchester property tycoon Aneel Mussarat at MCR Property Ltd in Rusholme, Manchester, UK. Kenny Clements at Post War English & Scottish Football League A–Z Player's Database Stats and photo at Sporting Heroes