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Norden bombsight

The Norden Mk. XV, known as the Norden M series in U. S. Army service, is a bombsight, used by the United States Army Air Forces and the United States Navy during World War II, the United States Air Force in the Korean and the Vietnam Wars, it was an early tachometric design that directly measured the aircraft's ground speed and direction, which older bombsights could only estimate with lengthy manual procedures. The Norden improved on older designs by using an analog computer that continuously recalculated the bomb's impact point based on changing flight conditions, an autopilot that reacted and to changes in the wind or other effects. Together, these features promised unprecedented accuracy for daytime bombing from high altitudes. During prewar testing the Norden demonstrated a circular error probable of 75 feet, an astonishing performance for that period; this accuracy would enable direct attacks on ships and other point targets. Both the Navy and the USAAF saw it as a means to conduct successful high-altitude bombing.

For example, an invasion fleet could be destroyed long before it could reach U. S. shores. To protect these advantages, the Norden was granted the utmost secrecy well into the war, was part of a production effort on a similar scale as the Manhattan Project. Carl L. Norden, Inc. ranked 46th among United States corporations in the value of World War II military production contracts. Under combat conditions the Norden did not achieve its expected accuracy, yielding an average CEP in 1943 of 1,200 feet, similar to other Allied and German results. Both the Navy and Air Forces had to give up using pinpoint attacks; the Navy turned to dive bombing and skip bombing to attack ships, while the Air Forces developed the lead bomber procedure to improve accuracy, adopted area bombing techniques for larger groups of aircraft. The Norden's reputation as a pin-point device endured, due in no small part to Norden's own advertising of the device after secrecy was reduced late in the war; the Norden's secrecy had been compromised by espionage before the United States entered the war.

As early as January 1941, the Germans introduced a lightened derivative of the Norden called the Carl Zeiss Lotfernrohr 7 as the primary bombsight for most Luftwaffe level bombers and the first of its bombsights to have gyroscopic stabilization. The Norden saw reduced use in the post-World War II period after radar-based targeting was introduced, but the need for accurate daytime attacks kept it in service during the Korean War; the last combat use of the Norden was in the U. S. Navy's VO-67 squadron, which used them to drop sensors onto the Ho Chi Minh Trail as late as 1967; the Norden remains one of the best-known bombsights invented. The Norden sight was designed by Carl Norden, a Dutch engineer educated in Switzerland who emigrated to the U. S. in 1904. In 1911, Norden joined Sperry Gyroscope to work on ship gyrostabilizers, moved to work directly for the U. S. Navy as a consultant. At the Navy, Norden worked on a catapult system for a proposed flying bomb, never developed, but this work introduced various Navy personnel to Norden's expertise with gyro stabilization.

World War I bomb sight designs had improved with the ultimate development being the Course Setting Bomb Sight, or CSBS. This was a large mechanical calculator that directly represented the wind triangle using three long pieces of metal in a triangular arrangement; the hypotenuse of the triangle was the line the aircraft needed to fly along in order to arrive over the target in the presence of wind, before the CSBS, was an intractable problem. All air forces adopted some variation of the CSBS as their standard inter-war bomb sight, including the U. S. Navy and U. S. Army, who used a version designed by the D-series, it was realized that one major source of error in bombing was leveling the aircraft enough so the bombsight pointed straight down. Small errors in leveling could produce dramatic errors in bombing, so the Navy began a series of developments to add a gyroscopic stabilizer to various bomb sight designs; this led to orders for such designs from Estoppey and Seversky. Norden was asked to provide an external stabilizer for the Navy's existing Mark III designs.

Although the CSBS and similar designs allowed the calculation of the proper flight angle needed to correct for windage, they did so by looking downward out of the aircraft, so the correct angle was not visible to the pilot. In early bombers, the bomb aimer was positioned in front of the pilot and could indicate corrections using hand signals, but as aircraft grew larger it became common for the pilot and bomb aimer to be separated; this led to the introduction of the pilot direction indicator, or PDI. These consisted of a pair of electrical pointers mounted in a standard 3.5 inches diameter instrument panel mount. The bombardier used switches to move the pointer on his unit to indicate the direction of the target, duplicated on the unit in front of the pilot so he could maneuver the aircraft to follow suit. Norden's first attempt at an improved bombsight was an advance in PDI design, his idea was to remove the manual electrical switches used to move the pointer and use the entire bombsight itself as the indicator.

He proposed attaching a low-power sighting telescope to a gyro platform that would keep the telescope pointed at the same azimuth, correcting for the aircraft's movements. The bombardier would rotate the telescope left or right to follow the target; this motion would cause the gyros to precess, this signal would drive the PDI automatically. The pilot would follow the PDI as before. To ti

Trego Hot Springs

Trego Hot Springs is located in the Black Rock Desert at the location of Trego, Nevada, a former station on the Western Pacific Railroad. The name "Trego" dates from the 1910s; the springs had names like Hot Springs, Kyles Hot Springs, Butte Spring, Butte Hot Spring. Today, Trego is known for its hot springs, a long ditch with a soft mud bottom; the springs are at the north end, near the railroad tracks, the water flows south. Garside reports that the springs have a temperature of 187F. Unlike nearby Frog Springs at the Garrett Ranch, Trego is on public land; the area near the springs were seasonally occupied from 4000 B. P. and 1000 B. P. Fairfield states that in 1856, Ladue Vary and Fred Hines discovered the springs that were named Trego Hot Springs when they took a short cut from Granite Creek across the Black Rock Desert playa towards Rabbit Hole Spring; when they arrived at the Humboldt River, the met a wagon train on the Nobles Emigrant Trail. Vary and Hines told the emigrants about the springs, the emigrants took the shortcut and the Nobles trail was adjusted accordingly.

"Hot Spr" appears on the 1857 map "Map of the Western Division of the Fort Kearney South Pass and Honey Lake Road" at that location. The 400 foot long trench was hand dug by a group led by Frederick W. Lander in 1860. Amesbury reports two 1861 entries from the diary of Edith Lockhart: "August 18: Pleasant day. Started at noon and went 18 miles to Rabbit Hole Springs, rested a couple of hours and went 18 more miles by the next day to Hot Springs." "Aug. 19. A warm day - got into camp at 10 oclock in this morning, laid over till evening - when we went 12 miles to Granite Creek or Wells." The area was named Trego around the time. Carlson states that Trego was named after nearby Mount Trego, formally known as Old Razorback Mountain; the name Mount Trego only appears on the Pershing County Assessors Map. The earliest citation for Trego from an original source is from an April 29, 1912 newspaper article that states that "Borax" in the water was the cause of a train engine boiler explosion that killed three people.

In 1993, Desert Siteworks was held at Trego. Desert Siteworks was a series of art events led by William Binzen, assisted by Judy West and John Law for three years. Many of the principles developed at Desert Siteworks were adopted by Burning Man

Manassas Line

The Manassas Line is a Virginia Railway Express commuter line that extends from Washington, D. C. to Bristow, Virginia. The first of VRE's two lines, with service beginning on June 22, 1992, the line operates on tracks owned by CSX Transportation and Norfolk Southern Railway; the line south of Alexandria, was once owned by Southern Railway, whose Crescent train stopped at the line's Alexandria and Manassas stations. When U. S. intercity passenger service was taken over by Amtrak, the new railroad continued the Crescent service between New Orleans and New York City. In 1984, planning began for a commuter rail service for the area. Eight years after many new stations were constructed, Virginia Railway Express began operating trains on the line on June 22, 1992. In 2009, Amtrak extended its Northeast Regional service south to Lynchburg, bringing more trains to Manassas and Burke Centre. In 2017, VRE began a $2.8 million study of expansion to the Broad Run station and layover facility that would allow additional Manassas Line service.

RF&P Subdivision Fredericksburg Line

2011 Milwaukee Brewers season

The Milwaukee Brewers' 2011 season was their 42nd season for the franchise in Milwaukee, the 14th in the National League, 43rd overall. The Brewers posted a franchise-best record of 96-66, winning their first-ever National League Central Division title; the Brewers defeated the Arizona Diamondbacks in five games in the first round of the playoffs and advanced to the National League Championship Series, where they lost in six games to the St. Louis Cardinals. Despite having arguably the best offense in the National League, the Brewers had struggled in 2010 due to lack of starting pitching as the Brewers had finished next-to-last in the league in team ERA. Vowing to the Brewer fans to get more starting pitching, GM Doug Melvin traded or released three of the team's most ineffective starters in Jeff Suppan, Dave Bush, Doug Davis; the Brewers tabbed John Axford as the Brewers new closer with the retirement of Trevor Hoffman. In keeping with their vow of getting better starting pitching, the Brewers made a deal just hours into the Winter Meetings with the Toronto Blue Jays in acquiring starting pitcher Shaun Marcum in exchange for top prospect Brett Lawrie.

The Brewers were in the hunt for 2009 American League Cy Young Award winner Zack Greinke of the Kansas City Royals. On December 19, the Brewers reached a deal with the Royals; the Royals got Brewers' starting shortstop Alcides Escobar and prospects Lorenzo Cain, Jake Odorizzi, Jeremy Jeffress in exchange for Greinke, shortstop Yuniesky Betancourt, $2 million to cover the last year of Betancourt's contract. The arrival of Greinke created a wave of excitement in Milwaukee. In the first 72 hours after the trade had been announced, the Brewers sold 1,500 season tickets compared to only 800 sold in the previous two months, sold 1.5 million individual tickets before Opening Day. The Brewers signed to the team veterans Takashi Saito and Mark Kotsay and made a last minute trade at the end of Spring training in sending Class-A prospect Cutter Dykstra to the Washington Nationals in exchange for outfielder Nyjer Morgan. With the trades for Shaun Marcum and Zack Greinke, the Brewers were tabbed by many experts as favorites to not only win the NL Central Division, but contenders for the National League pennant.

The first month was a bumpy road for the Brewers as they were without Greinke due to a basketball-related rib injury during Spring training. The team opened the season with four consecutive losses. By the end of April, the Brewers had fallen to 5th place in the NL Central, but came back to have an impressive May, by taking advantage of the struggles of division rivals Cincinnati Reds and St. Louis Cardinals; the Brewers had problems offensively but were carried by the efforts of All-Stars Ryan Braun, Prince Fielder, Rickie Weeks. Nyjer Morgan, acquired via trade on March 27 from the Washington Nationals, took over center field for struggling Carlos Gomez. Morgan became a fan favorite in Milwaukee because of his bizarre antics. By the All-Star break, the Brewers were tied with St. Louis for the division lead despite having the National League's worst road record; the Brewers had NL's best home record at which gave them a respectable 49–43 record at the midpoint of the 2011 season. To address some needed bullpen help, the Brewers made another big trade just hours after the All-Star Game, trading two Class A prospects to the New York Mets in exchange for ace reliever Francisco Rodríguez, made another trade before the end of the trade deadline for veteran infielder Jerry Hairston Jr. who became essential to the Brewers' success after All-Star second baseman Rickie Weeks suffered a bad ankle sprain in the last week of July and Carlos Gomez was lost with a shoulder injury.

The Brewers started to overcome their road woes after the All-Star Break when they went on an 11-game road trip to Arizona and San Francisco. The Brewers ended up having a modest 5-6 mark on the road trip and came back to sweep the floundering Cubs and Astros and take two out of three games against the Cardinals to win eight of a nine-game homestand and take over 1st place in the NL Central, they followed the successful homestand with a sweep of the Astros in Houston. The Brewers went on to have a stretch of 29 games from late July to mid August where they went 23-6 and finished the month of August with a 21-7 mark, setting a franchise record for most wins in one month; the Brewers went through a series of scuffles in early September where their division lead, up as high as 10 games in late August, went down to as few as 4.5 games as the Cardinals went on a sudden hot streak, becoming the first team to sweep the Brewers at Miller Park during the season. The Brewers, were able to keep their division lead steady, thanks to a mid-September sweep of the Reds.

On September 16, Ryan Braun hit his 30th home run of the season. Along with his 31 stolen bases, Braun became only the 2nd Brewer to have a 30-homer, 30-steal season, joining Tommy Harper, who accomplished the feat in 1970; the Brewers came into their final 6 games with a 5-game lead over the Cardinals. On September 23, the Brewers beat the Florida Marlins 4-1, with Ryan Braun hitting a clutch 3-run homer in the 8th. In St. Louis, the Cardinals fell to the Cubs 5-1, giving the Brewers the NL Central Division title, their first division title since 1982; the Brewers became the first franchise to win a division title in both the American and National leagues. The night drew eerie echoes to the Brewers playoff year of 2008, as the Brewers that year needed to beat the Cubs and needed the Marlins to win to get into the playoffs, whereas i

Matt Suckling

Matthew Suckling is an Australian rules footballer who plays for the Western Bulldogs in the Australian Football League. Suckling is known as a player with precision link-up play from the Bulldog's defence. Characteristic of his style of play is his long range accurate kicking. Hailing from Wagga Wagga, Suckling played football with Isaac Smith in the Wagga Hawks for several years before both moved to the Wagga Tigers where they won two premierships. First drafted by the Hawthorn Football Club at pick 22 in the 2007 Rookie Draft, he was struck down by osteitis pubis for most of 2007 but was retained on the rookie list for 2008. Suckling was redrafted to Hawthorn's rookie list by the club at pick 81 in the 2009 Rookie Draft. At the 2009 rookie draft, where Hawthorn had agreed to redraft Suckling, he made his debut for Hawthorn in the opening round of the 2009 AFL season in the rematch of the 2008 AFL Grand Final against Geelong. The 20-year-old defender was one of three Hawks playing their first game in the MCG blockbuster.

Omitted the next week because of injury, Suckling was unable to break back into the side. In 2010 he played five games, was on the verge of selection for most of the season. 2011 was a breakthrough year for Suckling. Characteristic of his style of play is his long range accurate kicking. Suckling was selected as the Australia international rules football team's goalkeeper for the 2011 International Rules Series in Australia. Australia lost the series 2–0, with a 130–65 aggregate score. Suckling was one of two Hawthorn players selected for the team, along with Liam Shiels. Suckling was one of three Hawthorn players to play every game in 2012. During the 2013 NAB Cup pre season competition Suckling tore his anterior cruciate ligament whilst playing against Richmond. Suckling missed the entire 2013 season due to the injury. Suckling returned to the side in 2014, would go on to claim his elusive premiership medal in the clubs 2014 Grand Final win, he followed this up with a premiership win in 2015, starting the game as a substitute and coming on late in the third quarter for David Hale.

Following the Grand Final, Suckling exercised his right as a free agent and joined the Western Bulldogs. In his first season at the Western Bulldogs Suckling was unfortunate to miss the Preliminary Final and Grand Final victories with an Achilles injury Statistics are correct to the end of the 2014 season Team 2× AFL premiership: 2014, 2015 2× McClelland Trophy: 2012, 2013 Matt Suckling's profile on the official website of the Western Bulldogs Matt Suckling's playing statistics from AFL Tables

St John Ambulance Australia

St John Ambulance Australia is a self-funding charitable organisation dedicated to helping people in sickness, suffering or danger. It is part of an international organisation that consists of eight priories that form the Order of St John; the organisation is sometimes incorrectly referred to as "St John's Ambulance" instead of "St John Ambulance". St John First Aid training centres were established in Australia in the late 19th century. On 13 June 1883 a public meeting was held in the Melbourne Town Hall to form a local branch of the association. By the end of June 1883, a centre had been established under the leadership of Edward Neild; the first division of the St John Ambulance Brigade was established in Glebe, New South Wales in 1903. A division of this organisation is still in operation today and is known as St John Ambulance Glebe Division. After this initial division was established other states followed suit, with divisions being set up in other states soon after. In 1987, the organisation adopted a single public title, "St John Ambulance Australia".

The cadet movement was established in Australia in 1925 with a division in Glebe, NSW. The first Grand Prior's Badge issued outside the UK went to a cadet from Marrickville Cadet Division in 1933 named Marion Higgins; the organisation is divided into the states/territories who have their own boards and oversee the day-to-day running of St John. Some states are divided into regions, who oversee all branches and report to the state boards. St John Ambulance Australia has three main branches, with each one having its own specific area of operation. St John provides first aid services at events and emergencies. First Aid Services is divided into states and divisions. Events covered by St. John Australia include sports, such as the 2006 Melbourne Commonwealth Games, where a team of 500 members treated over 3000 casualties. Other events covered include sporting events, such as the Australian Open, music concerts and community fetes. St John EHS volunteers support state emergency management and disaster plans in some states, in conjunction with other organisations like the State Emergency Service.

St John is the largest first aid training organisation in Australia. Apart from its flagship Provide First Aid, St John offer instruction in topics such as Advanced Resuscitation, Advanced First Aid, AED and analgesic administration, remote first aid and occupational first aid. St John Ambulance in Australia raises funds and recruits staff for the St John Ophthalmic Eye Hospital in Jerusalem. Funds are raised through public donations, income received from conducting first aid courses and selling first aid kits and merchandise. St John Community Care conducts programs; these activities range from assisting disadvantaged youth, to providing voluntary transport and support programs for the frail and elderly. In Western Australia St John Ambulance provides the ambulance service; this service is provided through a combination of paid and volunteer staff. Paid ambulance officers and paramedics are used in the metropolitan areas and larger regional centres. Volunteer ambulance officers are used in some outer metropolitan areas.

In the Northern Territory St John Ambulance provides the ambulance service. This service is provided through a combination of paid and volunteer staff. Paid ambulance officers and paramedics are used in the metropolitan areas and larger regional centres. Volunteer ambulance officers are used in regional areas. Aeromedical role is offered by CareFlight operating an AW 139 out of Darwin. ^ Youth Leaders are adult members who have undertaken a specific leadership course and are ranked above youth but below all adult ranks N. B; each adult rank of officer may hold specific titles within a division, state/territory or national headquarters, such as Divisional Superintendent or Chief Officer. St John runs Cadet Divisions for children aged 8 -- 17, this includes Cadets; these can be found in suburbs of major cities in Australia. Examples are Glebe Division and Bathurst Division in New South Wales, Greater Dandenong Division in Victoria and Playford Cadet Division in South Australia; the youth program in Australia, focuses on developing young people in a variety of aspects.

Young members are participate in youth development and social activities. For cadets, it is possible to study for various'badges'; some of the topics available include animal care and cookery. Across most divisions and cadet divisions meet once a week, in a designated place, to conduct a training night. There is a designated training program for youth and cadet divisionsYouth members within Event and Emergency First Aid Service programs attend public duties to provide first aid at various events to members of the public; these duties include things such as: Big Day Out, Royal Easter Show, National Folk Festival, AFL Games, NRL, Super 12, Rugby Union games, amongst other popular events. There are many more lower profile events, like local fetes and markets. At these duties, St John members use treatment tools such as oxygen therapy equipment and analgesic gases on top of the standard first aid equipment. In most states, new youth members will be put through a Senior First Aid Course free of charge.

St John youth provides leadership opportunities for people of all ages. The program possesses a ranking system similar to the military. First aid competitions are held each year. In these competitions, ca