Nordic combined is a winter sport in which athletes compete in cross-country skiing and ski jumping. Nordic combined at the Winter Olympics and the FIS Nordic Combined World Cup are ongoing; the first major competition was held in 1892 in Oslo at the first Holmenkollen ski jump. King Olav V of Norway was an able competed in the Holmenkollen Ski Festival in the 1920s, it was in the 1924 Winter Olympics and has been on the program since. Until the 1950s, the cross-country race was held first, followed by the ski jumping; this was reversed as the difference in the cross-country race tended to be too big to overcome in ski jumping. The sport has been dominated by the Norwegians, supported by the Finns, it was not until 1960 that the Nordic grip on this discipline was broken when West German Georg Thoma won the gold medal at the 1960 Winter Olympics. It was decided in early-November 2016 that women's competitions were to be established on FIS-level starting during the second half of the 2010s with inclusion at world championships starting in 2021 and at the Olympic Winter Games in 2022.
But Olympic debut for women in 2022 was cancelled by IOC in July 2018, asking more development time for this discipline and likely been added in 2026. In May 2018 the FIS Congress made several decisions regarding the inclusion of women in the sport of Nordic Combined; as of 2019, women will be included in FIS Junior World Championships. It was confirmed. 2018 marks the second year of the Continental Cup program for women, which will include a total of 12 events. Formats and variations used in the World Cup are: Individual Gundersen: competition starts with one competition jump from a normal or large hill. On the same day, the 10 km cross-country race takes place; the winner starts at 00:00:00 and all other athletes start with time disadvantages according to their jumping score. The first to cross the finish line is the winner. A variation of this is the Final Individual Gundersen, consisting of two jumps and 15 km of cross-country skiing in free technique. Nordic Combined Triple: introduced in the 2013–14 FIS Nordic Combined World Cup, it features three different events on three days and one overall winner, awarded extra World Cup points and prize money: Day 1: 1 jump & 10 km Prologue Day 2: 1 jump & 15 km Individual Gundersen Day 3: 2 jumps & 20 km Final Individual Gundersen Team Event: introduced in the 1980s, one team consists of four athletes who have one competition jump each.
The total score of all four athletes determines the time disadvantages for the start of the ensuing 5 km cross-country race. The first team to cross the finish line wins. Team Sprint: teams consist of two athletes each. In the ski jumping part, every athlete makes one competition jump like in the Individual Gundersen or Team Event formats and the time behind for the start of the successive cross-country race; the team to arrive first at the finish line wins the competition. Included in the rules but not used in World Cup: Penalty Race: instead adding a time disadvantage, distance is added to the cross-country part. Mass Start: the only format in which the cross-country part takes place before the ski jumping. All competitors start into a 10 km cross-country race in free technique at the same time; the final cross-country times are converted into points for the ski jumping part. The winner is determined in a points-based system. Events in the Olympics are: the sprint K120 individual, ski jumping K90, Team/4x5km.
Ski bindings: secure only the toe of the boot to the ski. In cross-country, it must be placed so that not more than 57% of the entire ski length is used as the front part. In jumping, a cord or aluminum post attaches the heel of the boot to the ski to prevent tips from dropping and/or wobbling of skis during flight. Ski boot For jumping, a high-backed, flexible yet firm boots with a low cut at the front, designed to allow the skier to lean forward during flight. For cross-country a skating boot is used. Ski suit and helmet Skis: jumping skis may have a length of a maximum 145% of the total body height of the competitor. Cross-country skis may be up to 2 meters long. Ski poles Ski wax: glide wax for speed is used in both types, kick wax is used in cross-country
Washington Park Historic District known as Washington Square is a historic district in and around Washington Park in the city of Ottawa, United States. Washington Park was the site of the first Lincoln-Douglas debates of 1858 and is surrounded by several historic structures; the park was platted in 1831 and the historic district was added to the United States National Register of Historic Places in 1973. The boundaries of the Washington Park Historic District are limited to the area around Washington Park, known as Washington Square. On its north, the district is bounded by the east-west Lafayette Street, on the south by Jackson Street; the east side of the district is bounded by Columbus street, the west side by LaSalle Street. The historic district includes seven separate properties as contributing members, there were eight but one has been demolished since the district was designated. Washington Park was platted in 1831 and created by the Illinois-Michigan Canal Commission when the "states addition" of Ottawa was laid out.
This was part of the original plat for the city. The park is most famous as the site of the first Lincoln-Douglas debate in 1858, but has served other civic functions through the years. In 1973 the park and surrounding area was designated a historic district by the U. S. National Register of Historic Places and several of the properties have local landmark designations as well. In 2002 a project to install Lincoln-Douglas debate statues was completed. Washington Park occupies a square of one city block on the edge of downtown Ottawa and is surrounded by several significant historic structures. Within the park are objects and structures such as the 1873 Civil War Memorial, cannons from the Civil War, World War I and World War II, a marker noting the site of the first Lincoln-Douglas debate; the park's central patio is dominated by a fountain and reflecting pool centered with larger-than-life depictions of Abraham Lincoln and Stephen A. Douglas; the fountain and reflecting pools, thus, the statues, are in a plaza, surrounded by limestone.
The statue project was completed by artist Rebecca Childers Caleel with metal casting completed by Art Casting of Illinois. The bronze statues were completed under the guidance of the city's historic preservation commission and dedicated on September 14, 2002; the Lincoln statue is 11 feet tall and the Douglas statue is 9 feet tall. Because of their recent installation, the statues are not part of the historic district; the park has been popular during the holiday season as well as being a major focus of civic life in Ottawa from the 1850s into the present. In addition to the historical features within and surrounding the park there are features more traditional to parks such as greenspace, benches and walkways. Plant life includes well-manicured lawns, shade trees and tea roses; the Third District Appellate Court Building is found on the northeast corner of the square. The court building was constructed between 1857–60 and served as one of the Illinois State Supreme Court buildings for a decade.
In 1897, the state supreme courts at Ottawa, Mt. Vernon, Springfield were consolidated into one in Springfield; the court in Ottawa, one of five in the state of Illinois, played a role in drawing the Lincoln-Douglas Debate to the city. The building, at 1004 Columbus Street in Ottawa, still serves as the Third District Appellate Court of Illinois; the Third District Appellate Court building is an example of Classical Revival architecture. It features dominating Doric columns, as well as a large pediment; the central portion was built during the original construction period at a cost of nearly US$230,000. The building's wings were added on in 1877; the building is detailed in Joliet limestone. These features, coupled with the Classical elements give the structure an architectural harmony; because of this harmony the Ottawa Community Art Council has deemed the Third District Appellate Courthouse, "one of Ottawa's most handsome public buildings". The Civil War Memorial in Washington Park is a marble memorial column erected in 1873.
The monument was built by Edward McInnhill. The monument and statue atop it, known as the Goddess of Liberty, pays tribute to LaSalle County American Civil War veterans; the marble faces contain the name of over 800 Civil War dead but most of the names are unreadable due to deterioration. The Ottawa First Congregational Church was constructed near the intersection Jackson and Columbus Streets facing Washington Park in 1870; the building is of brick construction and cast in the Gothic Revival style. Christ Episcopal Church, is the architecturally superior of the two churches located on Washington Square. Found at the intersection of Lafayette and Columbus Streets, the church is opposite the Third District Appellate Courthouse; the church was constructed in 1871 by the first Episcopalian congregation to organize itself in Ottawa. The Episcopal Church was designed by architect A. H. Ellwood in the Gothic Revival style of the English Victorian era; the building features a "Wallace Window" depicting the Resurrection.
It was designed by German artist Julius Hübner. On August 21, 1858 the first of the Lincoln-Douglas debates was held in Ottawa's Washington Park; the site of the debate is marked by a large boulder affixed with a plaque. The boulder was erected on August 1908 by the Daughters of the American Revolution; the day of the debates 10,000 people flocked to Washington Square. Salesmen sold their wares to the mingling crowd and excited politicians were canvassing and quarreling throughout the park. On the southwest corner of Washington Park is a unaltered c. 1890s working popcorn wagon. The Reddick Mansion, alter
Tora Torbergsdatter was a Norwegian royal consort. She was the mother of two kings of Norway, it is possible, but unconfirmed, that she was queen of Denmark or Sweden. Tora Torbergsdatter was born on Giske in Norway, she belonged to a powerful family from Giske in Sunnmøre. She was daughter of Torberg Arnesson of Giske and wife Ragnhild Erlingsdatter, maternal granddaughter of Erling Skjalgsson and wife Astrid Eiriksdatter and paternal niece of Finn Arnesson and Kalv Arnesson. Tora married King Harald Hardrada of Norway in 1048; the marriage can be explained by politics and alliance building. The chiefs of the Giske family played a key role in Norwegian power politics; the relationship between Tora and Harald Hardrada created strong ties with the royal family. Tora became the mother of King Magnus II Haraldsson. King Harald had married Elisaveta Yaroslavna during the winter of 1043–44; the prior marriage between Harald and Elisaveta is only documented by the court poet Stuv den Blinde. There are no other remaining documentation about her stay in Norway.
It is therefore possible that Elisaveta stayed in Rus', or that she may have died on her way to Norway. However, that would mean that the daughters of Harald and Maria, who are attributed to her, must have been Tora's; this is not considered as Maria was engaged to Eystein Orre, who would have been her uncle had she been the daughter of Tora. It is therefore possible. In 1066, Harald invaded England. Tradition says that Elisaveta and her daughters followed Harald to England, where Maria died, as it was said, at the news of her father's death. Afterward and her second daughter Ingegerd returned to Norway with the Norwegian fleet. Elisaveta was to have stayed at the Orkney islands during this trip. However, the oldest of the sagas claim that it was Tora and not Elisaveta who accompanied Harald on the trip, considered more as she was the cousin of Thorfinn Sigurdsson, Jarl of Orkney. According to Adam of Bremen, the mother of King Olav Kyrre remarried either King Sweyn II of Denmark or an unnamed Swedish king as a widow, but this is unconfirmed.
It is unknown whether this refers to the actual mother of Olav Kyrre, which would mean Tora Torbergsdatter, or his stepmother, which would mean Elisiv. Magnusson, Magnus.
9 November has been the date of several important events in German history. The term Schicksalstag has been used by historians and journalists since shortly after World War II, but its current widespread use started with the events of 1989 when all German media picked up the term. There are six notable events in German history that are connected to 9 November: the execution of Robert Blum in 1848, the end of the monarchies in 1918, the naming of Albert Einstein as the winner of the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics, Hitler putsch attempt in 1923, the Nazi antisemitic pogroms in 1938 and the fall of the Berlin wall in 1989. 1848: After being arrested in the Vienna revolts, left liberal leader Robert Blum was executed. The execution can be seen as a symbolic event or forecast of the ultimate crushing of the German March Revolution in April and May 1849. 1918: Emperor Wilhelm II was dethroned in the November Revolution by his chancellor Max von Baden, who published the news of an abdication before the emperor had abdicated.
Philipp Scheidemann proclaimed the German republic from a window of the Reichstag. Two hours Karl Liebknecht proclaimed a "Free Socialist Republic" from a balcony of the Berliner Stadtschloss. Der 9. November is the title of a novel by Bernhard Kellermann published in Germany that told the story of the German insurrection of 1918, it was Scheidemann's intention to proclaim the republic. 1922: Albert Einstein was one of the most well-known and influential physicists of the 20th century. On November 9, 1922, he was named the winner of the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics "for his services to theoretical physics, for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect". 1923: The failed Beer Hall Putsch, from 8 to 9 November, marks an early emergence and provisional downfall of the Nazi Party as an important player on Germany's political landscape. Without sufficient preparation Hitler declared himself leader in Munich, Bavaria. Hitler's march through Munich was stopped by Bavarian police. Sixteen nationalists and four policemen were killed.
Only after 1930 would Hitler gain significant voter support, a process that would culminate in the Nazis' electoral victory of 1933. During the Nazi rule 9 November was a national holiday in Germany in memory of the Nazis who died in the beer hall Putsch. 1923: Wilhelm, German Crown Prince, chose 9 November 1923 for his return to Germany from exile in the Netherlands, which infuriated his father, the former emperor, who felt the anniversary of his abdication was ill-chosen. 1938: In what is today known in Germany as the Reichspogromnacht, from 9 to 10 November and Jewish property were burned and destroyed on a large scale, more than four hundred Jews were killed or driven to suicide. The event demonstrated that the antisemitic stance of the Nazi regime was not so'moderate' as it had appeared in earlier years. After 10 November, about 30,000 Jews were arrested. 1989: The fall of the Berlin Wall ended German separation and started a series of events that led to German reunification. November 9 was considered for the date for German Unity Day, but as it was the anniversary of Kristallnacht, this date was considered inappropriate as a national holiday.
The date of the formal reunification of Germany, 3 October 1990, was chosen as the date for this German national holiday instead, to replace 17 June, the celebration of the uprising of 1953 in East Germany. East Germany opened checkpoints on this day. November 9 in German history November 9 November 9th Society, a British Neo-Nazi group named after the date September 11 Deutsche Welle: Schicksalstag der Deutschen Netzeitung: 9. November als "deutscher Schicksalstag" Was ist Was: Schicksalstag Stern «Schicksalstag der Deutschen»: Gedenkstunden in Berlin Media related to 9. November at Wikimedia Commons
Anthony John Francis Smith was, among other things, a writer, sailor and former Tomorrow's World television presenter. He was best known for his bestselling work The Body, which has sold over 800,000 copies worldwide and tied in with a BBC television series, The Human Body, known in America by the name Intimate Universe: The Human Body; the series was presented by Professor Robert Winston. Smith read zoology at Balliol College, became a pilot in the RAF and went on to write as a science correspondent for the Daily Telegraph, he worked extensively in both television and radio, writing for several natural history programmes. Smith's first expedition was to Persia; this expedition was documented in his book Blind White Fish in Persia. In 1977 he returned to Iran with a film crew and two cave divers Martyn Farr and Richard Stevenson who explored the cave where he had found the new species of fish. In 1962, he led "The Sunday Telegraph Balloon Safari" expedition, Alan Root and others, flying a hydrogen balloon from Zanzibar to East Africa, across the Ngorongoro crater.
The following year he became the first Briton to cross the Alps in a balloon. In the late 1990s, Smith was instrumental in securing an exhibit for the Imperial War Museum, London; the Jolly Boat, a small lifeboat launched from the SS Anglo Saxon on 21 August 1940 after its sinking by the German auxiliary cruiser Widder. It carried the surviving members of the ship's crew west across the Atlantic Ocean for sixty-eight days, before landing in Eleuthera. By the time the Jolly Boat made landfall, only two of the seven survivors of the attack were still alive. For the next fifty years, the boat was kept by the Mystic Seaport Museum in Connecticut. Smith interested in the story of the lifeboat, secured its return in 1997, after which it was restored for display in 1998 at the Imperial War Museum, London. On 30 January 2011, Smith and a crew of three volunteers departed from La Gomera in the Canary Islands in a custom-built raft, with the intention of crossing the Atlantic Ocean within three months arriving in Eleuthera.
The raft, given the name An-Tiki in reference to the Kon-Tiki raft used by Norwegian explorer and writer Thor Heyerdahl in his 1947 expedition from South America to the Polynesian islands, was assembled during November and December 2010. To find crew mates Smith placed an ad in the Telegraph in 2006, which read: "Fancy rafting across the Atlantic? Famous traveller requires 3 crew. Must be OAP. Serious adventurers only" From that ad he recruited, David Hildred, a yacht master and civil engineer, two experienced seamen Andy Bainbridge and John Russell; the raft's superstructure consisted of a small hut within which the crew shared two bunks, while the hull was fashioned from plastic gas pipes which carried either supplies for ballast or air for buoyancy. Its facilities were designed to be modest and it was equipped with a gas stove for cooking and telegraph poles which would act as masts, as well as solar panels, a wind generator and a foot pump which would power its electronic devices, as the crew used computers and digital cameras to communicate with the outside world and document their journey.
According to an article Smith wrote for the Daily Telegraph, in its final form the An-tiki measured 40 ft by 18 ft. Its hut is 20 ft by 7 ft. Smith had been interested in crossing the Atlantic by raft as far back as 1952, when he devised a plan to begin somewhere in the Canary Islands and to rely on fresh fish as his source of food. "I was a student and I ran out of money," he told the Telegraph. "But the idea has always niggled me." The voyage began as a concise advert listed in the Telegraph in 2006, which read: "Fancy rafting across the Atlantic? Famous traveller requires 3 crew. Must be OAP. Serious adventurers only."From his applications, Smith recruited Robin Batchelor a professional balloonist, to help design and build the raft. AnTiki's crew consisted of David Hildred, a yacht master and civil engineer, two experienced seamen Andy Bainbridge and John Russell; the crew set sail with the intention of raising money for the clean water charity WaterAid and completed their journey on the island of St. Maarten in the Caribbean.
Smith recruited another crew to join him on the final leg of the voyage to Eleuthera – Alison Porteous, Bruno Sellmer, Nigel Gallaher and Leigh Rooney. They departed St. Maarten on 6 April 2012 and 24 days were washed up on the island of Eleuthera in a storm; the fact that it was the same beach on which the Jolly Boat landed is nothing short of miraculous. Smith continued both travelling and writing well into his years whilst residing in London, UK. In 2000 he wrote The Weather: The Truth About The Health Of Our Planet and in 2003 wrote The Lost Lady of the Amazon: The Story of Isabela Godin and Her Epic Journey, detailing the experiences of Jean Godin des Odonais; the Old Man and the Sea: A True Story of Crossing the Atlantic by Raft was published posthumously in 2015. Smith died from acute respiratory failure on 7 July 2014, in Oxford, aged 88. Anthony Smith on IMDb Anthony Smith's An-Tiki website and blog The Human Body at bbcfactual.co.uk Bibliography Desert Island Discs appearance - 3 February 1973 <ref>The Great Caving Adventure by Martyn Farr oxford Illustrated Press 1984<ref>
The NATO Consultation and Control Agency was formed in 1996 by merging the SHAPE Technical Centre in The Hague, Netherlands. NC3A was part of the NATO Consultation and Control Organization and reported to the NATO Consultation and Control Board. In July 2012, NC3A was merged into the NATO Communications and Information Agency; the agency had around 800 staff, of which around 500 were located in 300 in Brussels. Broadly speaking, the Netherlands staff were responsible for scientific research and experimentation, while the Belgian staff provided technical project management and acquisition support for NATO procurement programmes; the Agency was organised using a balanced matrix model, with four main areas: the Production area, Sponsor Accounts, Core Segment and Resources Division. The Production area consisted of nine capability area teams with various areas of expertise; the Sponsor Accounts area had Directors for each of the Agency's major sponsors, providing a single point of contact with the Agency.
The Core Segment comprised a Chief Operating Officer, Chief Technology Officer and Director of Acquisition, who ensured coherency of the Agency's business and acquisition processes respectively. The Resources Division handled Agency operations such as Human Resources, Graphics, Building Maintenance, etc. Since 2004, the Agency used the PMI project management methodologies. General Manager Georges D'hollander and Deputy General Manager Kevin Scheid split their time between their offices in The Hague and Brussels. Staff were recruited directly from the 28 NATO nations, the majority holding degrees at the Masters level or above; the working language of the Agency was English. NC3A's prime customers were Allied Command Transformation and Allied Command Operations, as well as the NATO Air Command and Control System Management Agency, NATO Airborne Early Warning Force Command and individual NATO nations, its annual budget was 100 million euros. Major growth areas were the NATO Network Enabled Capability, Theatre Missile Defence and the Alliance Ground Surveillance and Reconnaissance projects.
The Agency traditionally had a strong emphasis on prototyping and aimed to follow a spiral development model. The agency aimed to complement, not compete with, national research and development, was concerned with improving C4ISR interoperability between the nations and supporting major acquisition C4ISR programmes. NCIA official web site NCI Agency Jobs Powerpoint Briefing on Introduction to NC3A, 2009 The Distributed Networked Battle Labs NACMA official web site "NATO Code of Best Practice for C2 Assessment"