Norfolk House, 31 St James's Square, was built in 1748–52 as his London townhouse by Edward Howard, 9th Duke of Norfolk to the design of Matthew Brettingham, "the Elder", was demolished in 1938. His country house and main seat was Worksop Manor in Nottinghamshire. Norfolk House was built on a site occupied by two houses, namely St Albans House, the residence of the Earl of St. Albans the other the residence of John Belasyse, 1st Baron Belasyse. Both these houses were demolished in 1748 by the 9th Duke of Norfolk in preparation for his new house. St Albans House was a royal residence for a short time, after the 9th Duke of Norfolk offered it to Frederick, Prince of Wales, following his marriage in 1736 to Princess Augusta of Saxe-Gotha; the couple lived there 1737–1741, their son King George III was born in the house. The family moved to Leicester House in 1742, which remained the prince's home until his death nine years and that of his widow until her death in 1772. Norfolk House remained in the ownership of the Dukes of Norfolk until 1938 when it was pulled down and replaced by an office building.
During the Second World War this building served as offices for senior officers from a variety of Allied armed forces, including the Canadian 1st Army and the Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force under General Dwight D. Eisenhower. Two plaques on the exterior of the building commemorate the role of the building in the War; the 1930s building was refitted in the years before 2019. The office space became obsolete for modern requirements and in 2019 plans were submitted to demolish it and rebuild at a cost of £60 million in line with modern requirements. Parts of the interior of the eighteenth-century house survive, having been removed before demolition, including the Music Room, designed by Giovanni Battista Borra for the ninth Duke's wife Mary Blount, now displayed in the Victoria and Albert Museum and redecorated to its original scheme of brilliant white paintwork with gilt, carved woodwork. List of demolished buildings and structures in London Detailed history and description - from the Survey of London.
Photograph of 1932 - from the Survey of London. "Norfolk House Music Room". Furniture. Victoria and Albert Museum. Retrieved 2008-07-01
The Canadian International Council is Canada's foreign relations council. It is an independent, member-based council established to strengthen Canada's role in international affairs; the CIC uses its historical roots, cross-country network, research to advance debate on international issues across academic disciplines, policy areas, economic sectors. The Council is headquartered in Toronto, with 15 volunteer-run branches across Canada. CIC branches present offer CIC members speakers' programs, study groups and seminars. Branches are located in Calgary, Halifax, Montreal, National Capital, Saskatoon, South Saskatchewan, Thunder Bay, Vancouver, Victoria and Winnipeg; the CIC's foreign policy research program consists of an annual research project, the China Working Group, the Strategic Studies Working Group, the International Relations and Digital Technology Project, International Journal, the Council's academic publication. The CIC's digital media platform, OpenCanada.org is Canada's hub for international affairs.
Building on the CIC's mandate to promote discussion on international affairs, the platform is the Canadian venue for those discussions. The CIC has its roots in the Canadian Institute of International Affairs. In 1932, Escott Reid was appointed as the Institute's first full-time National Secretary and began organizing annual study conferences where ideas could be exchanged; the conferences were round-table discussions and members of branch study groups were invited to participate. Reid encouraged expansion of the CIIA's membership and greater public participation in the work of the Institute; the CIC's first corporate record dates to 1950, with the objective "to give attention to Canada's position both as a member of the international community of nations and as a member of the British Commonwealth of Nations."Under insurance magnate Edgar Tarr, 1931 to 1950, it went beyond the original neutral and apolitical research role. Instead it championed Canadian national autonomy and sought to enlarge the nation's international role, while challenging British imperialism.
Numerous diplomats supported its new mission. Canada's foreign policy moved away from imperialism and toward the sort of anti-colonialism promoted by the United States. CIIA leaders and Canadian officials worked to encouraged nationalist forces in India and Southeast Asia that sought to reject colonial rule and Western dominance. In October 2007, Jim Balsillie initiated the formation of the CIC as a partnership between the CIIA and the Centre for International Governance Innovation, a think-tank based in Waterloo, Ontario that works on global issues, in order to create a research base on Canadian foreign policy similar to the American Council on Foreign Relations and the United Kingdom's Royal Institute of International Affairs. In making the announcement, Balsillie wrote, "CIC will be a non-partisan vehicle. Applying expert and fact-based research to complex issues is the essential foundation for creating effective policy." In November 2007, members of the CIIA voted to become the Canadian International Council | Conseil international du Canada.
In May 2008, the Canadian Institute of Strategic Studies folded its operations into the CIC as the Strategic Studies Working Group. For two years running, the CIC was recognized at the Canadian Online Publishing Awards for its work with OpenCanada. In 2013 the site won the Content of the Year award, as well as two gold medals for best overall online-only publication and online-only article or series in the academic and nonprofit media category. CIC research extends through various programs, working groups, projects; the International Relations and Digital Technology Project is managed jointly Between the CIC, the Liu Institute for Global Issues and the University of British Columbia's Graduate School of Journalism. IRDTP is a new and innovative research initiative analyzing the impact of ubiquitous digital technology on the theory and practice of International Relations; the CIC's annual research programs have produced the following reports: 9 Habits of Highly Effective Resource Economies: Lessons for Canada, by Madelaine Drohan, Canada correspondent for The Economist Rights and Rents: Why Canada must harness its intellectual property resources, by Karen Mazurkewich Open Canada: A Global Positioning Strategy for a Networked Age, by Edward Greenspon CIC Projects and Working Groups include: The Strategic Studies Working Group, in partnership with the Canadian Defence and Foreign Affairs Institute Arctic Sovereignty and Security Working Group Border Issues Working Group Canada and the Americas project Canada-India Relations project China Working Group Energy Working Group The president of the CIC's Board of Directors is Ben Rowswell, Former Ambassador to Venezuela from 2014 to 2017.
International Journal, established in 1946, is the CIC's scholarly publication and Canada's pre-eminent journal of global policy analysis. IJ is cross disciplinary, combining the insights of history, political science, economics with anthropology and other social sciences to advance research and dialogue on issues of global significance. In 2013 the CIC partnered with the Bill Graham Centre for Contemporary International History and SAGE Publications to publish International Journal; the Canadian International Council is a non-for-profit organization and a registered charity with Canada Revenue Agency. Funding comes from private sponsorship, membership fees and events; the CIC's major fundraiser is its Annual Gala Dinner, where the Global
Lieutenant General Satinder Kumar Saini, PVSM, AVSM, YSM, VSM, ADC is the current Vice Chief of the Army Staff of the Indian Army and assumed the office on 25 January 2020. He served as General Officer Commanding in Chief Southern Command. Saini is an alumnus of Sainik School, National Defence Academy, Pune, he has attended the Army Command and Staff Course at Staff College, Camberley. He has a total of three degrees in defence and strategic studies. Saini was commissioned into the 7th battalion, Jat Regiment in June 1981, his commands include 7 Jat, a Mountain Brigade in the Kashmir Valley, Counter Insurgency Force and IX Corps. The general officer has held numerous staff appointments including Brigade Major of an infantry brigade, General Staff Officer of an infantry division, BGS of a Corps, Director of Military Operations at Army HQ, he has held different instructor appointments including Senior Directing Staff at National Defence College, Weapons Instructor at National Security Guards Training Center and the Commandant of the Indian Military Academy, Dehradun.
He is The Colonel of the Jat Regiment. Saini has served on international deputations as well including Deputy Chief Military Personnel Officer in the Iraq- Kuwait UN Mission. During 36 years of his career, he has been awarded the Ati Vishisht Seva Medal, the Yudh Seva Medal, the Vishisht Seva Medal, the Chief of Army Staff Commendation and the Army Commander Commendation for his service