The Norfolk Naval Shipyard called the Norfolk Navy Yard and abbreviated as NNSY, is a U. S. Navy facility in Portsmouth, for building and repairing the Navy's ships, it is the oldest and largest industrial facility that belongs to the U. S. Navy as well as the most multifaceted. Located on the Elizabeth River, the yard is just a short distance upriver from its mouth at Hampton Roads, it was established as Gosport Shipyard in 1767. Destroyed during the American Revolutionary War, it was rebuilt and became home to the first operational drydock in the United States in the 1820s. Changing hands during the American Civil War, it served the Confederate States Navy until it was again destroyed in 1862, when it was given its current name; the shipyard was again rebuilt, has continued operation through the present day. The Gosport Shipyard was founded on November 1, 1767 by Andrew Sprowle on the western shore of the Elizabeth River in Norfolk County in the Virginia Colony; this shipyard became a prosperous merchant facility for the British Crown.
In 1775, at the beginning of the American Revolution, Sprowle stayed loyal to the Crown and fled Virginia, which confiscated all of his properties, including the shipyard. In 1779, while the newly formed Commonwealth of Virginia was operating the shipyard, it was burned by British troops. In 1794, United States Congress passed "An Act to Provide a Naval Armament," allowing the Federal Government to lease the Gosport Shipyard from Virginia. In 1799 the keel of USS Chesapeake, one of the first six frigates authorized by Congress, was laid, making her the first ship built in Gosport for the U. S. Navy; the federal government purchased the shipyard from Virginia in 1801 for $12,000. This tract of land measured 16 acres and now makes up the northeastern corner of the current shipyard. In 1827, construction began on the first of what would be the first two dry docks in the United States; the first one was completed three weeks ahead of similar projects in both Boston and South America, making it the first functional dry dock in the Americas.
Dry Dock One, as it is referred to today, is still operational and is listed as historical landmark in Portsmouth, Virginia. Officer's Quarters A, B, C were built about 1837. Additional land on the eastern side of the Elizabeth River was purchased in 1845; the shipyard and neighboring towns suffered from a severe yellow fever epidemic in 1855, which killed about a quarter of the population, including James Chisholm, whose account was published shortly after his death in the epidemic. Enslaved labor was extensively utilized in the Norfolk Navy Yard from its foundation until the Civil War; some idea of the human scale can be found in this excerpt from a letter of Commodore Lewis Warrington dated 12 October 1831 to the Board of Navy Commissioners. Warrington's letter to the BNC was in response to various petitions by white workers, his letter attempts both to reassure the BNC in light of the recent Nat Turner Rebellion which occurred on 22 August 1831 and to serve as a reply to the Dry Dock's stonemasons who had quit their positions and accused the project chief engineer, Loammi Baldwin, of the unfair hiring of enslaved labor in their stead."There are about two hundred and forty six blacks employed in the Yard and Dock altogether.
On 21 June 1839 Commodore Warrington endorsed a petition signed by 34 slaveholders pleading with the Secretary of the Navy to continue it. Warrington noted: "I beg leave to state, that no slave employed in this yard, is owned by a commissioned officer, but that many are owned by the Master Mechanicks & workmen of the yard", he added. In 1846 Commodore Jesse Wilkerson felt the need to confirm the continuation of slave hiring to the Secretary of the Navy George Bancroft, “that a majority of them are negro slaves, that a large portion of those employed in the Ordinary for many years, have been of that description, but by what authority I am unable to say as nothing can be found in the records of my office on the subject – These men have been examined by the Surgeon of the Yard and Shipped for twelve months" George Teamoh as a young enslaved laborer and ship caulker worked at Norfolk Navy Yard in the 1830s and 1840s and wrote of this unrequited labor: "The government had patronized, given encouragement to slavery to a greater extent than the great majority of the country has been aware.
It had in its service hundreds if not thousands of slaves employed on government works." As late "as 1848 one third of the 300 workers at the Gosport navy yard were hired slaves." In 1861, Virginia joined the Confederate States of America. Fearing that the Confederacy would take control of the facility, the shipyard commander Charles Stewart McCauley ordered the burning of the shipyard; the Confederate forces did, in fact, take over the shipyard, did so without armed conflict through an elaborate ruse orchestrated by civilian railroad builde
The Joint United States Public Affairs Office was a multi-agency organization that provided integrated Information Operations support in South Vietnam from 1965 to 1972. Involving military, US Information Agency and State Department efforts, JUSPAO provided direction for a range of public affairs, public diplomacy and psychological operations; the United States Information Agency had several integral components, one of the most important being the United States Information Service during the Vietnam War. The USIS, the overseas component of the USIA, sought to foster a sympathetic understanding of American culture abroad and to build public support for U. S. foreign policy in other nations around the world. During a visit to South Vietnam in March 1965, Carl Rowan and General Harold K. Johnson, the Director of the United States Information Agency and the Army Chief of Staff observed the many difficulties and inefficiencies of the uncoordinated psychological operations known as "PSYOPs"; the officials reached out to President Lyndon B. Johnson and recommended that he integrate all foreign information and PSYOP activities into a single office.
The president would soon approve this recommendation, combining the United States Information Service, Military Assistance Command Vietnam, the United States Agency for International Development. The Joint United States Public Affairs Office was created on 14 May 1965 in United States Embassy Instruction 186; the USIS Director in Vietnam, Barry Zorthian, was designated as the initial Director of JUSPAO. Zorthian had experience working with the USIA in the Asian mainland as he served as the Deputy Director of the USIS in New Delhi and worked as a scriptwriter and program manager for the Voice of America. Zorthian's official title was the United States Mission Coordinator for Psychological Operations with responsibilities including developing PSYOP guidance for all elements of the United States military in South Vietnam; the intended purpose of JUSPAO was not just to de-conflict and coordinate the activities of various involved agencies, but to play the overall PSYOP strategy that would be followed.
JUSPAO's official goal was to build on anti-communist nationalism throughout Indochina in support of the Chieu Hoi Program or break the will of the North Vietnamese and Vietcong in order to end the conflict. In conjunction with several other USIA branches, the JUSPAO conducted an enormous amount of PSYOPS during the Vietnam War. Most of their operations aimed to win the "minds" of the Vietnamese people. Between 1965 and 1972 the United States Air Force dropped 50 million leaflets over North Vietnam, South Vietnam and Cambodia, the United States Navy handed out pro-American brochures during routine searched of merchant ships, the USIA and JUSPAO filled available airwaves with anti-communist radio broadcasts; the Army joined the PSYOPs program during the war when it created four separate psychological operation battalions, each of which possessed its own printing plant and tape recording production equipment, loudspeaker trucks. The United States government enlisted JUSPAO as a mission agency to achieve its ambitions in Southeast Asia, which determined to defend and build a nation through the complete integration of the military, political and psychological dimensions of action.
The other agencies were the United States Embassy in Saigon for political actions, MACV for military aspects, USAID for economic support, the Mission Press Center for media relations, JUSPAO for psychological programs. Daily operations required constant and detailed collaboration between the various agencies, a feature, criticized during the war, but JUSPAO and Zorthian attempted to work as as possible with military personnel; the director and officers formed relationships that allowed for a flow of information and advice between the two branches, the daily briefings held at JUSPAO would emphasize the issues that surrounded the operations of the USIS in Vietnam. The JUSPAO began to host daily briefings updating the American and foreign press on the progress of the war; these meetings occurred everyday at 4:45pm derisively nicknamed the "Five O'Clock Follies" by the media, were hosted by the Military Assistance Command Office of Information. After 1966 all of the Five O'clock Follies were held in the JUSPAO auditorium in Saigon under the direction of Barry Zorthian.
Army colonels trained in public relations passed out summaries of the meetings and pointed to colored charts to impress journalists with the United States' achievements. By 1967, JUSPAO had established itself as one of the main sources of news that the press had access to. Since the topics discussed were under close supervision of the government, military setbacks encountered by American troops and operations by South Vietnamese forces received mention, while Vietcong and North Vietnamese Army loses were exaggerated. Reporters began to refer to these daily briefings as the "Five O'clock Follies" due to their inaccurate reported body counts, general atmosphere of confusion, numerous difficulties experienced in the presentation of the detailed information. Other issues and concerns with JUSPAO's briefings were numerous; the focus on American activities in South Vietnam placed blinders on the press and public who learned of allied operations. If maneuvers executed by the Army of the Republic of Vietnam did merit acknowledgment, it was done so in a negative fashion.
Another problem came from the inherent issue of words and phrases that the media and public expected such as "lines"
Erjon Tola is an Albanian alpine ski racer who represented Albania at the 2006, 2010, 2014 and 2018 Winter Olympics. Tola was born in Tirana in 1986, he was ranked last among those who finished the men's super-G, but finished 35th in the men's giant slalom. Tola finished 48th in the men's slalom and 63rd in the men's giant slalom at the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver, he trains in Italy and has been living in Cervinia since 1992. In 2018 he and Suela Mehilli represented Albania at the Winter Olympic Games in South Korea, it was her second Olympics. Videos of Erjon Tola in the 2010 Winter Olympics