A hospital is a health care institution providing patient treatment with specialized medical and nursing staff and medical equipment. The best-known type of hospital is the general hospital, which has an emergency department to treat urgent health problems ranging from fire and accident victims to a sudden illness. A district hospital is the major health care facility in its region, with a large number of beds for intensive care and additional beds for patients who need long-term care. Specialized hospitals include trauma centers, rehabilitation hospitals, children's hospitals, seniors' hospitals, hospitals for dealing with specific medical needs such as psychiatric treatment and certain disease categories. Specialized hospitals can help reduce health care costs compared to general hospitals. Hospitals are classified as general, specialty, or government depending on the sources of income received. A teaching hospital combines assistance to people with teaching to medical nurses; the medical facility smaller than a hospital is called a clinic.
Hospitals have a range of departments and specialist units such as cardiology. Some hospitals have outpatient departments and some have chronic treatment units. Common support units include a pharmacy and radiology. Hospitals are funded by the public sector, health organisations, health insurance companies, or charities, including direct charitable donations. Hospitals were founded and funded by religious orders, or by charitable individuals and leaders. Hospitals are staffed by professional physicians, surgeons and allied health practitioners, whereas in the past, this work was performed by the members of founding religious orders or by volunteers. However, there are various Catholic religious orders, such as the Alexians and the Bon Secours Sisters that still focus on hospital ministry in the late 1990s, as well as several other Christian denominations, including the Methodists and Lutherans, which run hospitals. In accordance with the original meaning of the word, hospitals were "places of hospitality", this meaning is still preserved in the names of some institutions such as the Royal Hospital Chelsea, established in 1681 as a retirement and nursing home for veteran soldiers.
During the Middle Ages, hospitals served different functions from modern institutions. Middle Ages hospitals were hostels for pilgrims, or hospital schools; the word "hospital" comes from the Latin hospes, signifying a foreigner, hence a guest. Another noun derived from this, hospitium came to signify hospitality, the relation between guest and shelterer, hospitality and hospitable reception. By metonymy the Latin word came to mean a guest-chamber, guest's lodging, an inn. Hospes is thus the root for the English words host hospitality, hospice and hotel; the latter modern word derives from Latin via the ancient French romance word hostel, which developed a silent s, which letter was removed from the word, the loss of, signified by a circumflex in the modern French word hôtel. The German word'Spital' shares similar roots; the grammar of the word differs depending on the dialect. In the United States, hospital requires an article; some patients go to a hospital just for diagnosis, treatment, or therapy and leave without staying overnight.
Hospitals are distinguished from other types of medical facilities by their ability to admit and care for inpatients whilst the others, which are smaller, are described as clinics. The best-known type of hospital is the general hospital known as an acute-care hospital; these facilities handle many kinds of disease and injury, have an emergency department or trauma center to deal with immediate and urgent threats to health. Larger cities may have several hospitals of facilities; some hospitals in the United States and Canada, have their own ambulance service. A district hospital is the major health care facility in its region, with large numbers of beds for intensive care, critical care, long-term care. In California, "district hospital" refers to a class of healthcare facility created shortly after World War II to address a shortage of hospital beds in many local communities. Today, district hospitals are the sole public hospitals in 19 of California's counties, are the sole locally-accessible hospital within nine additional counties in which one or more other hospitals are present at substantial distance from a local community.
Twenty-eight of California's rural hospitals and 20 of its critical-access hospitals are district hospitals. They are formed by local municipalities, have boards that are individually elected by their local communities, exist to serve local needs, they are a important provider of healthcare to uninsured patients and patients with Medi-Cal. In 2012, district hospitals provided $54 million in uncompensated care in California. Types of specialised hospitals incl
Commission for Architecture and the Built Environment
The Commission for Architecture and the Built Environment was an executive non-departmental public body of the UK government, established in 1999. It was funded by both the Department for Culture and Sport and the Department for Communities and Local Government, it was merged into the Design Council on 1 April 2011. CABE was the government's advisor on urban design and public space in England, its job was to inspire the people making decisions about the built environment. It championed well-designed buildings and places, ran public campaigns and provided expert, practical advice, it worked directly with architects, planners and clients. CABE's board members – its commissioners – were appointed by the Secretary of State for Culture and Sport. There were 16 commissioners in total, its chair was a former chair of the Design Council. CABE's chief executive was Richard Simmons. One of CABE's main functions was design review: expert independent assessments of building schemes at an early stage. CABE reviewed schemes of national importance, that had a significant impact on the local environment, or which set standards for the future.
Its design review panel consisted of around 40 expert advisors drawn from England's architectural, built environment and creative community. CABE was known as a'non-statutory consultee' in the planning process, meaning that planners and others should heed CABE's advice when making decisions, but were not obliged to do so. CABE's main office was situated in a large tower block built in 1968 near Drury Lane. CABE was the direct successor body to the Royal Fine Art Commission established in 1924. Intended to be called "Commission for Architecture", Sir Terry Farrell argued for "Built Environment" to be added to the new commission's name and purview. CABE was established in August 1999, it chaired by Richard Rogers. Some CABE's functions, including design review and localism and planning, were merged with the Design Council on 11 April 2011. CABE's first chairman was Stuart Lipton, Chief Executive of the property developer Stanhope. Private Eye's architectural correspondent complained. Paul Morrell Ben Page Ian Ritchie CABE set up a dedicated design review panel to provide expert advice on the quality of designs for the government's proposed eco-towns.
The panel reviewed the proposals for: Whitehill-Bordon in Hampshire. CABE launched a campaign to push for greater investment in green infrastructure. The'Grey to Green' campaign and report, Grey to Green: how we shift funding and skills to green our cities, argued that a switch was needed in public spending from grey projects, like road building and heavy engineering projects, to green schemes, like street trees, green roofs and waterways, it developed the Building for Manual for Streets. CABE's remit did not cover Wales or Northern Ireland; the equivalent body in Scotland is Architecture and Design Scotland, the successor body to the Royal Fine Art Commission for Scotland. The equivalent body in Wales is the Design Commission For Wales. In Northern Ireland, equivalent work is undertaken by the Ministerial Advisory Group for Architecture and the Built Environment, established in 2007 under the Northern Ireland Policy for Architecture and the Built Environment; the successor to CABE, Design Council CABE, operates internationally.
In 2010 the Government announced that it would withdraw public funding from CABE, merging some functions into a new organisation with the Design Council, Design Council CABE. As in the transition from the Royal Fine Art Commission to CABE, the combined organisation had a much reduced staff and while it continued its Design Review and Localism and Planning roles, a review was conducted into the organisation and its role in delivering emerging proposals for the planning system. Construction Industry Council Landscape Institute Official Web page Archived website About CABE
Anthony Charles Lynton Blair is a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1997 to 2007 and Leader of the Labour Party from 1994 to 2007. He was Leader of the Opposition from 1994 to 1997; as of 2017, Blair is the last British Labour Party leader to have won a general election. From 1983 to 2007, Blair was the Member of Parliament for Sedgefield, he was elected Labour Party leader in July 1994, following the sudden death of his predecessor, John Smith. Under Blair's leadership, the party used the phrase "New Labour", to distance it from previous Labour policies and the traditional conception of socialism. Blair declared support for a new conception that he referred to as "social-ism", involving politics that recognised individuals as interdependent, advocated social justice, the equal worth of each citizen, equal opportunity referred to as the Third Way. Critics of Blair denounced him for bringing the Labour Party towards the perceived centre ground of British politics, abandoning'genuine' socialism and being too amenable to capitalism.
Supporters, including the party's public opinion pollster Philip Gould, stated that the Labour Party had to demonstrate that it had made a decisive break from its left-wing past, in order to win an election again. In May 1997, the Labour Party won a landslide the largest in its history. Blair, at 43 years of age, became the youngest Prime Minister since 1812. In September 1997, Blair attained early personal popularity, receiving a 93% public approval rating, after his public response to the death of Diana, Princess of Wales; the Labour Party went on to win two more general elections under his leadership: in 2001, in which it won another landslide victory, in 2005, with a reduced majority. During his first term as Prime Minister, his government oversaw a large increase in public spending and introduced the National Minimum Wage Act, Human Rights Act, Freedom of Information Act, his government held referendums in which the Scottish and Welsh electorates voted in favour of devolved administration.
In Northern Ireland, Blair was involved in negotiating the Good Friday Agreement. Blair supported the foreign policy of the George W. Bush administration, ensured that the British Armed Forces participated in the 2001 invasion of Afghanistan and, more controversially, the 2003 invasion of Iraq. Blair has faced criticism for his role in the invasion of Iraq, including calls for having him tried for war crimes and waging a war of aggression. Blair was succeeded as Leader of the Labour Party and as Prime Minister by Gordon Brown in June 2007. On the day that Blair resigned as Prime Minister, he was appointed the official Special Envoy of the Quartet on the Middle East, an office which he held until May 2015, he runs the Tony Blair Institute for Global Change. Anthony Charles Lynton Blair was born at Queen Mary Maternity Home in Edinburgh, Scotland, on 6 May 1953, he was the second son of Hazel Blair. Leo Blair was the illegitimate son of two entertainers and was adopted as a baby by Glasgow shipyard worker James Blair and his wife, Mary.
Hazel Corscadden was the daughter of George Corscadden, a butcher and Orangeman who moved to Glasgow in 1916. In 1923, he returned to County Donegal. In Ballyshannon, Corscadden's wife, Sarah Margaret, gave birth above the family's grocery shop to Blair's mother, Hazel. Blair has an older brother, Sir William Blair, a High Court judge, a younger sister, Sarah. Blair's first home was with his family at Paisley Terrace in the Willowbrae area of Edinburgh. During this period, his father worked as a junior tax inspector whilst studying for a law degree from the University of Edinburgh. Blair's first relocation was. At the end of 1954, Blair's parents and their two sons moved from Paisley Terrace to Adelaide, South Australia, his father lectured in law at the University of Adelaide. It was when in Australia; the Blairs lived in the suburb of Dulwich close to the university. The family returned to the United Kingdom in the summer of 1958, they lived for a time with Hazel's mother and stepfather at their home in Stepps on the outskirts of north-east Glasgow.
Blair's father accepted a job as a lecturer at Durham University, thus moved the family to Durham, England. Aged five, this marked the beginning of a long association. With his parents basing their family in Durham, Blair attended Chorister School from 1961 to 1966. Aged thirteen, he was sent to spend his school term time boarding at Fettes College in Edinburgh from 1966 to 1971. Blair is reported to have hated his time at Fettes, his teachers were unimpressed with him. Blair modelled himself on Mick Jagger, lead singer of The Rolling Stones. During his time there he met Charlie Falconer, whom he appointed Lord Chancellor. Leaving Fettes College at the age of eighteen, Blair next spent a year in London attempting to find fame as a rock music promoter. In 1972, at the age of nineteen, he enrolled for university at St John's College, reading Jurisprudence for three years; as a student, he played guitar and sang in a rock band called Ugly Rumours, performed some stand-up comedy, including parodying James T.
Kirk as a character na
Frank Gordon Dobson is a British Labour Party politician. He was the Member of Parliament for Holborn and St. Pancras from 1979 to 2015, he served in the Cabinet as Secretary of State for Health from 1997-1999, was the official Labour Party candidate for Mayor of London in 2000 finishing third in the election, behind Conservative Steven Norris and the winner, Labour-turned-Independent Ken Livingstone. Dobson stood down at the United Kingdom general election, 2015. Dobson was born in York in 1940, his father, a railwayman, died. Dobson attended Dunnington County Church of England Primary School and the Archbishop Holgate Grammar School, he studied Economics at the London School of Economics, gaining a BSc in 1962. He worked at the headquarters of the Central Electricity Generating Board from 1962-1970 and for the Electricity Council from 1970-75. After contesting a seat on Camden London Borough Council in 1964, he was elected in 1971 and was chosen unopposed as Labour Group Leader and therefore Leader of the Council, after the resignation of Millie Miller in 1973.
He stood down as Leader and resigned from the Council in 1975 on taking up a non-partisan job as Assistant Secretary of the Office of the Local Ombudsman, which he held until 1979. At the 1979 general election, Dobson was elected as MP for St Pancras South, he voted for Tony Benn for Labour Deputy Leader in 1981 but thereafter became disillusioned, chose to align with what he called the "sane left". His pugnacious style of politics earned him rapid promotion to the front bench where he served in several important posts from 1982, he once remarked about Hazel Blears, 4'10" in height, "The good thing about global warming is that Hazel Blears will be the first to go when the water rises." After the privatisation of the Rover Group in 1988 he quipped, "The price charged for Rover was so low that there is some suspicion that Lord Young thought it was a dog." As Spokesman on Environment and London from 1994, he led the national Labour response to the series of scandals over City of Westminster council and its former leader Shirley Porter.
Following Labour's landslide victory at the 1997 general election, Dobson was appointed as Secretary of State for Health. This was a high-profile post but Dobson found it hard to make a big impact, he faced interference from civil servants, who would claim that Blair raised the issue of further private sector involvement in meetings with Dobson, which Dobson said to them "just wasn't true". He had his hands tied by the decision to stick within spending limits set by the previous Conservative government. Dobson wrote a memo to Blair, saying "If you want a first-class service, you have to pay a first-class fare – and we're not doing it." When money was diverted to the NHS, Blair credited Dobson for kickstarting it. Dobson's abolition of the internal market in the NHS was reversed by his successor, Alan Milburn, who Dobson has said was "carried away with the idea that the private sector could make a big contribution". Dobson was manoeuvered by the Labour Party leadership into announcing his resignation as an MP in order to stand as Mayor of London in the inaugural elections.
He beat Ken Livingstone in the Labour Party's internal selection, helped by its electoral college system and the absence of any requirement for affiliated trade unions to ballot their members. In May 2000, Livingstone won the Mayoral election as an independent candidate. Dobson finished in third place behind the Conservative candidate Steven Norris, just ahead of the Liberal Democrat candidate Susan Kramer. Dobson was subsequently re-elected as an MP, albeit with reduced majorities, at the 2001 and 2005 general elections. In 2000, Dobson was named "Beard 2000" by the Beard Liberation Front, amid controversy over his claim that Labour spin doctors had told him to shave off his prize-winning beard for the upcoming elections for Mayor of London. Dobson said that he had told them to "Stick it up their wickit". Frank Dobson has been the subject of controversy for living in a council flat whilst receiving a six-figure ministerial salary, he continues to live there, despite owning a large property in Yorkshire.
In an interview in July 2014, he responded to this criticism, saying: "I first lived there when we were subtenants of a subtenant of a private landlord. We were sold to Camden council. What should I have done? Exercised the right to buy, which I voted against?"In the Labour leadership controversy following Tony Blair's declaration he would step down within a year of September 2006, Dobson called for Blair to step down right away and end uncertainty. He attacked Alan Milburn for making a "terrible mess" of the NHS. Milburn had been mentioned by Charles Clarke as a potential future Labour leader several hours earlier. Dobson has been criticised for hypocrisy for saying he was against Post Office closures voting for their closure in Parliament. In the expenses scandal, he supported the Speaker of the House in his attempts to block exposure of expenses – arguing he was being scapegoated, he supported the Speaker in allowing a warrant-less search of the offices of Member of Parliament, Damian Green.
A survey of his constituents revealed that, in 2008, Dobson responded to 69 letters out of 269 sent through WriteToThem.com, putting him in 605th place out of 638 MPs for which data was available. Dobson's brother, was a school teacher who died of liver cancer on the eve of Labour's landslide general election victory in 1997. Dobson married Janet Mary Alker in 1967, they have three children. No
Sir Edward Julian Egerton Leigh is a British Conservative Party politician who has served as a Member of Parliament since 1983. Leigh speaks in parliament on civil liberties, constitutional and economic matters, he has represented Gainsborough, Lincolnshire in the House of Commons as its Member of Parliament since 1983. Leigh was knighted in the Queen's 2013 Birthday Honours for "public and political service" and in 2015 was awarded the Légion d'honneur by the French Government. Nicknamed "the Viscount" in parliamentary circles alluding to his landed gentry background, Leigh now has a reputation at Westminster for being a “serial rebeller” and an independent-minded MP voting against his own political party where it conflicts with his own principles, he was one of the original Maastricht Rebels and sacked for organising Euro-rebels among ministers. In 2003, Leigh famously opposed military intervention in Iraq, he served as the Chairman of the Public Accounts Committee from 2001 to 2010, investigating government waste and seeking value for money in public expenditure.
Sir Edward stepped down at the end of the parliamentary session in 2010, as it is customary for an Opposition MP to hold this post. Leigh has authored three books: Right Thinking. Before entering politics, he qualified as a barrister at the Inner Temple, practised in arbitration and criminal law at Goldsmiths Chambers, he is a Fellow of the Chartered Institute of Arbitrators and served as an Ensign in the Honourable Artillery Company. His father, Sir Neville Leigh, hailed from the ancient Cheshire family of West Hall, High Legh, a descendant of the Egertons, earls of Bridgewater, his maternal grandfather was Colonel Cyril Denzil Branch, a French citizen, he is a nephew of Princess Nikolai Galitzine. Leigh first stood for Parliament at the October 1974 general election when he contested the safe Labour seat of Middlesbrough, but he was beaten by Arthur Bottomley. Leigh worked in the private office of Margaret Thatcher from 1976–77 as a private secretary when she was Leader of the Opposition. Leigh was elected to Richmond Borough Council and thereafter to the Greater London Council, serving as Councillor between 1974 and 1981.
In 1983, he was elected for Horncastle. A strong supporter of Margaret Thatcher, Leigh visited 10 Downing Street with fellow MP Michael Brown on the morning of Thatcher's resignation as Prime Minister in 1990 to try to persuade her to carry on. Although Charles Powell advised them it was a forlorn task, they were nonetheless granted access to the Cabinet, in process at the time. Leigh and Brown departed 10 Downing Street and walked down Whitehall back to the House of Commons reputedly with "tears in their eyes". After Thatcher resigned, in the ensuing leadership election, Leigh supported Michael Heseltine, under whom he had served at the Department of Trade and Industry, preferring to support someone who had stabbed Thatcher in the front to those who had stabbed her in the back. Leigh served as a Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State in John Major's ministry but was sacked in May 1993 over the stance he took by opposing the Maastricht Treaty. Whilst in office at the DTI he was a keen advocate of privatisation of the Post Office.
In the following Conservative leadership election, Leigh supported John Redwood. From 2001 until 2010, Leigh served as Chairman of the Public Accounts Committee, the primary parliamentary body auditing the Budget, investigating government waste, seeking value for money in public expenditure. During his two terms as Chairman, the PAC took evidence on 420 separate government projects and programmes and was responsible for saving the taxpayer over £4 billion. In October 2006, Leigh was vocal in stating that after David Cameron had become leader of the party, core supporters were drifting away from voting Conservative. Nonetheless, his effective chairmanship of the Public Accounts Committee led to the rejuvenation of his parliamentary career. Early in 2008, as Chairman of the PAC, he was embarrassed by relying on flawed Department for Transport statistics to attack motorcyclists for tax evasion, he accused 38% of motorcyclists of evading vehicle excise duty. He apologised for this following the admission by the DfT that 95.5% of motorcycles are legal.
Leigh serves as President of the conservative Cornerstone Group, which represents the views of over 40 Conservative Members of Parliament. He was author of the group's inaugural pamphlet Faith and Family in 2005. From 2010 to 2011, Leigh served as an Independent Financial Advisor to HM Treasury, appointed by George Osborne to bring external challenge to the development and implementation of a new financial management strategy for central government, he stood down in 2011, but was appointed to report directly to the Chancellor of the Exchequer on improving Parliament's financial scrutiny of the Budget. He is a member of the Treasury Financial Advisory Board. Since 2010, Leigh has been a delegate to the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe and ser
Richard Bacon (politician)
Richard Michael Bacon is a British Conservative Party politician, Member of Parliament for South Norfolk since 2001. Bacon was educated at The King's School, Worcester and at the London School of Economics and Political Science, gaining a First in politics and economics, he was executive editor of the student newspaper, The Beaver. He worked variously in investment banking, financial journalism and public relations consultancy, before setting up his own business advising blue chip international companies on communications. Bacon joined the Conservative Party in 1978. In 1997, he unsuccessfully contested the South-London constituency of Vauxhall, against the Labour incumbent, Kate Hoey, he finished in third place with 15.2% of the overall vote. Bacon was selected for the safe Conservative seat of South Norfolk on the retirement of its veteran MP and former Cabinet Minister, John MacGregor, he won the seat at the 2001 general election, was returned again at the 2005 general election with an increased majority.
In the 2011 district council elections his constituency lost a single Conservative seat to the Liberal Democrats resulting in a majority of 30 seats. In the 2015 general election, Bacon increased his majority for a third time, to double that of his 2001 winning margin. Bacon is a former member of the Public Accounts Committee as of 2017. Though he rebels against the party line, he has rebelled in votes on military action in the Middle East. In March 2003 he was one of only 15 Conservative MPs to vote against the 2003 invasion of Iraq, he stated at the time. If I had, I would not have served in the Territorial Army". Following the Commons debate on Britain's response to the Syrian civil war on 29 August 2013, Bacon voted against his own party on a motion approving the use of military force "if necessary", saying he was "voting against the principle of military action". In the Commons debate on intervention against ISIS in Iraq held on 26 September 2014, Bacon again voted against his own party, becoming one of only six Conservatives to defy the three-line whip imposed on Conservative MPs.
Prior to the vote he said: "After bombing the Middle East for much of the past twenty five years, we should have realised by now that we are making things worse". In May 2009, Bacon was one of 15 MPs to sign a Motion of No Confidence in the House of Commons Speaker Michael Martin, he has voted against anti-terror laws, top-up fees, foundation hospitals, the ban on fox hunting, was one of the few Conservatives to support the Impeach Blair campaign. He is sceptical about aspects of the climate change debate, having opposed plans to build new wind turbines in South Norfolk, stating the scheme was not viable for the area. In February 2007, Bacon was alleged to be the politician with the highest expenditure on taxi and car hire during the previous year, a claim which he disputed and referred to the National Audit Office. Bacon was in favour of Brexit prior to the 2016 referendum. In April 2006, Bacon's questioning of Home Office officials concerning the fate of failed asylum seekers released from prison led to a major embarrassment for the Labour administration in the run-up to the local elections the following month, the dismissal of Charles Clarke, the Home Secretary.
Bacon was not himself in favour of the sacking of Clarke, a fellow Norfolk MP, declaring that he had always liked him, that his questioning had been "business, not pleasure". In July 2006, Bacon was named "Backbencher of the Year" by his fellow MPs for the result of his efforts, in November 2006, he won three more awards: "Parliamentarian of the Year" from the Spectator magazine, "Politician of the Year" from the Political Studies Association and "Outstanding Parliamentarian of the Year" from the ConservativeHome website. Bacon is co-author, along with Christopher Hope, Senior Political Correspondent of The Daily Telegraph, of Conundrum: Why every government gets things wrong and what we can do about it, an analysis of the failure of high-profile UK public sector projects, including the National Health Service IT programme and the Child Support Agency, Passport Agency, Tax Credit scheme, Rural Payments Agency and Student Loans Company, they argue that a key reason for the repeated failure of such projects is that civil servants – charged with turning the grand vision of ministers into reality – "have been recruited on the basis of their cognitive abilities in terms of playing with ideas, not for their ability to make things happen".
Bacon was married to Victoria Panton in 2006 at St Margaret's Church and has two children. The couple separated in 2015 and a decree nisi was issued in January 2016. Richard Bacon MP official constituency website Richard Bacon MP Conservative Party profile South Norfolk Conservatives Profile at Parliament of the United Kingdom Contributions in Parliament at Hansard 2010–present Contributions in Parliament at Hansard 1803–2005 Voting record at Public Whip Record in Parliament at TheyWorkForYou Profile at Westminster Parliamentary Record Richard Bacon MP at Open Rights Group Appearances on C-SPAN