Pointe Coupee Parish, Louisiana
Pointe Coupee Parish, is a parish located in the U. S. state of Louisiana. As of the 2010 census, the population was 22,802; the parish seat is New Roads. Pointe Coupee Parish is part of LA Metropolitan Statistical Area. In 2010, the center of population of Louisiana was located in Pointe Coupee Parish, in the city of New Roads. Pointe Coupee Parish was organized by European Americans in 1805 as part of the Territory of Orleans. There were minor boundary adjustments with neighboring parishes up through 1852, when its boundaries stabilized. In 2008, Pointe Coupee was one of the communities. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the parish has a total area of 591 square miles, of which 557 square miles is land and 33 square miles is water; the land consists of prairies and backswamp. Pointe Coupee Parish has 498.98 miles of highways within its borders. Atchafalaya River False River Mississippi River Old River Raccourci Old River Red River Concordia Parish West Feliciana Parish West Baton Rouge Parish Iberville Parish St. Martin Parish St. Landry Parish Avoyelles Parish Atchafalaya National Wildlife Refuge As of the census of 2000, there were 22,763 people, 8,397 households, 6,171 families residing in the parish.
The population density was 41 people per square mile. There were 10,297 housing units at an average density of 18 per square mile; the racial makeup of the parish was 68.91% White, 29.61% Black or African American, 0.17% Native American, 0.25% Asian, 0.32% from other races, 0.56% from two or more races. 1.08% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 93.61% of the population spoke only English at home, while 4.89% spoke French or Cajun French, 0.96% spoke Spanish, 0.73% spoke Louisiana Creole French. There were 8,397 households out of which 35.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.70% were married couples living together, 15.30% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.50% were non-families. 23.40% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.10% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.67 and the average family size was 3.17. In the parish the population was spread out with 27.30% under the age of 18, 8.80% from 18 to 24, 27.00% from 25 to 44, 23.10% from 45 to 64, 13.90% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.40 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.70 males. The median income for a household in the parish was $30,618, the median income for a family was $36,625. Males had a median income of $35,022 versus $20,759 for females; the per capita income for the parish was ranking 23rd out of 64 parishes. About 18.70% of families and 23.10% of the population were below the poverty line, including 30.20% of those under age 18 and 23.90% are the age of 65 and older. Nan Ya Plastics Corporation America has a large plant near Batchelor. Another large employer is 2 power plants near New Roads; the parish's economy is reliant upon agriculture, with sugar cane being one of the main cash crops. The Pointe Coupee Parish School Board serves the parish; as of 2014 the sole secondary school operated by the parish school board is Livonia High School, serving grades 7 through 12. Pointe Coupee Central High School was closed down in 2014.
Including that schools of Stem Magnet Academy, Valverda Elemtary, Rougon and Upper Pointe Coupee, Catholic Elementary of Pointe Coupee / Catholic High School of Pointe Coupee False River Academy A Co of the 769th BEB is an Engineer Company that resides in New Roads, Louisiana. This unit is part of the 256TH IBCT and deployed to Iraq in 2004-5 and 2010. New Roads Fordoche Livonia Morganza Ventress Lindy Boggs – U. S. Representative from Louisiana's 2nd congressional district and U. S. Ambassador to the Holy See, she was a Dame of the Orders of St. Lazarus and Holy Sepulchre as well as the Pian Order. Brian J. Costello and lifelong resident of New Roads, Pointe Coupee Parish, is a noted humanitarian, author of more than two dozen books on local, Louisiana and religious studies and is a Knight of the Imperial Teutonic, St. Lazarus and Nobility of the Holy Roman Empire Orders. Emmitt Douglas – president of the Louisiana NAACP from 1966–1981, resided in New Roads from 1949–1981 Ernest Gaines – author Clark Gaudin - former state representative from East Baton Rouge Parish Buddy Guy - Singer Gwendolyn Midlo Hall, did extensive research and writing about slavery in Louisiana, having discovered important documentation of the slave trade and individual slaves that provided new understanding of African-American history in Louisiana, including the specific ethnic origins in various African cultures of many slaves Russel L. Honoré - retired Lieutenant General, U.
S. Army J. Thomas Jewell - state representative 1936-1968. Kimball - former Chief Justice of Louisiana Supreme Court.
John Schneider (screen actor)
John Richard Schneider is an American actor and country music singer. He is best known for his portrayal of Beauregard "Bo" Duke in the American television action/comedy series The Dukes of Hazzard, Jonathan Kent in the 2001–11 TV series Smallville, James "Jim" Cryer on the television series The Haves and the Have Nots, created by Tyler Perry. Alongside his acting career, Schneider has been a singer since the early 1980s, releasing nine studio albums and a greatest hits package, as well as eighteen singles; this total includes "I've Been Around Enough to Know", "Country Girls", "What's a Memory Like You", "You're the Last Thing I Needed Tonight", all of which reached the top of the Billboard country singles charts. Schneider was born on April 8, 1960, in Mount Kisco, New York, the son of Shirley Conklin and John "Jack" Schneider III, a pilot who had served in the U. S. Air Force, his family included an older brother an artist living in southern New York. John's life as an entertainer began at the age of eight, when he put on magic shows for his peers and their families.
This once got him into trouble, when he had himself chained up and tossed into a swimming pool with the intention of re-creating Harry Houdini's legendary escape act. When he was 14, he and his mother moved to Atlanta, where his love for performing continued, he went to North Springs High School in Sandy Springs GA. At the age of 17, he won the role of Bo Duke, working alongside another newcomer Tom Wopat and veteran actor James Best. For his audition, he "borrowed a dilapidated pickup truck, put on a big ol' country accent and funky hat. I went in toting a beer. I don't know whether they believed it or not, but they liked it." Schneider learned to drive the iconic Dodge Charger in the show, but to the disappointment of many fans, he admitted he never jumped the car due to the dangerous nature of the stunt. At the height of the series' popularity, he became a recording artist and a face of merchandise. In 1982, a tangle of legal suits with the producers over the distribution of merchandising royalties sent Schneider and co-star Tom Wopat leaving the show for most of a season.
They returned to their roles in February 1983. The show was canceled after 7 seasons. Schneider directed the series finale, titled Opening Night at the Boar's Nest, airing on CBS, February 8, 1985. In 2001, he portrayed Jonathan Kent, the adoptive father of Clark Kent on Smallville, starring in 100 episodes before his character was killed off. Schneider directed some episodes of Smallville, including "Talisman"; some episodes contain references to Schneider's work in The Dukes of Hazzard, e.g. the season five episode "Exposed" is notable for reuniting Schneider with his former Dukes co-star Tom Wopat. Schneider guest starred for the latter half of season five appearing in the episodes "Void" and "Oracle". Schneider returned for the season 10 premiere of Smallville, reprising his role as Jonathan Kent in a recurring role. Schneider has appeared in many films and TV series, including five guest spots on Hee Haw and the miniseries 10.5. He had a recurring role on Dr. Quinn, Medicine Woman and made guest appearances on such shows as Diagnosis: Murder, Touched by an Angel, JAG and Walker, Texas Ranger.
In 2009, Schneider made an appearance on CSI in an episode titled "Kill Me If You Can". He appeared in the first season of The Secret Life of the American Teenager, in which his real-life son Chasen Schneider had a recurring role. During the summer of 2008 and early 2009, John portrayed "Marshall Bowman", he declined to continue through the second season and his character was killed off. In 2010, Schneider appeared in the series Leverage as a corrupt music executive in the season three episode "The Studio Job", in several episodes of Desperate Housewives as a retired military man and father of Keith Watson, the love interest of Bree Van de Kamp. In 2011, he starred in the film Doonby, as a drifter who comes into a small town and makes it better. However, a menacing force stalks him. "It's It's a Wonderful Life without the wonderful part," Schneider explains. "'Reach down into the throat of It's a Wonderful Life, pull it inside out and make a movie out of it."He returned to the role of Bo Duke, alongside Tom Wopat as Luke Duke, in a 2014 commercial for Autotrader.com.
In addition to acting, John Schneider owns and operates the John Schneider Studios where he writes and produces independent films in Holden, Louisiana. John Schneider Studios has created an innovative infrastructure, designed to give independent filmmakers all the tools they need to create their stories and films in one location. During Schneider's Dukes of Hazzard days, he entered into music, it was in the early 80's that Schneider would sign with Scotti Brothers Label and release his debut full-length, Now or Never, which peaked at #8 on the US Country Billboard charts. From the album came "It's Now or Never," a remake of the Elvis Presley hit, which peaked at #4 on the US Country Billboard charts in 1981 and remains the top charting Elvis cover of all time in any genre to date. Continuing to release albums year after year, Schneider released Quiet Man and If You Believe and in 1984, signed with MCA Nashville. Through MCA Nashville, Schneider released Too Good to Stop Now which included his first #1 hits, "I've Been Around Enough to Know" and "Country Girls," peaking at #1 on the CAN Country music charts, cementing his way into the country music world.
The following year, Schneider unleashed Tryin' To Outrun the Wind, followed by A Memory Like You which debuted at #1 on the US Country Billboard charts, a first for Schneider. Off the albu
Republican Party (United States)
The Republican Party referred to as the GOP, is one of the two major political parties in the United States. The GOP was founded in 1854 by opponents of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, which had expanded slavery into U. S. territories. The party subscribed to classical liberalism and took ideological stands that were anti-slavery and pro-economic reform. Abraham Lincoln was the first Republican president in the history of the United States; the Party was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System and Fourth Party System. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt formed the Progressive Party after being rejected by the GOP and ran unsuccessfully as a third-party presidential candidate calling for social reforms. After the 1912 election, many Roosevelt supporters left the Party, the Party underwent an ideological shift to the right; the liberal Republican element in the GOP was overwhelmed by a conservative surge begun by Barry Goldwater in 1964 that continued during the Reagan Era in the 1980s. After the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965, the party's core base shifted, with the Southern states becoming more reliably Republican in presidential politics and the Northeastern states becoming more reliably Democratic.
White voters identified with the Republican Party after the 1960s. Following the Supreme Court's 1973 decision in Roe v. Wade, the Republican Party made opposition to abortion a key plank of its national party platform and grew its support among evangelicals. By 2000, the Republican Party was aligned with Christian conservatism; the Party's core support since the 1990s comes chiefly from the South, the Great Plains, the Mountain States and rural areas in the North. The 21st century Republican Party ideology is American conservatism, which contrasts with the Democrats' liberal platform and progressive wing; the GOP supports lower taxes, free market capitalism, a strong national defense, gun rights and restrictions on labor unions. The GOP was committed to protectionism and tariffs from its founding until the 1930s when it was based in the industrial Northeast and Midwest, but has grown more supportive of free trade since 1952. In addition to advocating for conservative economic policies, the Republican Party is conservative.
Founded in the Northern states in 1854 by abolitionists, modernizers, ex-Whigs and ex-Free Soilers, the Republican Party became the principal opposition to the dominant Democratic Party and the popular Know Nothing Party. The party grew out of opposition to the Kansas–Nebraska Act, which repealed the Missouri Compromise and opened Kansas Territory and Nebraska Territory to slavery and future admission as slave states; the Northern Republicans saw the expansion of slavery as a great evil. The first public meeting of the general anti-Nebraska movement, at which the name Republican was suggested for a new anti-slavery party, was held on March 20, 1854 in a schoolhouse in Ripon, Wisconsin; the name was chosen to pay homage to Thomas Jefferson's Republican Party. The first official party convention was held on July 1854 in Jackson, Michigan. At the 1856 Republican National Convention, the party adopted a national platform emphasizing opposition to the expansion of slavery into U. S. territories. While Republican candidate John C.
Frémont lost the 1856 United States presidential election to James Buchanan, he did win 11 of the 16 northern states. The Republican Party first came to power in the elections of 1860 when it won control of both houses of Congress and its candidate, former congressman Abraham Lincoln, was elected President. In the election of 1864, it united with War Democrats to nominate Lincoln on the National Union Party ticket. Under Republican congressional leadership, the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution—which banned slavery in the United States—passed the Senate in 1864 and the House in 1865; the party's success created factionalism within the party in the 1870s. Those who felt that Reconstruction had been accomplished, was continued to promote the large-scale corruption tolerated by President Ulysses S. Grant, ran Horace Greeley for the presidency; the Stalwart faction defended Grant and the spoils system, whereas the Half-Breeds pushed for reform of the civil service. The Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act was passed in 1883.
The Republican Party supported hard money, high tariffs to promote economic growth, high wages and high profits, generous pensions for Union veterans, the annexation of Hawaii. The Republicans had strong support from pietistic Protestants, but they resisted demands for Prohibition; as the Northern postwar economy boomed with heavy and light industry, mines, fast-growing cities, prosperous agriculture, the Republicans took credit and promoted policies to sustain the fast growth. The GOP was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System. However, by 1890 the Republicans had agreed to the Sherman Antitrust Act and the Interstate Commerce Commission in response to complaints from owners of small businesses and farmers; the high McKinley Tariff of 1890 hurt the party and the Democrats swept to a landslide in the off-year elections defeating McKinley himself. The Democrats elected Grover Cleveland in 1884 and 1892; the election of William McKinley in 1896 was marked by a resurgence of Republican dominance that lasted until 1932.
McKinley promised that high tariffs would end the severe hardship caused by the Pa
Smithville is a city in Bastrop County, United States, near the Colorado River. The population was 3,817 at the 2010 census. Smithville is part of the Greater Austin metropolitan area. Dr. Thomas Jefferson Gazley arrived in 1827 and set the pace of development for Smithville by building the first house and establishing the first store, which served incoming settlers and the friendly Lipan and Tonkawa Indians, he served in the Mexican government and helped write the Texas Declaration of Independence and the first Constitution, became a true Texas hero. William Smith’s family arrived several years after Dr. Gazley, they owned a store and were early influences on the area, including the naming of Smithville where about seventeen families lived on the south bank of the Colorado River. Local businessman, Murray Burleson, persuaded the approaching railroad to erect a Terminus here and the TB&H steamed through in 1887; the Missouri, Kansas & Texas took over the Taylor and Houston Railroad in 1891. In 1894, the MK&T established central shops in Smithville, giving rise to growth which resulted in Smithville becoming the largest town in Bastrop County for nearly fifty years.
This population created markets for homes and other necessities as it grew from a frontier village to a town. The Hill family established the first bank; the need for infrastructure systems attracted the Buescher brothers to come and create the first utilities. Partnerships of prominent, able men involved in land-based activities united the Bueschers, Cooks, Turneys, Rabbs and others to establish cotton gins, general stores, drugstores and brick yards and to develop numerous churches and fraternal organizations such as the Masons and the Oddfellows and to provide medical care for this now flourishing community. In 1895, this thriving town was incorporated into the City of Smithville; the city fathers recognized the importance of education by creating the Smithville School District. Smithville is located in southeastern Bastrop County at 30°00′26″N 97°09′18″W, it is 12 miles southeast of Bastrop and 42 miles southeast of Austin. As of the census of 2000, there were 3,901 people, 1,491 households, 990 families residing in the city.
The population density was 1,112.7 people per square mile. There were 1,672 housing units at an average density of 476.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 78.01% White, 14.53% African American, 0.31% Native American, 0.41% Asian, 5.10% from other races, 1.64% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 15.43% of the population. There were 1,491 households out of which 31.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.0% were married couples living together, 13.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.6% were non-families. 28.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.53 and the average family size was 3.15. In the city, the population was spread out with 27.2% under the age of 18, 7.3% from 18 to 24, 27.3% from 25 to 44, 19.3% from 45 to 64, 18.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 88.3 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 82.9 males. The median income for a household in the city was $35,586, the median income for a family was $45,163. Males had a median income of $33,500 versus $23,409 for females; the per capita income for the city was $16,282. About 12.1% of families and 15.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 21.2% of those under age 18 and 17.9% of those age 65 or over. Smithville is served by the Smithville Independent School District and home to the Smithville High School Tigers; the James H. Long Railroad Museum, located at the intersection of First and Main streets in Smithville, contains exhibits and relics from Smithville's railroad history; the Smithville post office contains an oil on canvas mural, The Law, Texas Rangers, painted in 1939 by Minette Teichmueller. Murals were produced from 1934 to 1943 in the United States through the Section of Painting and Sculpture called the Section of Fine Arts, of the Treasury Department; the WPA was the largest and most ambitious American New Deal agency, employing individuals to carry out public works projects.
Bettye Caldwell, educator Thomas Carter and Emmy Award-winning director Hannibal Lokumbe, jazz trumpeter and composer Balor Moore, major league baseball pitcher born in Smithville Sonny Rhodes, blues singer and lap steel guitar player DJ Screw, hip hop artist. Smithville has its own music and film commission and continues to promote itself as a Film Friendly Community, a designation it received from the Texas Film Commission in 2008. Following is a list of productions that had filming locations in Smithville. Hope Floats starring Sandra Bullock and Harry Connick, Jr. was set and filmed in Smithville, was released at theaters across the nation on May 29, 1998. The Tree of Life starring Brad Pitt, Sean Penn and Jessica Chastain was filmed in Smithville, was released in May 2011; the film, directed by Terrence Malick, won the Palme d'Or
The ex-gay movement consists of individuals and organizations that encourage people to refrain from entering or pursuing same-sex relationships, eliminate homosexual desires and to develop heterosexual desires, or to enter into a heterosexual relationship. It relies on the involvement of individuals who identified themselves as gay, lesbian, or bisexual but no longer do. There have been various scandals related to this movement, including some self-claimed ex-gays having been found in same-sex relationships despite having denied this, as well as controversies over gay minors being forced to go to ex-gay camps against their will, overt admissions by organizations related to the movement that conversion therapy does not work. A large body of research and global scientific consensus indicates that being gay, lesbian, or bisexual is compatible with normal mental health and social adjustment; because of this, major mental health professional organizations discourage and caution individuals against attempting to change their sexual orientation to heterosexual, warn that attempting to do so can be harmful.
Various ex-gay organizations have working definitions of change. Prior to disbanding and renouncing the idea of a cure, Exodus International described change as, "attaining abstinence from homosexual behaviors, lessening of homosexual temptations, strengthening their sense of masculine or feminine identity, correcting distorted styles of relating with members of the same and opposite gender." People Can Change defines change as, "any degree of change toward greater peace and fulfillment, less shame and darkness", emphasizes that for most people, heterosexuality is not the ultimate goal. When the term ex-gay was introduced to professional literature in 1980, E. Mansell Pattison defined it as describing a person who had "experienced a basic change in sexual orientation"; some ex-gays advocate entering in a heterosexual marriage as part of the process. Some in mixed-orientation marriages acknowledge that their sexual attractions remain homosexual, but seek to make their marriages work anyway. Aside from achieving a degree of change in sexual orientation, the ex-gay movement pursues several broad goals and these include: coordination with individuals and organizations opponents of gay and lesbian civil equality to influence public perception and public policy.
The American Psychological Association reported that some ex-gay groups may help counteract and buffer minority stress and isolation in ways similar to other support groups, such as offering social support, role models, new ways to view a problem through unique philosophies or ideologies. Additionally, the same researchers found that people joined ex-gay groups due to: a lack of other sources of social support; the same report found that some have described the ex-gay groups as, "a refuge for those who were excluded both from conservative churches and from their families, because of their same-sex sexual attractions, from gay organizations and social networks, because of their conservative religious beliefs." According to the APA report, "Ex-gay groups appear to relieve the distress caused by conflicts between religious values and sexual orientation and help participants change their sexual orientation identity, but not their sexual orientation." The APA goes on to report that some believed that by, "taking on'ex-gay' cultural norms and language and finding a community that enabled and reinforced their primary religious beliefs and concerns", they could resolve identity conflicts by: Adopting a new discourse or worldview.
Engaging in a biographical reconstruction. Embracing a new explanatory model. Forming strong interpersonal ties. One of the APA's sources for the report found that, "ex-gay groups recast homosexuality as an ordinary sin, thus salvation was still achievable." Another one of their sources is summarized as having observed that, "such groups built hope and relapse into an ex-gay identity, thus expecting same-sex sexual behaviors and conceiving them as opportunities for repentance and forgiveness." The APA report warns however that, "some groups may reinforce prejudice and stigma by providing inaccurate or stereotyped information about homosexuality." The first contemporary ex-gay ministry, Love in Action, was formed in 1973. Three years with other ex-gay organizations, it formed Exodus International, the largest ex-gay organization and the largest organization under the Exodus Global Alliance. In June 2013, the Exodus board decided to cease operations, with president Alan Chambers apologizing for the pain and hurt the group had caused and saying that he no longer believed sexual orientation could be changed.
Chambers apologized for what he identified as regrettable techniques, the narrow message of a cure and marriage rather than a relationship with Christ for all. Shortly after and his wife started Speak. Love. An organisation for promoting conversations on sexual orientation for all. In September 2014
"John Doe" and "Jane Doe" are multiple-use names that are used when the true name of a person is unknown or is being intentionally concealed. In the context of law enforcement in the United States, such names are used to refer to a corpse whose identity is unknown or unconfirmed. Secondly, such names are often used to refer to a hypothetical "everyman" in other contexts, in a manner similar to "John Q. Public" or "Joe Public". There are many variants to the above names, including "John Roe", "Richard Roe", "Jane Roe" and "Baby Doe", "Janie Doe" or "Johnny Doe". In other English-speaking countries, unique placeholder names, numbers or codenames have become more used in the context of police investigations; this has included the United Kingdom. However, the legal term John Doe injunction or John Doe order has survived in English law and other legal systems influenced by it. Other names such as "Joe Bloggs" or "John Smith" have sometimes been informally used as placeholders for an everyman in the UK, Australia and New Zealand.
Well-known legal cases named after placeholders include: the landmark 1973 US Supreme Court decision regarding abortion: Roe v. Wade and. John Hurrell Luscombe v Yates and Mudge 5 B. & Ald. 544, McKeogh v. John Doe and Uber Technologies, Inc. v. Doe I. Use of "John Doe" in the sense of an everyman, includes: the 1941 film Meet John Doe and. Use of "Jane Doe" in the sense of an unidentified corpse, includes: the 2016 film The Autopsy of Jane Doe. Under the legal terminology of Ancient Rome, the names "Numerius Negidius" and "Aulus Agerius" were used in relation to hypothetical defendants and plaintiffs; the name "John Doe", "Richard Roe," along with "John Roe", were invoked in English legal instruments to satisfy technical requirements governing standing and jurisdiction, beginning as early as the reign of England's King Edward III. Though the rationale behind the choice of Doe and Roe are still unknown with many suggested folk etymologies. Other fictitious names for a person involved in litigation in medieval English law were "John Noakes" and "John-a-Stiles".
The Oxford English Dictionary states that John Doe is "the name given to the fictitious lessee of the plaintiff, in the mixed action of ejectment, the fictitious defendant being called Richard Roe". This usage is mocked in the 1834 English song "John Doe and Richard Roe": This particular use became obsolete in the UK in 1852: As is well known, the device of involving real people as notional lessees and ejectors was used to enable freeholders to sue the real ejectors; these were replaced by the fictional characters John Doe and Richard Roe. The medieval remedies were abolished by the Real Property Limitation Act of 1833. Secretary of State for Environment and Rural Affairs v Meier and another and others and another and another. In the UK, usage of "John Doe" survives in the form of John Doe Injunction or John Doe Order.8.02 If an unknown person has possession of the confidential personal information and is threatening to disclose it, a'John Doe' injunction may be sought against that person. The first time this form of injunction was used since 1852 in the United Kingdom was in 2005 when lawyers acting for JK Rowling and her publishers obtained an interim order against an unidentified person who had offered to sell chapters of a stolen copy of an unpublished Harry Potter novel to the media.
Unlike the United States, the name "John Doe" does not appear in the formal name of the case, for example: X & Y v Persons Unknown HRLR 4. Well-known cases of unidentified corpses include "Cali Doe" and "Princess Doe"; the baby victim in a 2001 murder case in Kansas City, was referred to as Precious Doe. In 2009, the New York Times reported the difficulties and unwanted attention experienced by a man named John Doe, suspected of using a pseudonym, he had been questioned by airport security staff. Another man named John Doe was suspected of being an incognito celebrity. In cases where a large number of unidentified individuals are mentioned, numbers may be appended, such as "Doe #2" or "Doe II". Operation Delego, which targeted an international child sexual abuse ring, cited 21 numbered "John Does", as well as other people known by the surnames "Doe", "Roe", "Poe". "John Stiles", "Richard Miles" have been used for the fourth participants in an action. "Mary Major" has been used in some federal cases in the US.
"James Doe" and "Judy Doe" are among other common variants. Less other surnames ending in -oe have been used when more than two unknown or unidentified persons are named in U. S. court proceedings, e.g. Poe v. Snyder, 834 F. Supp.2d 721, whose full style is Jane Poe, John Doe, Richard Roe, Robert Roe, Mark Moe, Larry Loe, Degage Ministries, Mel Trotter Ministries, Plaintiffs, v. Rick Snyder, Governor of the State of Michigan, Bill Schuette, Attorney General of the State of Michigan, Kriste Etue, Director of the Michigan State Police, William Forsyth, Kent County Prosecutor, in their official capacities, Defendants and. 87-3758, unpublished disposition, 850 F.2d 689 (4th Cir
Houston is the most populous city in the U. S. state of Texas and the fourth most populous city in the United States, with a census-estimated population of 2.312 million in 2017. It is the most populous city in the Southern United States and on the Gulf Coast of the United States. Located in Southeast Texas near Galveston Bay and the Gulf of Mexico, it is the seat of Harris County and the principal city of the Greater Houston metropolitan area, the fifth most populous metropolitan statistical area in the United States and the second most populous in Texas after the Dallas-Fort Worth MSA. With a total area of 627 square miles, Houston is the eighth most expansive city in the United States, it is the largest city in the United States by total area, whose government is not consolidated with that of a county or borough. Though in Harris County, small portions of the city extend into Fort Bend and Montgomery counties. Houston was founded by land speculators on August 30, 1836, at the confluence of Buffalo Bayou and White Oak Bayou and incorporated as a city on June 5, 1837.
The city is named after former General Sam Houston, president of the Republic of Texas and had won Texas' independence from Mexico at the Battle of San Jacinto 25 miles east of Allen's Landing. After serving as the capital of the Texas Republic in the late 1830s, Houston grew into a regional trading center for the remainder of the 19th century; the arrival of the 20th century saw a convergence of economic factors which fueled rapid growth in Houston, including a burgeoning port and railroad industry, the decline of Galveston as Texas' primary port following a devastating 1900 hurricane, the subsequent construction of the Houston Ship Channel, the Texas oil boom. In the mid-20th century, Houston's economy diversified as it became home to the Texas Medical Center—the world's largest concentration of healthcare and research institutions—and NASA's Johnson Space Center, where the Mission Control Center is located. Houston's economy has a broad industrial base in energy, manufacturing and transportation.
Leading in healthcare sectors and building oilfield equipment, Houston has the second most Fortune 500 headquarters of any U. S. municipality within its city limits. The Port of Houston ranks first in the United States in international waterborne tonnage handled and second in total cargo tonnage handled. Nicknamed the "Space City", Houston is a global city, with strengths in culture and research; the city has a population from various ethnic and religious backgrounds and a large and growing international community. Houston is the most diverse metropolitan area in Texas and has been described as the most racially and ethnically diverse major metropolis in the U. S, it is home to many cultural institutions and exhibits, which attract more than 7 million visitors a year to the Museum District. Houston has an active visual and performing arts scene in the Theater District and offers year-round resident companies in all major performing arts; the Allen brothers—Augustus Chapman and John Kirby—explored town sites on Buffalo Bayou and Galveston Bay.
According to historian David McComb, "he brothers, on August 26, 1836, bought from Elizabeth E. Parrott, wife of T. F. L. Parrott and widow of John Austin, the south half of the lower league granted to her by her late husband, they paid $5,000 total, but only $1,000 of this in cash. They lobbied the Republic of Texas Congress to designate Houston as the temporary capital, agreeing to provide the new government with a capital building. About a dozen persons resided in the town at the beginning of 1837, but that number grew to about 1,500 by the time the Texas Congress convened in Houston for the first time that May. Houston was granted incorporation with James S. Holman becoming its first mayor. In the same year, Houston became the county seat of Harrisburg County. In 1839, the Republic of Texas relocated its capital to Austin; the town suffered another setback that year when a yellow fever epidemic claimed about one life out of every eight residents. Yet it persisted as a commercial center, forming a symbiosis with Galveston.
Landlocked farmers brought their produce to Houston, using Buffalo Bayou to gain access to Galveston and the Gulf of Mexico. Houston merchants profited from selling staples to farmers and shipping the farmers' produce to Galveston; the great majority of slaves in Texas came with their owners from the older slave states. Sizable numbers, came through the domestic slave trade. New Orleans was the center of this trade in the Deep South. Thousands of enslaved blacks lived near the city before the American Civil War. Many of them near the city worked on sugar and cotton plantations, while most of those in the city limits had domestic and artisan jobs. In 1840, the community established a chamber of commerce in part to promote shipping and navigation at the newly created port on Buffalo Bayou. By 1860, Houston had emerged as a commercial and railroad hub for the export of cotton. Railroad spurs from the Texas inland converged in Houston, where they met rail lines to the ports of Galveston and Beaumont.
During the American Civil War, Houston served as a headquarters for General John Magruder, who used the city as an organization point for the Battle of Galveston. After the Civil War, Houston businessmen initia