Normal, Illinois

Normal is a town in McLean County, United States. As of the 2010 census, the town's population was 52,497. Normal is the smaller of two principal municipalities of the Bloomington–Normal metropolitan area, Illinois' seventh most populous community outside the Chicago metropolitan area. Normal's mayor is Chris Koos; the main campus of Illinois' oldest public university, Illinois State University, a accredited four-year institution, is in Normal, as is Heartland Community College, a accredited two-year institution. There is a satellite campus of Lincoln College, which offers associate degrees as well as four-year programs. Normal is home to the nation's largest Rivian manufacturing plant where it builds an all electric line of trucks. Over 100,000 electric vehicles will be built at the plant for Amazon; the town was laid out with the name North Bloomington on June 1854 by Joseph Parkinson. From its founding, it was recognized that Jesse W. Fell was the force behind the creation of the town, he had arranged for the new railroad, which would soon become the Chicago and Alton Railroad, to pass west of Bloomington curving to cross the Illinois Central Railroad at a point where he owned or controlled land.

Most of the original town lies south of these tracks, with Beaufort Street as its northern limit, some blocks west of the Illinois Central and north of the tracks. Fell, his brothers, associates laid out many additions to the original town; the town was renamed Normal in February 1865 and incorporated on February 25, 1867. The name was taken from a normal school located there; the school has since been renamed Illinois State University after becoming a general four-year university. Normal is adjacent to Bloomington and when mentioned together they are known as the "Twin Cities", "Bloomington-Normal", "BN", or "BloNo". In 2007, the town council voted to name the downtown area "Uptown Normal", and, as of 2011, Uptown Normal is home to the Children's Discovery Museum, Marriott Hotel and Conference Center, Hyatt Place Hotel, Uptown Station and Town Hall, a variety of local shoppes and restaurants all centered around a roundabout; the district is home to the historic and non-profit Normal Theater, a restored Art Deco theater owned by the Town of Normal that runs classic and independent films.

November 19, 2014: Bronze Level Bicycle Friendly Community Award, League of American Bicyclists 2014: First in State for Most Minutes Read, 2014 Scholastic Summer Reading Challenge, Scholastic Corp. - Received by Glenn Elementary 2014: Chamber of the Year, Association of Chamber of Commerce Executives - Received by the McLean County Chamber of Commerce 2013: Honorable Mention - Mayor's Climate Protection Awards, United States Conference of Mayors - Received by Mayor Chris Koos 2013: Tree Cities USA Community Award, Arbor Day Foundation 2011: National Award for Smart Growth Achievement - Civic Places, United States Environmental Protection Agency Normal is located near 40°30′44″N 88°59′19″W. According to the 2010 census, Normal has a total area of 18.412 square miles, of which 18.35 square miles is land and 0.062 square miles is water. As of the 2000 census, there were 45,386 people, 15,157 households, 8,184 families residing in the town; the population density was 3,332.6 people per square mile.

There were 15,683 housing units at an average density of 1,151.6/sq mi. The racial makeup of the town was 87.57% White, 7.71% African American, 0.15% Native American, 2.21% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.93% from other races, 1.40% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.56% of the population. There were 15,157 households out of which 27.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.4% were married couples living together, 9.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 46.0% were non-families. 26.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.43 and the average family size was 2.96. In the town, the age distribution of the population shows 17.5% under the age of 18, 38.1% from 18 to 24, 23.1% from 25 to 44, 13.7% from 45 to 64, 7.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 23 years. For every 100 females, there were 88.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.5 males.

The median income for a household in the town was $40,379, the median income for a family was $60,644. Males had a median income of $41,323 versus $27,486 for females; the per capita income for the town was $17,775. About 5.6% of families and 19.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 9.4% of those under age 18 and 3.9% of those age 65 or over. Normal is served by I-39, I-55, Interstate 74, one railroad line, the Central Illinois Regional Airport in neighboring Bloomington, Connect Transit provides public bus service in the area. Interstate 55 wraps around the northwest edge of the town. Interstate 74 shares the I-55 roadway on the western edge of Normal before splitting off toward the northwest. Normal is the southern terminus of Interstate 39; the Central Illinois Regional Airport is on Route 9 in Bloomington five miles east southeast from Uptown Normal. The airport is served by four airlines, five rental car agencies, has direct daily flights to Atlanta, Dallas-Ft. Worth and Minneapolis/St.

Paul. A record 559,481 passengers flew to or from CIRA in 2010. Connect Transit has 11 color-coded fixed routes in the area.


Granulopoiesis is a part of haematopoiesis, that leads to the production of granulocytes. A granulocyte referred to as polymorphonuclear lymphocyte, is a type of white blood cell that has multi lobed nuclei containing three lobes, has a significant amount of cytoplasmic granules within the cell. Granulopoiesis takes place in the bone marrow, it leads to the production of three types of mature granulocytes: neutrophils and basophils. Though haematopoiesis is presented in a form of hierarchically organized haematopoietic tree, it is becoming evident, that the cells are progressing from one type to another, while remaining flexible and forming complex landscapes. Granulopoiesis is divided into two parts - granulocyte lineage determination, involving the early maturation steps that are common for all myeloid cells and commited granulopoiesis, the irreversible commitment of a myeloid cell to become a granulocyte. Granulopoiesis, as well as the rest of haematopoiesis, begins from a haematopoietic stem cells.

These are multipotent cells that reside in the bone marrow niche and have the ability to give rise to all heamatopoetic cells, as well as the ability of self renewal. They give rise to either a common lymphoid progenitor or a common myeloid progenitor, CMP, an oligopotent progenitor cell, that gives rise to the myeloid part of the heamatopoetic tree; the first stage of the myeloid lineage is a granulocyte - monocyte progenitor, still an oligopotent progenitor, which develops into unipotent cells that will on form a population of granulocytes, as well as a population of monocytes. The first unipotent cell in granulopoiesis is a myeloblast. Commited granulopoiesis consists of maturation stages of unipotent cells; the first cell that starts to resemble a granulocyte is a myeloblast. It is characterized by large oval nucleus that takes up most of the space in the cell and little cytoplasm; the next developmental stage, a promyelocyte, still has a large oval nucleus, but there is more cytoplasm in the cell at this point cytoplasmic granules are beginning to form.

The development of granules continues with a myelocyte. At this point, the nucleus is starting to shrink. At the stage of a metamyelocyte the cell nucleus is becoming kidney-shaped and it becomes more bent in the stage of a band cell; the maturation is finished with the emergence of a segmented nucleus, specific for a mature granulocyte. The maturation of granulocytic precursors is regulated at transcriptional level. Granulocyte lineage determination is regulated by expression of C/EBPα, necessary for the transition from CMPs to GMPs and levels of PU.1, that drive the differentation from GMPs to monocytes or to granulocytes. Commited granulopoiesis is regulated by C/EBPε and GFI-1, these two transcriptional factors are important for terminal granulocyte differentiation. Other trancriptional factors that regulate granulopoiesis are: CBF, MYB, SMAD4 and HOX genes. Granulopoiesis is regulated by cytokines to a certain extent; the main cytokines driving granulopoiesis are: GM-CSF, G-CSF, IL-3 and SCF.

These are secreted by other haematopoietic cells in the bone marrow or at the site of inflammation as well as epithelial and endothelial cells. Steady state granulopoiesis is a term used to describe the normal daily production of granulocytes. Granulocytes are short; the number of granulocytes produced every day is between 5 and 10 x 1010. The master regulator of steady state granulopoiesis is C/EBPα, it restricts the cell cycle of immature cells by inhibition of CDK2 and CDK4 and promotes granulocytic differentiation. Steady state production of granulocytes is activated after the engulfment of apoptotic granulocytes by tissue macrophages. Steady state granulopoiesis is switched to a program termed emergency granulopoiesis after a major insult to the organism a bacterial infection; the switch of the program is mediated by switch from C/EBPα to C/EBPβ, the main transcriptional regulator of emergency granulopoiesis. C/EBPβ enhances the production of granulocytes by promoting progression of the cell cycle of myeloid progenitors at accelerated rate, therefore generating sufficient amount of new granulocyte to fight the insult

Julian Knowles

Julian Knowles is an Australian composer and performer, specialising in new and emerging technologies. His creative work spans the fields of composition for theatre, dance and television, electronic music and new media arts, popular music and record production. Since the mid-1980s, he has established himself as a prominent artist in the area of electronic and new music, achieving significant critical recognition for his performances and recordings. Although working as a solo artist, he has been a member of the experimental sound art ensemble Social Interiors since the early 90s and has collaborated with a wide range of Australian and international artists. In recent years, his work has been presented at venues and events such as the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, Experimental Intermedia in New York City, the Seoul International Performance Art Festival, The Melbourne International Film Festival, What Is Music, the Sydney Opera House, the International Computer Music Conference, a range of major arts venues.

Knowles has an extensive background in the popular music area, having been involved in the Australian and UK independent music scenes from the mid-1980s onwards as a performer and producer in bands such as The Shrinking Violets, Even As We Speak and Dutiful Daughters. The band were one of only five Australian bands to record radio sessions with British DJ, John Peel, on BBC Radio 1, he appeared as a guest artist on releases by Big Heavy Stuff and Swirl. In 1994 Knowles took up a position on the foundation staff of a new music program at the University of Western Sydney. In this role he established and steered a new major in music technology and played a key role in the establishment of the Electronic Arts program. In 2002, he was appointed to the position of Head of the School of Contemporary Arts. In 2005 he was appointed Professor of Music and Head, School of Music and Drama at the University of Wollongong. In 2007 he took up a position as Professor in Music at the Creative Industries Faculty at Queensland University of Technology where he is the co-director of the Independent Music Project and a researcher within the Institute for Creative Industries and Innovation.

Since 2007, Knowles has been Chair of Q Music, the peak body for the music industry in Queensland and a director of the Music Council of Australia. From 2003-2007, he was a member of the Music Board of the Australia Council for the Arts, the Australian Government's Arts funding and advisory body