The Crystal Campground is located on Forest Road 177 in Ouachita National Forest, northeast of Norman, Arkansas. The campground has nine campsites and a picnic shelter, provides access to outdoor recreational activities including hiking and fishing; the swimming area is made possible by the Crystal Springs Dam, a 30-foot fieldstone dam built in 1935 by the Civilian Conservation Corps, that impounds Montgomery Creek to provide a swimming hole. The campground's main picnic shelter was built by the CCC at that time. Both the dam and the shelter were listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1993. Collier Springs Picnic Area, further east on FR 177 National Register of Historic Places listings in Montgomery County, Arkansas
A town is a human settlement. Towns are larger than villages but smaller than cities, though the criteria to distinguish them vary between different parts of the world; the word town shares an origin with the German word Zaun, the Dutch word tuin, the Old Norse tun. The German word Zaun comes closest to the original meaning of the word: a fence of any material. An early borrowing from Celtic *dunom. In English and Dutch, the meaning of the word took on the sense of the space which these fences enclosed. In England, a town was a small community that could not afford or was not allowed to build walls or other larger fortifications, built a palisade or stockade instead. In the Netherlands, this space was a garden, more those of the wealthy, which had a high fence or a wall around them. In Old Norse tun means a place between farmhouses, the word is still used in a similar meaning in modern Norwegian. In Old English and Early and Middle Scots, the words ton, etc. could refer to diverse kinds of settlements from agricultural estates and holdings picking up the Norse sense at one end of the scale, to fortified municipalities.
If there was any distinction between toun and burgh as claimed by some, it did not last in practice as burghs and touns developed. For example, "Edina Burgh" or "Edinburgh" was built around a fort and came to have a defensive wall. In some cases, "town" is an alternative name for "city" or "village". Sometimes, the word "town" is short for "township". In general, today towns can be differentiated from townships, villages, or hamlets on the basis of their economic character, in that most of a town's population will tend to derive their living from manufacturing industry and public services rather than primary industry such as agriculture or related activities. A place's population size is not a reliable determinant of urban character. In many areas of the world, e.g. in India at least until recent times, a large village might contain several times as many people as a small town. In the United Kingdom, there are historical cities; the modern phenomenon of extensive suburban growth, satellite urban development, migration of city dwellers to villages has further complicated the definition of towns, creating communities urban in their economic and cultural characteristics but lacking other characteristics of urban localities.
Some forms of non-rural settlement, such as temporary mining locations, may be non-rural, but have at best a questionable claim to be called a town. Towns exist as distinct governmental units, with defined borders and some or all of the appurtenances of local government. In the United States these are referred to as "incorporated towns". In other cases the town lacks its own governance and is said to be "unincorporated". Note that the existence of an unincorporated town may be set out by other means, e.g. zoning districts. In the case of some planned communities, the town exists in the form of covenants on the properties within the town; the United States Census identifies many census-designated places by the names of unincorporated towns which lie within them. The distinction between a town and a city depends on the approach: a city may be an administrative entity, granted that designation by law, but in informal usage, the term is used to denote an urban locality of a particular size or importance: whereas a medieval city may have possessed as few as 10,000 inhabitants, today some consider an urban place of fewer than 100,000 as a town though there are many designated cities that are much smaller than that.
Australian geographer Thomas Griffith Taylor proposed a classification of towns based on their age and pattern of land use. He identified five types of town: Infantile towns, with no clear zoning Juvenile towns, which have developed an area of shops Adolescent towns, where factories have started to appear Early mature towns, with a separate area of high-class housing Mature towns, with defined industrial and various types of residential area In Afghanistan and cities are known as shār; as the country is an rural society with few larger settlements, with major cities never holding more than a few hundred thousand inhabitants before the 2000s, the lingual tradition of the country does not discriminate between towns and cities. In Albania "qytezë" means town, similar with the word for city. Although there is no official use of the term for any settlement. In Albanian "qytezë" means "small city" or "new city", while in ancient times "small residential center within the walls of a castle"; the center is a population group, larger than a village, smaller than a city.
Though the village is bigger than a hamlet In Australia, towns or "urban centre localities" are understood to be those centers of population not formally declared to be cities and having a population in excess of about 200 people. Centers too small to be called towns are understood to be a township. In addition, some local government entities are styled as towns in Queensland, Western Australia and the Northern Territory, before the statewide amalgamations of th
Ouachita National Forest
The Ouachita National Forest is a National Forest that lies in the western portion of Arkansas and portions of eastern Oklahoma. The Ouachita National Forest is the oldest National Forest in the southern United States; the forest encompasses 1,784,457 acres, including most of the scenic Ouachita Mountains. Six locations in the forest, comprising 65,000 acres, have been designated as wilderness areas. Ouachita is the French spelling of the Indian word Washita, which means "good hunting grounds." The forest was known as Arkansas National Forest on its establishment on December 18, 1907. Rich in history, the rugged and scenic Ouachita Mountains were explored by Europeans in 1541 by Hernando de Soto's party of Spaniards. French explorers followed; the area including the forest nearly became a 165,000-acre national park during the 1920s, but a last-minute pocket veto by U. S. President Calvin Coolidge ended the effort; the bill had been pushed by U. S. Senator Joseph T. Robinson and U. S. Representative Otis Wingo, both Democrats, State Representative Osro Cobb the only Republican in the Arkansas legislature.
Cobb had been invited to meet with Coolidge before the proposal was killed because of opposition from the National Park Service and the United States Department of Agriculture because of the nearby location of Hot Springs National Park. In a magazine article, Cobb describes the area that he had sought to protect for future generations, located midway between Little Rock and Shreveport, Louisiana, as within easy driving distance of 45 million Americans, many of whom could not afford long trips to the national parks in the western states, he compared flora and fauna in the Ouachita forest to those of the southern Alleghenies, a division of the Appalachian Mountains. Cobb continues: A visitor standing upon one of the many majestic peaks in the area of the proposed park is thrilled by a panoramic view that cannot be had elswwhere in the South Central States. With cheeks flushed by the invigorating mountain breezes, the mountain climber is rewarded by an inspring view of countless and nameless peaks, mountain groups, dense forests, inviting valleys, all merging into the distant horizon....
There are many mountain streams, now moving in narrow but deep pools churning with savage ferocity down some water-worn precipice, leaving in its wake snow-white sprays... Fed by crystal springs and like so much molten silver these streams flow their turbulent courses unappreciated and visited.... The Forest contains extensive woodlands of stunted Northern Red Oak, White Oak, Post Oak, Blackjack Oak at elevations over 2,500 feet and on steep, dry slopes; these woodlands, of little commercial value, were never logged and the extent of old growth forest within them may total nearly 800,000 acres. There are old-growth woodlands of Eastern Redcedar, Gum Bumelia, Winged Elm, Yaupon along some streams. Two wilderness areas are found in the forest, protecting the sections of the forest that have had the least amount of human intervention; the 13,139-acre Black Fork Mountain Wilderness is located in both Arkansas and Oklahoma and contains significant old-growth forests. The 9,754-acre Upper Kiamichi River Wilderness is located in Oklahoma.
The Talimena Scenic Drive, Highway 1 in Oklahoma and Highway 88 in Arkansas, is a National Scenic Byway which meanders through the forest providing amazing vistas and excellent photo opportunities. The Scenic Drive passes through old-growth oak woodlands on Winding Rich Mountains. Forest headquarters are located in Arkansas; the forest contains a number of hiking, mountain biking, horseback riding trails. The most extensive hiking trail is the Ouachita National Recreation Trail, which traverses 223 miles across the region; this is a well-maintained backpacking, hiking trail with overnight shelters in several portions of the trail. Mountain biking is allowed for some sections of the trail. Camp Clearfork was constructed by the Civilian Conservation Corps. Managed by the U. S. Department of Agriculture,it is on Clearfork Lake, about 20 miles west of Hot Springs, Arkansas on U. S. 270. Reservations are required for camping, may be made through the Womble USDA Office at 867-2101; the campground has 6 dorm/cabins.
In the Oklahoma section of the forest the 26,445-acre Winding Stair Mountain National Recreation Area and six other designated areas offer visitors a full range of activities with more than 150 campsites, a 90-acre lake, an equestrian camp. Southeast of Idabel, the Oklahoma Department of Wildlife Conservation manages the Red Slough Wildlife Management Area, a 5,814 acres wetland area donated to the USFS by The Conservation Fund in the late 1990s and early 2000s. Hunting and fishing are allowed there; the area is a destination for birdwatchers from throughout the United States and the United Kingdom as well. Canoeing and fishing are popular activities on the Mountain Fork River, Caddo River, Little Missouri River, Ouachita River within the bounds of the forest; the Cossatot River, said to be the most difficult whitewater river between the Smoky and Rocky Mountains passes through the forest. Rockhounds frequent a belt several miles wide containing concentrations of quartz crystals. Visitors and rock collectors are free to pick up loose crystals within the belt for
Arkansas Highway 27
Arkansas Highway 27 is a designation for two north–south state highways in Arkansas. One route begins at US 71 near Ben Lomond north to Highway 7 in Dardanelle. A second segment runs north to Highway 14 at Harriet. An original Arkansas state highway, Highway 27 was created as one continuous route in 1926, but was split around Russellville in 1961; the designation includes Highway 27 Business, a business route in Nashville, Highway 27N, a former alternate route near Ben Lomond deleted in the 1990s. All highways are maintained by the Arkansas State Transportation Department. AR 27 begins at US 59/US 71 near Ben Lomond; the route runs east. The route continues to Nashville where it meets US 278 and US 371/AR 24. North of Nashville, AR 27 meets AR 26 until Murfreesboro, when it picks up AR 19; the route winds north to meet US 70/AR 84 in Kirby. AR 27 follows US 70 until Glenwood, when it enters the Ouachita National Forest; the two routes run together until Norman. AR 27 continues northeast to US 270 in Mt. Ida, to Washita where it meets AR 298.
The route leaves the forest near Rover, which contains a junction with AR 28. AR 27 continues north to Dardanelle; the route meets AR 7/AR 22/AR 247 on the south edge of town. It crosses the Arkansas River into Russellville, where it meets US 64 in downtown, Interstate 40 north of town. A concurrency with AR 7 ends with AR 27 turning right at Market Street; the route winds northward for a stretch meeting AR 16 and AR 333 in rural Searcy County. AR 27 continues northeast to meet US 65/AR 74 in Marshall. After Marshall, the route trails north to Harriet, where it terminates at AR 14. Highway 27 was created during the 1926 Arkansas state highway numbering as an original state highway between Ben Lomond and Harriet; the segment between Highway 28 at Rover and Highway 10 in Danville was deleted in 1929, but it was restored in 1931. Following construction of new terrain routes for Highway 7 and Highway 22, Highway 27 was truncated at the new alignment of Highway 7 in Dardanelle; this action separated the highway into its two present-day sections.
The highway was in Marshall on March 11, 1954, in Mt. Ida on June 27, 1962. Between Hector and Tilly on March 24, 1971, between Ben Lomond and Mineral Springs on September 29, 1976. Mile markers reset at some concurrencies. Arkansas Highway 27 had two auxiliary routes, with AR 27N being removed in the 1990s. Arkansas Highway 27B is a business route in Nashville, it is 2.38 miles in length. Arkansas Highway 27N was a short east–west highway in southwest Arkansas, its eastern terminus was at Arkansas Highway 27 east of Ben Lomond with its western terminus at U. S. Route 71 1-mile south of Falls Chapel. In the 1990s Highway 27N was replaced by a realigned Highway 27. List of state highways in Arkansas Media related to Arkansas Highway 27 at Wikimedia Commons
Marriage called matrimony or wedlock, is a or ritually recognised union between spouses that establishes rights and obligations between those spouses, as well as between them and any resulting biological or adopted children and affinity. The definition of marriage varies around the world not only between cultures and between religions, but throughout the history of any given culture and religion, evolving to both expand and constrict in who and what is encompassed, but it is principally an institution in which interpersonal relationships sexual, are acknowledged or sanctioned. In some cultures, marriage is recommended or considered to be compulsory before pursuing any sexual activity; when defined broadly, marriage is considered a cultural universal. A marriage ceremony is known as a wedding. Individuals may marry for several reasons, including legal, libidinal, financial and religious purposes. Whom they marry may be influenced by gender determined rules of incest, prescriptive marriage rules, parental choice and individual desire.
In some areas of the world, arranged marriage, child marriage and sometimes forced marriage, may be practiced as a cultural tradition. Conversely, such practices may be outlawed and penalized in parts of the world out of concerns of the infringement of women's rights, or the infringement of children's rights, because of international law. Around the world in developed democracies, there has been a general trend towards ensuring equal rights within marriage for women and recognizing the marriages of interfaith and same-sex couples; these trends coincide with the broader human rights movement. Marriage can be recognized by a state, an organization, a religious authority, a tribal group, a local community, or peers, it is viewed as a contract. When a marriage is performed and carried out by a government institution in accordance with the marriage laws of the jurisdiction, without religious content, it is a civil marriage. Civil marriage recognizes and creates the rights and obligations intrinsic to matrimony before the state.
When a marriage is performed with religious content under the auspices of a religious institution it is a religious marriage. Religious marriage recognizes and creates the rights and obligations intrinsic to matrimony before that religion. Religious marriage is known variously as sacramental marriage in Catholicism, nikah in Islam, nissuin in Judaism, various other names in other faith traditions, each with their own constraints as to what constitutes, who can enter into, a valid religious marriage; some countries do not recognize locally performed religious marriage on its own, require a separate civil marriage for official purposes. Conversely, civil marriage does not exist in some countries governed by a religious legal system, such as Saudi Arabia, where marriages contracted abroad might not be recognized if they were contracted contrary to Saudi interpretations of Islamic religious law. In countries governed by a mixed secular-religious legal system, such as in Lebanon and Israel, locally performed civil marriage does not exist within the country, preventing interfaith and various other marriages contradicting religious laws from being entered into in the country, civil marriages performed abroad are recognized by the state if they conflict with religious laws.
The act of marriage creates normative or legal obligations between the individuals involved, any offspring they may produce or adopt. In terms of legal recognition, most sovereign states and other jurisdictions limit marriage to opposite-sex couples and a diminishing number of these permit polygyny, child marriages, forced marriages. In modern times, a growing number of countries developed democracies, have lifted bans on and have established legal recognition for the marriages of interfaith and same-sex couples; some cultures allow the dissolution of marriage through annulment. In some areas, child marriages and polygamy may occur in spite of national laws against the practice. Since the late twentieth century, major social changes in Western countries have led to changes in the demographics of marriage, with the age of first marriage increasing, fewer people marrying, more couples choosing to cohabit rather than marry. For example, the number of marriages in Europe decreased by 30% from 1975 to 2005.
In most cultures, married women had few rights of their own, being considered, along with the family's children, the property of the husband. In Europe, the United States, other places in the developed world, beginning in the late 19th century and lasting through the 21st century, marriage has undergone gradual legal changes, aimed at improving the rights of the wife; these changes included giving wives legal identities of their own, abolishing the right of husbands to physically discipline their wives, giving wives property rights, liberalizing divorce laws, providing wives with reproductive rights of their own, requiring a wife's consent when sexual relations occur. These changes have occurred in Western countries. In the 21st century, there continue to be controversies regarding the legal status of married women, legal acceptance of or leniency towards violence within marriage, traditional marriage customs such as dowry and bride price, for
Montgomery County, Arkansas
Montgomery County is a county located in the U. S. state of Arkansas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 9,487; the county seat is Mount Ida. Montgomery County is Arkansas's 45th county, formed on December 9, 1842, named after Richard Montgomery, an American Revolutionary War general. Stone spear and dart points found in the area verify that people from the Dalton Culture were present in Mongomery County around 8500 BC. Early signs of houses and American Indian cemeteries are present in and around Caddo Gap, indicating the definite presence of the Caddo Indians having settled in the area in the 13th century and 14th century. In 1541, the explorer Hernando de Soto fought the Tula Indians at Caddo Gap, he was injured during that battle; the first white settlers arrived in 1812, when Martin and Mary Collier settled what is now Caddo Gap. They befriended the local tribes, had no problems from them whatsoever. Granville Whittington arrived in 1835, built a road that led from Hot Springs, Arkansas to his farm about a mile north of the settlement of Montgomery.
By 1836 when Arkansas received statehood, most of the native Indians were gone. Some of the native Indian women had intermarried with local white settlers. Whittington opened a general store that drew customers from the surrounding area, in 1842 he opened the Mount Ida Post Office in Mount Ida. West of the Ouachita River, settlers from a wagon train wintered in what is now Oden, decided to stay when the weather cleared. Montgomery County was named after General Richard Montgomery, an American general who died during the American Revolution. Part of the Louisiana Purchase, it was first claimed by Spain France, in 1813 was part of Arkansas County in 1818 was part of Clark County. On December 9, 1842, Montgomery County became its own county, with Montgomery as its county seat. In 1850 Salem became the county seat, but that same year the county seat changed again, to Mount Ida, where Whittington's Post Office was located. Mount Ida incorporated in 1854; when the Civil War broke out, most of Montgomery County favored the Confederacy.
Mount Ida settlers John Lavender and John Simpson formed one company to serve in the Confederate Army, the 4th Arkansas Infantry originated in Mount Ida but after the war few from the company organized by Lavender and Simpson returned to Montgomery County. With women left to tend to the farms, soldiers from both the Confederate and the Union Army raided homes and farms for supplies, leaving settlers with little to eat. After the war, soldiers from both armies settled in the area, building homes. In 1884 Oden built a cotton gin and a gristmill. With the arrival of the Missouri Pacific Railroad in Caddo Gap around the turn of the 20th century, Caddo Gap and Black Springs began to thrive. In 1910 the county population reached its peak, with sawmills springing up in several locations; that same year, the town of Womble was settled. It changed its name to Norman in 1925. In 1918 the logging camp of Mauldin, Arkansas sprang up, a railroad line was built to it from Norman; however overnight in 1936, Mauldin closed up, dismantled everything, moved on having depleted the virgin timber in the area.
This, combined with the Great Depression, had a devastating effect on the county. Many people moved away to find work elsewhere, while others found employment with the Civilian Conservation Corps. During World War II, people continued to leave Montgomery County, with the men going off to war, others leaving to find employment in war plants. Mining did not last. Most mines were due to a large abundance of quartz in the county. In 1922 there were eighty three school districts in Montgomery County. Today there are three, Caddo Hills, Mount Ida, Ouachita River. Cattle and poultry are now the main areas of employment in the region. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 800 square miles, of which 780 square miles is land and 20 square miles is water. U. S. Highway 70 U. S. Highway 270 Highway 8 Highway 27 Highway 88 Yell County Garland County Hot Spring County Clark County Pike County Polk County Scott County Ouachita National Forest As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 9,245 people, 3,785 households, 2,747 families residing in the county.
The population density was 12 people per square mile. There were 5,048 housing units at an average density of 6 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 95.42% White, 0.29% Black or African American, 1.11% Native American, 0.37% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 1.56% from other races, 1.23% from two or more races. 2.53% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 3,785 households out of which 28.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.60% were married couples living together, 7.00% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.40% were non-families. 24.50% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.20% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.41 and the average family size was 2.85. In the county, the population was spread out with 23.50% under the age of 18, 6.20% from 18 to 24, 25.00% from 25 to 44, 26.30% from 45 to 64, 18.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years.
For every 100 females there were 96.20 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.00 males. The median income for a household in the county was $28,421, the median income for a family was $32,769. Males had a median income of $25,865 versus $18,063 for females; the p
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. The term is used in connection with national population and housing censuses; the United Nations defines the essential features of population and housing censuses as "individual enumeration, universality within a defined territory and defined periodicity", recommends that population censuses be taken at least every 10 years. United Nations recommendations cover census topics to be collected, official definitions and other useful information to co-ordinate international practice; the word is of Latin origin: during the Roman Republic, the census was a list that kept track of all adult males fit for military service. The modern census is essential to international comparisons of any kind of statistics, censuses collect data on many attributes of a population, not just how many people there are. Censuses began as the only method of collecting national demographic data, are now part of a larger system of different surveys.
Although population estimates remain an important function of a census, including the geographic distribution of the population, statistics can be produced about combinations of attributes e.g. education by age and sex in different regions. Current administrative data systems allow for other approaches to enumeration with the same level of detail but raise concerns about privacy and the possibility of biasing estimates. A census can be contrasted with sampling in which information is obtained only from a subset of a population. Modern census data are used for research, business marketing, planning, as a baseline for designing sample surveys by providing a sampling frame such as an address register. Census counts are necessary to adjust samples to be representative of a population by weighting them as is common in opinion polling. Stratification requires knowledge of the relative sizes of different population strata which can be derived from census enumerations. In some countries, the census provides the official counts used to apportion the number of elected representatives to regions.
In many cases, a chosen random sample can provide more accurate information than attempts to get a population census. A census is construed as the opposite of a sample as its intent is to count everyone in a population rather than a fraction. However, population censuses rely on a sampling frame to count the population; this is the only way to be sure that everyone has been included as otherwise those not responding would not be followed up on and individuals could be missed. The fundamental premise of a census is that the population is not known and a new estimate is to be made by the analysis of primary data; the use of a sampling frame is counterintuitive as it suggests that the population size is known. However, a census is used to collect attribute data on the individuals in the nation; this process of sampling marks the difference between historical census, a house to house process or the product of an imperial decree, the modern statistical project. The sampling frame used by census is always an address register.
Thus it is not known how many people there are in each household. Depending on the mode of enumeration, a form is sent to the householder, an enumerator calls, or administrative records for the dwelling are accessed; as a preliminary to the dispatch of forms, census workers will check any address problems on the ground. While it may seem straightforward to use the postal service file for this purpose, this can be out of date and some dwellings may contain a number of independent households. A particular problem is what are termed'communal establishments' which category includes student residences, religious orders, homes for the elderly, people in prisons etc; as these are not enumerated by a single householder, they are treated differently and visited by special teams of census workers to ensure they are classified appropriately. Individuals are counted within households and information is collected about the household structure and the housing. For this reason international documents refer to censuses of housing.
The census response is made by a household, indicating details of individuals resident there. An important aspect of census enumerations is determining which individuals can be counted from which cannot be counted. Broadly, three definitions can be used: de facto residence; this is important to consider individuals who have temporary addresses. Every person should be identified uniquely as resident in one place but where they happen to be on Census Day, their de facto residence, may not be the best place to count them. Where an individual uses services may be more useful and this is at their usual, or de jure, residence. An individual may be represented at a permanent address a family home for students or long term migrants, it is necessary to have a precise definition of residence to decide whether visitors to a country should be included in the population count. This is becoming more important as students travel abroad for education for a period of several years. Other groups causing problems of enumeration are new born babies, people away on holiday, people moving home around census day, people without a fixed address.
People having second homes because of working in another part of the country or retaining a holiday cottage are dif