Ed Lee (politician)
Edwin Mah Ed Lee is an American politician and attorney who is the 43rd and current Mayor of San Francisco, California. Lee won the election on November 8,2011 to serve a term as Mayor. Lee is the first Asian American mayor in San Franciscos history, before being appointed mayor, he was City Administrator. Prior to his employment with the City and County of San Francisco, Mayor Lee was the Managing Attorney for the San Francisco Asian Law Caucus, from 1989 to 1991, Lee worked as a Whistleblower Ordinance Investigator and the Deputy Director of Employment Relations in San Francisco. Lee worked as the director of the Human Rights Commission from 1991 to 1996, Lee became director of the City Purchasing Department in 1996 until his appointment to City Administrator in 2000. In 1989, Lee was appointed by Mayor Art Agnos as the Citys first investigator under the citys Whistleblower Ordinance, Agnos appointed him deputy director of human relations. In 1991, he was hired as director of the San Francisco Human Rights Commission, serving in that capacity under Mayors Agnos, Frank Jordan.
Brown appointed him Director of City Purchasing, among other responsibilities, in 2000, he was appointed Director of Public Works for the City, and in 2005 was appointed by Mayor Newsom to a five-year term as City Administrator, to which he was reappointed in 2010. As City Administrator, Lee oversaw the reduction of city government, speculation about possible appointees and debate on whether or not the old Board of Supervisors should cast the vote for the new mayor soon followed Newsoms election as lieutenant governor. The Board of Supervisors nominated four people, former Mayor Art Agnos, Sheriff Michael Hennessey, former Board of Supervisors president Aaron Peskin, and Lee. At the January 7 meeting, the old board voted 10–1 to elect Lee as mayor, at the time, Lee promised not to seek election if appointed, a statement which helped to gain support for his appointment. The vote was preliminary and non-binding, as Newsom had delayed his resignation until new members of the Board took office, a final vote was taken on January 11 by the new board to confirm Lee, one day after Newsoms resignation.
The board voted unanimously for Lee and he took office immediately thereafter, as mayor, Lee reached an agreement with the Board of Supervisors to close a $380 million budget deficit. He implemented the City’s move to cleaner vehicles and an infrastructure to support electric vehicles, Mayor Lee developed and oversaw implementation of the City’s first ever Ten Year Capital Plan to guide our capital priorities and infrastructure investment. In 2012, Mayor Lee pushed for the approval of the Housing Trust Fund which invested $1.5 billion in affordable housing production. In 2014, Mayor Lee pledged to construct 30,000 new and rehabilitated homes throughout the City by 2020, with half available to low and middle income San Franciscans. Mayor Lee launched a Small Site Acquisition Program, which funds the purchase & stabilization of multi-family rental buildings in neighborhoods that are susceptible to evictions, Lee created preferences for Neighborhood Residents and Displaced Tenants in our affordable housing programs to help keep residents in their communities.
Lee launched the Ellis Act Housing Preference Program for tenants who are evicted under the State Ellis Act, Displaced tenants are now given preference for the City’s affordable housing programs
Pinyin, or Hànyǔ Pīnyīn, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China, Malaysia and Taiwan. It is often used to teach Standard Chinese, which is written using Chinese characters. The system includes four diacritics denoting tones, Pinyin without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet, and in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters. The pinyin system was developed in the 1950s by many linguists, including Zhou Youguang and it was published by the Chinese government in 1958 and revised several times. The International Organization for Standardization adopted pinyin as a standard in 1982. The system was adopted as the standard in Taiwan in 2009. The word Hànyǔ means the language of the Han people. In 1605, the Jesuit missionary Matteo Ricci published Xizi Qiji in Beijing and this was the first book to use the Roman alphabet to write the Chinese language. Twenty years later, another Jesuit in China, Nicolas Trigault, neither book had much immediate impact on the way in which Chinese thought about their writing system, and the romanizations they described were intended more for Westerners than for the Chinese.
One of the earliest Chinese thinkers to relate Western alphabets to Chinese was late Ming to early Qing Dynasty scholar-official, the first late Qing reformer to propose that China adopt a system of spelling was Song Shu. A student of the great scholars Yu Yue and Zhang Taiyan, Song had been to Japan and observed the effect of the kana syllabaries. This galvanized him into activity on a number of fronts, one of the most important being reform of the script, while Song did not himself actually create a system for spelling Sinitic languages, his discussion proved fertile and led to a proliferation of schemes for phonetic scripts. The Wade–Giles system was produced by Thomas Wade in 1859, and it was popular and used in English-language publications outside China until 1979. This Sin Wenz or New Writing was much more sophisticated than earlier alphabets. In 1940, several members attended a Border Region Sin Wenz Society convention. Mao Zedong and Zhu De, head of the army, both contributed their calligraphy for the masthead of the Sin Wenz Societys new journal.
Outside the CCP, other prominent supporters included Sun Yat-sens son, Sun Fo, Cai Yuanpei, the countrys most prestigious educator, Tao Xingzhi, an educational reformer. Over thirty journals soon appeared written in Sin Wenz, plus large numbers of translations, some contemporary Chinese literature, and a spectrum of textbooks
Jyutping is a romanisation system for Cantonese developed by the Linguistic Society of Hong Kong, an academic group, in 1993. Its formal name is The Linguistic Society of Hong Kong Cantonese Romanisation Scheme, the LSHK promotes the use of this romanisation system. The name Jyutping is a contraction consisting of the first Chinese characters of the terms Jyut6jyu5, only the finals m and ng can be used as standalone nasal syllables. ^ ^ ^ Referring to the pronunciation of these words. There are nine tones in six distinct tone contours in Cantonese, however, as three of the nine are entering tones, which only appear in syllables ending with p, t, and k, they do not have separate tone numbers in Jyutping. Jyutping and the Yale Romanisation of Cantonese represent Cantonese pronunciations with the letters in, The initials, b, p, m, f, d, t, n, l, g, k, ng, h, s, gw, kw. The vowel, aa, a, e, i, o, u, the coda, i, u, m, n, ng, p, t, k. But they differ in the following, The vowels eo and oe represent /ɵ/ and /œː/ respectively in Jyutping, the initial j represents /j/ in Jyutping whereas y is used instead in Yale.
The initial z represents /ts/ in Jyutping whereas j is used instead in Yale, the initial c represents /tsʰ/ in Jyutping whereas ch is used instead in Yale. In Jyutping, if no consonant precedes the vowel yu, the initial j is appended before the vowel, in Yale, the corresponding initial y is never appended before yu under any circumstances. Jyutping defines three finals not in Yale, eu /ɛːu/, em /ɛːm/, and ep /ɛːp/ and these three finals are used in colloquial Cantonese words, such as deu6, lem2, and gep6. To represent tones, only tone numbers are used in Jyutping whereas Yale traditionally uses tone marks together with the letter h. Jyutping and Cantonese Pinyin represent Cantonese pronunciations with the letters in, The initials, b, p, m, f, d, t, n, l, g, k, ng, h, s, gw, kw. The vowel, aa, a, e, i, o, u, the coda, i, u, m, n, ng, p, t, k. But they have differences, The vowel oe represents both /ɵ/ and /œː/ in Cantonese Pinyin whereas eo and oe represent /ɵ/ and /œː/ respectively in Jyutping.
The vowel y represents /y/ in Cantonese Pinyin whereas both yu and i are used in Jyutping, the initial dz represents /ts/ in Cantonese Pinyin whereas z is used instead in Jyutping. The initial ts represents /tsʰ/ in Cantonese Pinyin whereas c is used instead in Jyutping. To represent tones, the numbers 1 to 9 are usually used in Cantonese Pinyin, only the numbers 1 to 6 are used in Jyutping
Bachelor of Science
A Bachelor of Science is an undergraduate academic degree awarded for completed courses that generally last three to five years. Whether a student of a subject is awarded a Bachelor of Science degree or a Bachelor of Arts degree can vary between universities. For one example, a degree may be given as a Bachelor of Arts by one university but as a B. Sc. by another. Some liberal arts colleges in the United States offer only the BA, even in the natural sciences, in both instances, there are historical and traditional reasons. Northwestern Universitys School of Communication grants B. Sc. degrees in all of its programs of study, including theater, the first university to admit a student to the degree of Bachelor of Science was the University of London in 1860. Prior to this, science subjects were included in the B. A. bracket, notably in the cases of mathematics, physiology, in Argentina and Chile, most university degrees are given as a license in a field or discipline. For instance, besides the courses and biology require 1–2 years hands-on training either in a clinical laboratory plus a final exam or in a research laboratory plus a thesis defense.
The degrees are term licenses in the field of study or profession i. e. biology, physical therapy or kinesiology, etc. However, a masters degree requires 2-3 more years of specific training and medical degrees are different and are six-year programs of specific classes and training starting immediately after high school. No intermediate degrees count towards the admission examination or even exist, medical degrees are complemented with a 3–4 years of hospital residence plus 1–2 years of specialization training. In Australia, the B. Sc. is generally a three-four year degree, an honours year or a Master of Science is required to progress on to the Doctor of Philosophy. In New Zealand, in cases, the honours degree comprises an additional postgraduate qualification. In South Africa, the B. Sc. is taken three years, while the postgraduate B. Sc. Entails an additional year of study, admission to the honours degree is on the basis of a sufficiently high average in the B. Sc. major, an honours degree is required for M.
Sc. Level study, and admission to a doctorate is via the M. Sc, commonly in British Commonwealth countries and Ireland graduands are admitted to the degree of Bachelor of Science after having completed a programme in one or more of the sciences. These programmes may take different lengths of time to complete, note that in British English, no full stops are used in the title, hence BSc, not B. Sc. A Bachelor of Science receives the designation BSc or BS for a major/pass degree, in England and Northern Ireland an honours degree is typically completed over a three-year period, though there are a few intensified two-year courses. Bachelors degrees were typically completed in two years for most of the twentieth century, in Scotland, where access to university is possible after one less year of secondary education, degree courses have a foundation year making the total course length four years
Democratic Party (United States)
The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party. The Democrats dominant worldview was once socially conservative and fiscally classical liberalism, especially in the rural South, since Franklin D. Roosevelt and his New Deal coalition in the 1930s, the Democratic Party has promoted a social-liberal platform, supporting social justice. Today, the House Democratic caucus is composed mostly of progressives and centrists, the partys philosophy of modern liberalism advocates social and economic equality, along with the welfare state. It seeks to provide government intervention and regulation in the economy, the party has united with smaller left-wing regional parties throughout the country, such as the Farmer–Labor Party in Minnesota and the Nonpartisan League in North Dakota. Well into the 20th century, the party had conservative pro-business, the New Deal Coalition of 1932–1964 attracted strong support from voters of recent European extraction—many of whom were Catholics based in the cities.
After Franklin D. Roosevelts New Deal of the 1930s, the pro-business wing withered outside the South, after the racial turmoil of the 1960s, most southern whites and many northern Catholics moved into the Republican Party at the presidential level. The once-powerful labor union element became smaller and less supportive after the 1970s, white Evangelicals and Southerners became heavily Republican at the state and local level in the 1990s. However, African Americans became a major Democratic element after 1964, after 2000, Hispanic and Latino Americans, Asian Americans, the LGBT community, single women and professional women moved towards the party as well. The Northeast and the West Coast became Democratic strongholds by 1990 after the Republicans stopped appealing to socially liberal voters there, the Democratic Party has retained a membership lead over its major rival the Republican Party. The most recent was the 44th president Barack Obama, who held the office from 2009 to 2017, in the 115th Congress, following the 2016 elections, Democrats are the opposition party, holding a minority of seats in both the House of Representatives and the Senate.
The party holds a minority of governorships, and state legislatures, though they do control the mayoralty of cities such as New York City, Los Angeles, Chicago and Washington, D. C. The Democratic Party traces its origins to the inspiration of the Democratic-Republican Party, founded by Thomas Jefferson, James Madison and that party inspired the Whigs and modern Republicans. Organizationally, the modern Democratic Party truly arose in the 1830s, since the nomination of William Jennings Bryan in 1896, the party has generally positioned itself to the left of the Republican Party on economic issues. They have been liberal on civil rights issues since 1948. On foreign policy both parties changed position several times and that party, the Democratic-Republican Party, came to power in the election of 1800. After the War of 1812 the Federalists virtually disappeared and the national political party left was the Democratic-Republicans. The Democratic-Republican party still had its own factions, however.
As Norton explains the transformation in 1828, Jacksonians believed the peoples will had finally prevailed, through a lavishly financed coalition of state parties, political leaders, and newspaper editors, a popular movement had elected the president
University of California, San Francisco
The University of California, San Francisco, is a center of health sciences research, patient care, and education devoted solely to graduate education and located in San Francisco, California. The UCSF School of Medicine is one of the most selective schools in the United States based on average MCAT score, GPA. In 2015,7,393 people applied and 437 were interviewed for 149 positions in the entering class, UCSF is currently ranked 2nd among medical schools in the world by the Academic Ranking of World Universities. The UCSF School of Medicine is affiliated with UCSF Medical Center, in 2014, a national evaluation of residency programs named UCSF and the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine the top two physician training institutions in the United States. UCSF traces its history to Hugh H. Toland, a South Carolina surgeon who found great success, a previous school, the Cooper Medical College of the University of Pacific, entered a period of uncertainty in 1862 when its founder, Elias Samuel Cooper, died.
In 1864, Toland founded a new school, Toland Medical College. The University of California was founded in 1868, and by 1870 Toland Medical School began negotiating an affiliation with the new public university. Meanwhile, some faculty of Toland Medical School elected to reopen the Medical Department of the University of the Pacific, negotiations between the Toland and the UC were complicated by Tolands demand that the medical school continue to bear his name, which he finally conceded. In March 1873, the trustees of Toland Medical College transferred it to the Regents of the University of California, the schools first female student, Lucy Wanzer, graduated in 1876, after having to appeal to the UC Board of Regents to gain admission in 1873. The Schools of Dentistry, Medicine, and it houses the UCSF neurology outpatient practice that serves as a referral center of most of northern California and Reno, Nevada. UCSFs Beckman Vision Center is located at the Parnassus campus and it is a center for the diagnosis and research of all areas of eye care, including vision correction surgery.
Also located on the Parnassus campus is the UCSF Fetal Treatment Center, multidisciplinary care center dedicated to the diagnosis, treatment, UCSFs Mission Bay Campus, located in San Francisco, is the largest ongoing biomedical construction project in the world. The 43-acre Mission Bay campus, opened in 2003 with construction still ongoing, contains additional research space and facilities to foster biotechnology and it will double the size of UCSFs research enterprise over the next 10 years. The biotechnology company Genentech contributed $50 million toward construction of a building as part of a settlement regarding alleged theft of UCSF technology several decades earlier. Also located on the Mission Bay campus, the Arthur and Toni Rembe Rock Hall was designed by César Pelli, the building is named in honor of Arthur Rock and his wife, who made a $25 million gift to the university. Byers Hall serves as the headquarters for the California Institute for Quantitative Biosciences, the building is named after venture capitalist Brook Byers, co-chair of UCSFs capital campaign that concluded in 2005 and raised over $1.6 billion.
The building is named in honor of William J. Rutter, former Chairman of the universitys Department of Biochemistry & Biophysics, a housing complex for 750 students and postdoctoral fellows and an 800-space parking garage opened in late 2005. And a fourth building, designed by Rafael Viñoly and named the Helen Diller Family Cancer Research Building
Parkmerced, San Francisco
Parkmerced is a neighborhood in San Francisco, designed by architect Leonard Schultze and landscape architect Thomas Dolliver Church in the early 1940s. Parkmerced is the second-largest single-owner neighborhood of apartment blocks west of the Mississippi River after Park La Brea in Los Angeles and it was a planned neighborhood of high-rise apartment towers and low-rise garden apartments in southwestern San Francisco for middle-income tenants. It contains 3,221 residences and over 9,000 residents, the complex is located south of SFSU, west of 19th Avenue, and east of Lake Merced and the Harding Park Golf Club. The far western boundary of the neighborhood extends to Lake Merced Boulevard, the apartment towers were designed by Leonard Schultze and Associates, the post-War successor firm to Schultze and Weaver, in partnership with prominent landscape architect Thomas Dolliver Church. The development was built by the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company, after their success with the Parkchester development in New York City, development started in the 1939, but was slowed due to World War II.
The first tenants moved into the Font Boulevard buildings in early 1944, the development was completed in the early 1950s and was a first home to many military families returning from the Second World War and the Korean War. Parkmerced’s unusual pie-shaped blocks were designed by its architect, Leonard Schultze, Schultze worked closely with landscape architect Thomas Dolliver Church, who often collaborated with cutting-edge, Modern architects, to refine the plan for Parkmerced. Metlife owned and carefully maintained the property until the early 1970s, when it sold it to Leona Helmsley, there were a succession of owners and management companies beginning in the late 1990s. The commercial areas of the development were sold off to investors, as of 2008,116 of the original 150 acres are owned and maintained by a single investor, who purchased the property for $687 million and has committed $110 million in upgrades. During the early 2000s the property was marketed as The Villas Parkmerced, however, as of 2009, bus service through Parkmerced primarily is provided by the San Francisco Municipal Railway 57 Parkmerced route.
Additionally, the 18,28, 28R and 29 bus routes, as well as the Muni Metro M Ocean View light-rail line, operate along nearby 19th Avenue, Parkmerced is in the middle of reconstruction. Parkmerced recently acquired their own Saturday morning Farmers Market, which place on the western meadow of the neighborhood. Along with aesthetic changes being made to the spaces in the neighborhood, vacant garden. These include new stainless steel appliances, granite counter tops, laminate flooring. An emphasis by the development team is on the sustainability, plans calls for retail, grocery store, performance center, and the re-routing of the M Oceanview metro line into Parkmerced. The updated plan for Parkmerced is developed by Skidmore, the complex was the subject of significant controversy over the policies of a previous owner regarding rent control and deceptive pricing. Apartments were alleged to have offered at low prices because of a significant discount offered at lease signing. The complex was sued in a class action lawsuit that was settled out of court, the current owners Parkmerced Investors, LLC, were not sued over this issue
University of California, Berkeley
The University of California, Berkeley, is a public research university located in Berkeley, California. In 1960s, UC Berkeley was particularly noted for the Free Speech Movement as well as the Anti-Vietnam War Movement led by its students. S, Department of Energy, and is home to many world-renowned research institutes and organizations including Mathematical Sciences Research Institute and Space Sciences Laboratory. Faculty member J. R. Oppenheimer, the father of the atomic bomb, Lawrence Livermore Lab discovered or co-discovered six chemical elements. The Academic Ranking of World Universities ranks the University of California, third in the world overall, in 1866, the private College of California purchased the land comprising the current Berkeley campus. Ten faculty members and almost 40 students made up the new University of California when it opened in Oakland in 1869, billings was a trustee of the College of California and suggested that the college be named in honor of the Anglo-Irish philosopher George Berkeley.
In 1870, Henry Durant, the founder of the College of California, with the completion of North and South Halls in 1873, the university relocated to its Berkeley location with 167 male and 22 female students and held its first classes. In 1905, the University Farm was established near Sacramento, ultimately becoming the University of California, by the 1920s, the number of campus buildings had grown substantially, and included twenty structures designed by architect John Galen Howard. Robert Gordon Sproul served as president from 1930 to 1958, by 1942, the American Council on Education ranked UC Berkeley second only to Harvard University in the number of distinguished departments. During World War II, following Glenn Seaborgs then-secret discovery of plutonium, UC Berkeley physics professor J. Robert Oppenheimer was named scientific head of the Manhattan Project in 1942. Along with the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley is now a partner in managing two other labs, Los Alamos National Laboratory and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, military training was compulsory for male undergraduates, and Berkeley housed an armory for that purpose.
In 1917, Berkeleys ROTC program was established, and its School of Military Aeronautics trained future pilots, including Jimmy Doolittle, both Robert McNamara and Frederick C. Weyand graduated from UC Berkeleys ROTC program, earning B. A. degrees in 1937 and 1938, in 1926, future fleet admiral Chester W. Nimitz established the first Naval Reserve Officers Training Corps unit at Berkeley. The Board of Regents ended compulsory military training at Berkeley in 1962, during the McCarthy era in 1949, the Board of Regents adopted an anti-communist loyalty oath. A number of faculty members objected and were dismissed, ten years passed before they were reinstated with back pay, in 1952, the University of California became an entity separate from the Berkeley campus. Each campus was given autonomy and its own Chancellor. Then-president Sproul assumed presidency of the entire University of California system, Berkeley gained a reputation for student activism in the 1960s with the Free Speech Movement of 1964 and opposition to the Vietnam War.
In the highly publicized Peoples Park protest in 1969, students and the school conflicted over use of a plot of land, governor of California Ronald Reagan called the Berkeley campus a haven for communist sympathizers and sex deviants. Modern students at Berkeley are less active, with a greater percentage of moderates and conservatives
Lake Merced is a freshwater lake in the southwest corner of San Francisco, in the U. S. state of California. The San Francisco Police Department shooting range, as well as a shooting club. The lake is home of the Pacific Rowing Club and St. Ignatius College Prep Rowing Team, Lake Merced was originally christened Laguna de Nuestra Señora de la Merced by Captain Don Bruno de Heceta in 1775. The most probable cause of the shock was attributed to heavy rains forcing a passage through the sandbank at the north-west, the Lake is reported to have lost 30 feet of water. A map from 1881 shows that the Lake still had a passage to sea,29 years later, by purchasing all local supply, the company created a monopoly on San Franciscos water. It was not until 1908, when the city approved construction of OShaughnessy Dam creating the Hetch Hetchy Reservoir in the Sierra Nevada mountain range, that the city gained municipal control. Prior to the construction of the dam, Lake Merced was to serve as the main reservoir.
Around this time, Spring Valley sold off some of its land on Lake Merced, in 1940, Metropolitan Life bought the last of Spring Valleys land to build the Parkmerced apartment complex. Lake Merced at one time directly flowed into the ocean, the lake is fed by an underground spring, and at one time it did have an outlet to the ocean as shown on an 1869 United States Coast and Geodetic Survey Map. The salt level was always fluctuating, and therefore some species of fish inhabit the lake are salt. There is active recreational fishing at the lake, the lakes water level had been shrinking for decades, endangering the historic role of Lake Merced to support a healthy ecosystem. Due to better management of the aquifer and occasional additions of water, on September 13,1859, Chief Justice of the California Supreme Court David S. Terry killed United States Senator David C. Broderick in a duel at the lake
Mount Davidson (California)
Mount Davidson is the highest natural point in San Francisco, with an elevation of 928 feet. It is located near the center of the city, south of Twin Peaks and Portola Drive and to the west of Diamond Heights. It dominates the view from most of Portola Drive. It is one of San Franciscos many hills and one of its original Seven Hills, Mount Davidsons most notable feature, aside from its height, is the 103-foot concrete cross situated on the crest of the hill. It is the site of a prayer service, performed on Easter. Mount Davidson Park tops the hill – excluding the land at the summit, the parkland portion is located between Myra Way, Dalewood Way, and Juanita Way. Public transportation is provided by the 36 Teresita Muni line, which stops at the Dalewood Way, the residential neighborhoods around Mount Davidson Park are Miraloma Park to the east and Westwood Highlands and Sherwood Forest to the southwest. Adolph Sutro purchased the land in 1881, under his ownership, what was called Blue Mountain was renamed Mount Davidson, for George Davidson, a charter member of the Sierra Club.
Baldwin, bought land from Sutros heirs in 1911, along with much of the land immediately north and south of Mount Davidson. Baldwin began plans for development of Forest Hill, St. Francis Wood, Westwood Park, Balboa Terrace, the first temporary cross was 40 feet high, and erected in 1923 for a service led by Dean J. Wilmer Gresham of Grace Cathedral. A second 87-foot high cross was built in 1924 and burned down in 1925, in 1929 a 75-foot high wood and stucco cross with lighting was built. Arsonists burned down the cross in 1931. Sunrise services are held at the cross every Easter and were broadcast nationwide by CBS from the 1940s through the 1970s, director Don Siegel filmed a scene from the 1971 movie Dirty Harry at the cross. Harry enters the park from Lansdale Avenue, a close to the Muni bus stop. According to Warner Bros. literature, Siegel was pleased to discover the huge cross at Mount Davidson Park, the height of the cross and foggy weather made filming difficult. Every night for a month cinematographer Bruce Surtees would ride a crane to the top of the only to be hampered by foggy weather.
When the weather cleared the shot was made in one night. The cross itself has been the subject of debate among the residents of San Francisco as they have tried to weigh its religious role against its status as an historic landmark