Kingdom of Sicily
The Kingdom of Sicily was a state that existed in the south of the Italian peninsula and for a time the region of Ifriqiya from its founding by Roger II in 1130 until 1816. It was a successor state of the County of Sicily, founded in 1071 during the Norman conquest of the southern peninsula; the island was divided into three regions: Val Demone and Val di Noto. In 1282, a revolt against Angevin rule, known as the Sicilian Vespers, threw off Charles of Anjou's rule of the island of Sicily; the Angevins managed to maintain control in the mainland part of the kingdom, which became a separate entity styled Kingdom of Sicily, although it is referred to as the Kingdom of Naples, after its capital. The island became a separate kingdom under the Crown of Aragon. After 1302 the island kingdom was sometimes called the Kingdom of Trinacria; the kingship was vested in another monarch such as the King of Aragon, the King of Spain, or the Holy Roman Emperor. In 1816 the island Kingdom of Sicily merged with the Kingdom of Naples to form the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies.
In 1861 the Two Sicilies were amalgamated with Sardinia and several northern city-states and duchies to form the Kingdom of Italy. By the 11th century mainland southern Lombard and Byzantine powers were hiring Norman mercenaries, who were descendants of the Vikings. After taking Apulia and Calabria, Roger occupied Messina with an army of 700 knights. In 1068, Roger I of Sicily and his men defeated the Muslims at Misilmeri but the most crucial battle was the siege of Palermo, which led to Sicily being under Norman control by 1091; the Norman Kingdom was created on Christmas Day, 1130, by Roger II of Sicily, with the agreement of Pope Innocent II, who united the lands Roger had inherited from his father count Roger I of Sicily. These areas included the Maltese Archipelago, conquered from the Arabs of the Emirates of Sicily. Roger threw his support behind the Antipope Anacletus II, who enthroned him as King of Sicily on Christmas Day 1130. In 1136, the rival of Anacletus, Pope Innocent II, convinced Lothair III, Holy Roman Emperor to attack the Kingdom of Sicily with help from the Byzantine Emperor John II Comnenus.
Two main armies, one led by Lothair, the other by Duke of Bavaria Henry the Proud, invaded Sicily. On the river Tronto, William of Loritello surrendered to Lothair and opened the gates of Termoli to him; this was followed by Count Hugh II of Molise. The two armies were united from where in 1137 they continued their campaign. Roger offered to give Apulia as a fief to the Empire, which Lothair refused after being pressured by Innocent. At the same period the army of Lothair revolted. Lothair, who had hoped for the complete conquest of Sicily, gave Capua and Apulia from the Kingdom of Sicily to Roger's enemies. Innocent protested. Lothair turned north, but died while crossing the Alps on 4 December 1137. At the Second Council of the Lateran in April 1139, Innocent excommunicated Roger for maintaining a schismatic attitude. On 22 March 1139, at Galluccio, Roger's son Roger III, Duke of Apulia ambushed the papal troops with a thousand knights and captured the pope. On 25 March 1139 Innocent was forced to acknowledge the kingship and possessions of Roger with the Treaty of Mignano.
Roger spent most of the decade, beginning with his coronation and ending with the Assizes of Ariano, enacting a series of laws with which Roger intended to centralise the government, fending off multiple invasions and quelling rebellions by his premier vassals: Grimoald of Bari, Robert II of Capua, Ranulf of Alife, Sergius VII of Naples and others. It was through his admiral George of Antioch that Roger proceeded to conquer the littoral of Ifriqiya from the Zirids, taking the unofficial title "King of Africa" and marking the foundation of the Norman Kingdom of Africa. At the same time Roger's fleet attacked the Byzantine Empire, making Sicily a leading maritime power in the Mediterranean Sea for a century. Roger's son and successor was William I of Sicily, known as "William the Bad", though his nickname derived from his lack of popularity with the chroniclers, who supported the baronial revolts which William suppressed. In the mid-1150s, William lost the majority of his African possessions to a series of revolts from local North African lords.
In 1160, the final Norman African stronghold of Mahdia was taken by Almohads. His reign ended in peace, but with his elder son Roger killed in previous revolts, his son, William II, was a minor; until the end of the boy's regency in 1172, the kingdom saw turmoil which brought the ruling family down. The reign of William II is remembered as two decades of continual peace and prosperity. For this more than anything, he is nicknamed "the Good", he died in 1189 without having heirs. William II had named his aunt Constance, the daughter of Roger II who married future Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor his heiress; as the noblemen did not want to be ruled by a German, Tancred of Lecce seized the throne under their support, but he had to contend with the revolt of his distant cousin Roger of Andria, a former contender, the invasion of King Henry of Germany on behalf of his wife. Roger was tricked into execution and Henry had to retreat after
Principality of Antioch
The Principality of Antioch was one of the crusader states created during the First Crusade which included parts of modern-day Turkey and Syria. The principality was much smaller than the Kingdom of Jerusalem, it extended around the northeastern edge of the Mediterranean, bordering the County of Tripoli to the south, Edessa to the east, the Byzantine Empire or the Kingdom of Armenia to the northwest, depending on the date. It had 20,000 inhabitants in the 12th century, most of whom were Armenians and Greek Orthodox Christians, with a few Muslims outside the city itself. Most of the crusaders who settled there were of Norman origin, notably from the Norman Kingdom of southern Italy, as were the first rulers of the principality, who surrounded themselves with their own loyal subjects. Few of the inhabitants apart from the Crusaders were Roman Catholic though the city was set under the jurisdiction of the Latin Patriarchate of Antioch, established in 1100; this patriarchate would endure as a titular one after the Crusades, until it was dropped in 1964.
While Baldwin of Boulogne and Tancred headed east from Asia Minor to set up the County of Edessa, the main army of the First Crusade continued south to besiege Antioch. Bohemond of Taranto commanded the siege which commenced in October 1097. With over four hundred towers, the city's defenses were formidable; the siege lasted throughout the winter causing much attrition among the Crusader force, who were forced to eat their own horses, or, as legend has it, the bodies of their fellow Christians who had not survived. Bohemond convinced a guard in one of the towers, an Armenian and former Christian named Firouz, to let the Crusaders enter the city. Only four days a Muslim army from Mosul, led by Kerbogha, arrived to besiege the Crusaders themselves. Alexios I Komnenos, the Byzantine emperor, was on his way to assist the Crusaders; the Crusaders withstood the siege, with help from a mystic named Peter Bartholomew. Peter claimed he had been visited by St. Andrew, who told him that the Holy Lance, which pierced Christ's side as he was on the cross, was located in Antioch.
The cathedral of St. Peter was excavated, the Lance was discovered by Peter himself. Although Peter most planted it there himself, it helped raise the spirits of the Crusaders. With the newly discovered relic at the head of the army, Bohemond marched out to meet the besieging Muslim force, miraculously defeated — as according to the Crusaders, an army of saints had appeared to help them on the battlefield. There was a lengthy dispute over. Bohemond and the Italian Normans won, Bohemond named himself prince. Bohemond was Prince of Taranto in Italy, he desired to continue such independence in his new lordship. Meanwhile, an unknown epidemic spread throughout the Crusader camp. Following Bohemond's capture in battle with the Danishmends in 1100, his nephew Tancred became regent. Tancred expanded the borders of the Principality, seizing the cities of Tarsus and Latakia from the Byzantine Empire; however those newly captured cities along with other territory were lost after the Battle of Harran when Baldwin II of Edessa was captured.
Bohemond was released in 1103 and went to Italy to raise more troops in 1104, during which time Tancred remained regent of Antioch. Bohemond used the troops he raised to attack the Byzantines in 1107. Bohemond was defeated at Dyrrhachium in 1108 and was forced by Alexius I to sign the Treaty of Devol, making Antioch a vassal state of the Byzantine Empire upon Bohemond's death. Bohemond had promised to return any land, seized from the Muslims when the Crusaders passed through Constantinople in 1097. Bohemond fought at Aleppo with Baldwin and Joscelin of the County of Edessa. Bohemond left Tancred as regent once more and returned to Italy, where he died in 1111. Alexius wanted Tancred to return the Principality in its entirety to Byzantium, but Tancred was supported by the County of Tripoli and the Kingdom of Jerusalem. Tancred, in fact, had been the only Crusade leader who did not swear to return conquered land to Alexius. Tancred died in 1112 and was succeeded by Bohemond II, under the regency of Tancred's nephew Roger of Salerno, who defeated a Seljuk attack in 1113.
On June 27, 1119, Roger was killed at the Ager Sanguinis, Antioch became a vassal state of Jerusalem with King Baldwin II as regent until 1126. Bohemond II, who married Baldwin's daughter Alice, ruled for only four years, the Principality was inherited by his young daughter Constance. In 1136 Constance, still only 10 years old, married Raymond of Poitiers, 36. Raymond, like his predecessors, attacked the Byzantine province of Cilicia; this time, Emperor John II Komnenos fought back. He forced Raymond to swear fealty to him. There followed a joint campaign as John led the armies of Byzantium and Edessa against Muslim Syria. Aleppo proved too strong to attack, but the fortresses of Balat, Biza'a, Maarat al-Numan and Kafartab were taken b
Jèrriais is the form of the Norman language spoken in Jersey, one of the Channel Islands off the coast of France. It has been in decline over the past century as English has become the language of education and administration. There are few people who speak Jèrriais as a mother tongue and, owing to the age of the remaining speakers, their numbers decrease annually. Despite this, efforts are being made to keep the language alive. A similar language, Guernésiais, is spoken in neighbouring Guernsey; the language of Sark, Sercquiais, is a descendant of the Jèrriais brought by the Jersey colonists who settled Sark in the 16th century. Jèrriais is called "Jersey French" or "Jersey Norman French" in English and "jersiais" or "normand de Jersey" in French. Jèrriais is distinct from the Jersey Legal French used for legal contracts and official documents by the government and administration of Jersey. For this reason, some prefer using the term "Jersey Norman" to avoid ambiguity and to dissociate the language from standard French.
The latest figures come from the Jersey Annual Social Survey issued on 5 December 2012. The survey of 4200 households resulted in 2400 returns, it showed that 18% of the population could speak some Jèrriais words and phrases with more than 7% of those over 65 being fluent or able to speak a lot of Jèrriais. Two-thirds of adults said that they could not understand spoken Jèrriais, but more than a quarter are able to understand some, 5% can or understand someone speaking Jèrriais. 4 % of people said although under 1 % could write fluently. Just under a third said; these figures update those of the census which showed that 3% of the island's population speak Jèrriais in their personal interactions, although research suggests that up to 15% of the population have some understanding of the language. The latest census figures showed an increase in declarations of children speaking the language: the first such increase recorded in census figures, doubtless encouraged by the introduction of a Jèrriais teaching programme into Jersey schools.
The parish with the highest proportion of Jèrriais speakers is Saint Ouen, that with the lowest proportion is Saint Helier, although Saint Helier as the largest parish has the highest number of Jèrriais speakers. The number of census respondents who stated that they "usually" spoke Jèrriais was 113. A survey carried out among a sample of Jèrriais speakers in 1996 found that 18% spoke Jèrriais more than English, 66% spoke Jèrriais as as English, 16% spoke Jèrriais less than English; the States of Jersey fund the teaching programme in schools and provide some support in terms of signage, e.g. welcome signs at harbours and airport. Ratification of the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages is under discussion. In September 2005, the States approved the development of a cultural strategy, one of whose strategic objectives was as follows: Jersey lost its language in the 20th century. By 2001 there were less than 3,000 speakers of Jèrriais. In the 21st century strenuous efforts are being made to re-establish it.
Le Don Balleine, funded by the States, is leading a programme in schools teaching Jèrriais. L'Assembliée d'Jèrriais promotes the language generally. Language brings distinctiveness, a sense of localness and a whole new set of skills all of which are important qualities in attracting the creative economy, it is fundamental to the Island's identity. This objective is to work with these organisations to help in the revival and status of the language. In September 2009 a partnership agreement was signed by the Minister for Education and Culture and the President of Le Don Balleine to formalise the rôle of L'Office du Jèrriais in protecting and promoting Jèrriais and to develop a language plan to help make the language more prominent on a daily basis. Jèrriais is classified as a "Threatened" language by The Endangered Language Project,There is newspaper and radio output in the language. From 2010, Jersey banknotes carry the value of the note written out in Jèrriais. Jèrriais is recognised as a regional language by the British and Irish governments within the framework of the British-Irish Council.
As of February 13, 2019, the States of Jersey adopted Jèrriais as an official language and the language is set to be used on signage and official letter headings The literary tradition is traced back to Wace, the 12th-century Jersey-born poet, although there is little surviving literature in Jèrriais dating to before the introduction of the first printing press in Jersey in the 1780s. The first printed Jèrriais appears in the first newspapers at the end of the 18th century, the earliest identified dated example of printed poetry is a fragment by Matchi L'Gé dated 1795. A boom in competing newspapers and journals throughout the 19th century provided a platform for poets and writers to publish – satirical comment on the week's news, Jersey politicians and notables; the first printed anthology of Jèrriais poetry, Rimes Jersiaises, was published in 1865. Influential writers include "Laelius", "A. A. L. G.", "St.-Luorenchais". Elie was editor of
Normandy is one of the 18 regions of France referring to the historical Duchy of Normandy. Normandy is divided into five administrative departments: Calvados, Manche and Seine-Maritime, it covers 30,627 square kilometres, comprising 5% of the territory of metropolitan France. Its population of 3.37 million accounts for around 5% of the population of France. The inhabitants of Normandy are known as Normans, the region is the historic homeland of the Norman language; the historical region of Normandy comprised the present-day region of Normandy, as well as small areas now part of the departments of Mayenne and Sarthe. The Channel Islands are historically part of Normandy. Normandy's name comes from the settlement of the territory by Danish and Norwegian Vikings from the 9th century, confirmed by treaty in the 10th century between King Charles III of France and the Viking jarl Rollo. For a century and a half following the Norman conquest of England in 1066, Normandy and England were linked by Norman and Frankish rulers.
Archaeological finds, such as cave paintings, prove that humans were present in the region in prehistoric times. Celts invaded Normandy in successive waves from the 4th to the 3rd century BC; when Julius Caesar invaded Gaul, there were nine different Celtic tribes living in Normandy. The Romanisation of Normandy was achieved by the usual methods: Roman roads and a policy of urbanisation. Classicists have knowledge of many Gallo-Roman villas in Normandy. In the late 3rd century, barbarian raids devastated Normandy. Coastal settlements were raided by Saxon pirates. Christianity began to enter the area during this period. In 406, Germanic tribes began invading from the east; as early as 487, the area between the River Somme and the River Loire came under the control of the Frankish lord Clovis. Vikings started to raid the Seine valley during the middle of the 9th century; as early as 841, a Viking fleet appeared at the mouth of the Seine, the principal route by which they entered the kingdom. After attacking and destroying monasteries, including one at Jumièges, they took advantage of the power vacuum created by the disintegration of Charlemagne's empire to take northern France.
The fiefdom of Normandy was created for Rollo. Rollo had besieged Paris but in 911 entered vassalage to the king of the West Franks, Charles the Simple, through the Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte. In exchange for his homage and fealty, Rollo gained the territory which he and his Viking allies had conquered; the name "Normandy" reflects Rollo's Viking origins. To this day, in Norwegian language the word nordmann denotes a Norwegian person; the descendants of Rollo and his followers adopted the local Gallo-Romance language and intermarried with the area's native Gallo-Roman inhabitants. They became the Normans – a Norman-speaking mixture of Norsemen and indigenous Franks and Romans. Rollo's descendant William became king of England in 1066 after defeating Harold Godwinson, the last of the Anglo-Saxon kings, at the Battle of Hastings, while retaining the fiefdom of Normandy for himself and his descendants. Besides the conquest of England and the subsequent subjugation of Wales and Ireland, the Normans expanded into other areas.
Norman families, such as that of Tancred of Hauteville, Rainulf Drengot and Guimond de Moulins played important parts in the conquest of southern Italy and the Crusades. The Drengot lineage, de Hauteville's sons William Iron Arm and Humphrey, Robert Guiscard and Roger the Great Count progressively claimed territories in southern Italy until founding the Kingdom of Sicily in 1130, they carved out a place for themselves and their descendants in the Crusader states of Asia Minor and the Holy Land. The 14th-century explorer Jean de Béthencourt established a kingdom in the Canary Islands in 1404, he received the title King of the Canary Islands from Pope Innocent VII but recognized Henry III of Castile as his overlord, who had provided him aid during the conquest. In 1204, during the reign of John Lackland, mainland Normandy was taken from England by France under King Philip II. Insular Normandy remained however under English control. In 1259, Henry III of England recognized the legality of French possession of mainland Normandy under the Treaty of Paris.
His successors, however fought to regain control of their ancient fiefdom. The Charte aux Normands granted by Louis X of France in 1315 – like the analogous Magna Carta granted in England in the aftermath of 1204 – guaranteed the liberties and privileges of the province of Normandy. French Normandy was occupied by English forces during the Hundred Years' War in 1345–1360 and again in 1415–1450. Normandy lost three-quarters of its population during the war. Afterward prosperity returned to Normandy until the Wars of Religion; when many Norman towns joined the Protestant Reformation, battles ensued throughout the province. In the Channel Islands, a period of Calvinism following the Reformation was suppressed when Anglicanism was imposed following the English Civil War. Samuel de Champlain founded Acadia. Four years
Guernésiais known as Dgèrnésiais, Guernsey French, Guernsey Norman French, is the variety of the Norman language spoken in Guernsey. It is sometimes known on the island as "patois"; as one of the langues d'oïl, it has its roots in Latin, but has had strong influence from both Old Norse and English at different points in its history. There is mutual intelligibility with Jèrriais speakers from Jersey and Continental Norman speakers from Normandy. Guernésiais most resembles the Norman dialect of Cotentinais spoken at la Hague in the Cotentin Peninsula. Guernésiais has been influenced less by Standard French than Jèrriais, but conversely has been influenced to a greater extent by English. New words have been imported for modern phenomena: e.g. "le bike" or "le gas-cooker". There is a rich tradition of poetry in the Guernsey language. Guernsey songs were inspired by the sea, by colourful figures of speech, by traditional folk-lore, as well as by the natural environment of the island; the island's greatest poet was George Métivier, a contemporary of Victor Hugo, who influenced and inspired local poets to print and publish their traditional poetry.
Métivier blended local place-names and animal names, traditional sayings and orally transmitted fragments of medieval poetry to create his Rimes Guernesiaises. Denys Corbet was considered the "Last Poet" of Guernsey French and published many poems in his day in his native tongue in the island newspaper and privately. Wrote Métivier, Que l'lingo seit bouan ou mauvais / J'pâlron coum'nou pâlait autefais; the most recent dictionary of Guernésiais, Dictiounnaire Angllais-guernesiais. Société guernesiaise. 1967. was written by Marie de Garis. In 1999, de Garis was appointed to the Order of the British Empire for her work; the 2001 census showed that 1327 or 2% of the population speak the language fluently while 3% understand the language. However most of these, 70% or 934 of the 1327 fluent speakers, are over 64 years old. Among the young only 0.1% or one in a thousand are fluent speakers. However, 14% of the population claim some understanding of the language. L'Assembllaïe d'Guernesiais, an association for speakers of the language founded in 1957, has published a periodical.
Les Ravigoteurs, another association, has published a cassette for children. Forest School hosts an annual speaking contest of the island's primary school children; the annual Eisteddfod provides an opportunity for performances in the language, radio and newspaper outlets furnish regular media output. There is some teaching of the language in voluntary classes in schools in Guernsey. Evening classes are available, as of 2013. Lunchtime classes are offered at the Guernsey Museum, as of 2013. Along with Jèrriais, Scottish Gaelic, Welsh and Scots, Guernésiais is recognised as a regional language by the British and Irish governments within the framework of the British–Irish Council. BBC Radio Guernsey and the Guernsey Press both feature occasional lessons, the latter with sometimes misleading phonetics. A Guernésiais language development officer was appointed. There is little broadcasting in the language, with ITV Channel Television more or less ignoring the language, only the occasional short feature on BBC Radio Guernsey for learners.
The creation of a Guernsey Language Commission was announced on 7 February 2013 as an initiative by government to preserve the linguistic culture. The Commission has operated since Liberation Day, 9 May 2013. Guernsey poet George Métivier – nicknamed the Guernsey Burns, was the first to produce a dictionary of the Norman language in the Channel Islands, the Dictionnaire Franco-Normand; this established the first standard orthography – modified and modernised. Among his poetical works are Rimes Guernesiaises published in 1831. Prince Louis Lucien Bonaparte published the Gospel of Matthew by George Métivier in Dgèrnésiais in London in 1863 as part of his philological research. Like Métivier, Tam Lenfestey published poetry in book form. Denys Corbet described himself as the Draïn Rimeux. Corbet is best known for his poems the epic L'Touar de Guernesy, a picaresque tour of the parishes of Guernsey; as editor of the French-language newspaper Le Bailliage, he wrote feuilletons in Dgèrnésiais under the pen name Badlagoule.
In 2009 the island held a special exhibition in the Forest Parish on Corbet and his work acknowledging the centenary of his death and unveiling a contemporary portrait painting of the artist by Christian Corbet a cousin to Denys Corbet. Thomas Martin translated into Guernésiais the Bible, the plays of William Shakespeare, twelve plays by Pierre Corneille, three plays by Thomas Corneille, twenty seven plays by Molière, twenty plays by Voltaire and The Spanish Student by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow. Thomas Henry Mahy wrote Dires et Pensées du Courtil Poussin, a regular column in La Gazette Officielle de Guernesey, from 1916. A collection was published in booklet form in 1922, he was still publishing occasional pieces of prose by the start of the 1930s. Thomas Alfred Grut published Des lures guernesiaises in 1927, once again a collection of newspaper columns, he translated some of the Jèrriais stories of Philippe Le Sueur Mourant into Dgèrnésiais. Marjorie Ozanne wrote stories, published in the Guernsey Evening Press between 1949 and 1965.
Some earlier pieces
Herm is one of the Channel Islands and part of the Parish of St Peter Port in the Bailiwick of Guernsey. It is located in north-west of France and south of England, it is 1.5 miles long and under 0.5 miles wide. The much larger island of Guernsey lies to the west and Jersey to the south-east, the smaller island of Jethou is just off the south-west coast. Herm was first discovered in the Mesolithic period, the first settlers arrived in the Neolithic and Bronze Ages. Many tombs from that period remain the majority in the north of the island; the island was annexed to the Duchy of Normandy in 933, but returned to the English Crown with the division of Normandy in 1204. It was occupied by Germany in the Second World War and the scene of Operation Huckaback, but was bypassed. Herm is managed by Herm Island Ltd, formed by Starboard Settlement, who acquired Herm in 2008, following fears during the sale of the island that the'identity' of the island was at threat. Herm's harbour is on its west coast. There are several buildings of note in the vicinity including the White House, St Tugual's Chapel, Fisherman's Cottage, "The Mermaid" pub and restaurant, a small primary school with about eight children.
During a busy summer season, up to 100,000 tourists visit the island, arriving by one of the catamaran ferries operated by the Trident Charter Company. Cars are banned from the island. Herm was first found in the Mesolithic period. In the Neolithic and Bronze ages, settlers arrived. After a three-year project by the University of Durham, supported by specialists from the University of Cambridge, the University of Oxford, the Guernsey museum, they stated that the "density of tombs suggests that the northern end of Herm may have been a place set apart for funerary activity"; the first records of Herm's inhabitants in historic times are from the 6th century, when the island became a centre of monastic activity. In 709, a storm washed away the strip of land. An important moment in Herm's political history was in 933, when the Channel Islands were annexed to the Duchy of Normandy, they remained so until the division of Normandy in 1204, when they became a Crown Dependency. In 1111 Brother Claude Panton was a hermit in "Erm" and in 1117 the hermit, Brother Francis Franche Montague is recorded as living on "Erm".
After the annexation, Herm lost its monastic inhabitants, between 1570 and 1737 the governors of Guernsey used it as a hunting ground. In 1810, an inn was founded. Most were quarrymen working in new granite quarries. Several quarries can still be seen at present, such as on the Common; when the Prince and Princess Blücher leased the island from the British government during the First World War, he introduced a colony of Red-necked wallabies to the island, around 60-70 in number. They increased up to the First World War, after which they decreased in numbers, the remaining few were re-captured and put in enclosures. Compton Mackenzie, an English born Scottish novelist, acquired the tenancy in 1920, he recalled. It has been suggested that Mackenzie was the basis for the character Mr Cathcart in D. H. Lawrence's The Man who Loved Islands, about a man who moved to smaller islands much as Mackenzie moved from Herm to the smaller Jethou, but Lawrence himself denied it; the German occupation of the Channel Islands during the Second World War by-passed Herm.
The island was claimed on 20 July 1940 by the Third Reich, a few weeks after the arrival of German troops in Guernsey and Jersey, German soldiers landed on the island to shoot a propaganda film, The Invasion of the Isle of Wight. Herm's sandy beaches were soon used for practising landings from barges, in preparation for the invasion of England, but otherwise the island saw little of the Germans beyond officers making trips to shoot rabbits. Herm had only a little German construction during the war. German soldiers would travel to Herm to cut wood for fuel. Operation Huckaback was a British Second World War military operation, designed to be a raid on Herm and Brecqhou, but instead became only a raid on Herm undertaken on the night of 27 February 1943, following an earlier attempt, aborted. Ten men of the Small Scale Raiding Force and No. 4 Commando under Captain Patrick Anthony Porteous landed 200 yards to the north-west of Selle Rocque on a shingle beach and made several unsuccessful attempts to climb the cliff in front of them.
Porteous managed to climb up the bed of a stream and pulled the others up with a rope. They reported that they had found no sign of any Islanders or Germans (who were supposed to be billeted near the h
Jersey the Bailiwick of Jersey, is a Crown dependency located near the coast of Normandy, France. It is the second closest of the Channel Islands to France, after Alderney. Jersey was part of the Duchy of Normandy, whose dukes went on to become kings of England from 1066. After Normandy was lost by the kings of England in the 13th century, the ducal title surrendered to France and the other Channel Islands remained attached to the English crown; the bailiwick consists of the island of Jersey, the largest of the Channel Islands, along with surrounding uninhabited islands and rocks collectively named Les Dirouilles, Les Écréhous, Les Minquiers, Les Pierres de Lecq, other reefs. Although the bailiwicks of Jersey and Guernsey are referred to collectively as the Channel Islands, the "Channel Islands" are not a constitutional or political unit. Jersey has a separate relationship to the Crown from the other Crown dependencies of Guernsey and the Isle of Man, although all are held by the monarch of the United Kingdom.
Jersey is a self-governing parliamentary democracy under a constitutional monarchy, with its own financial and judicial systems, the power of self-determination. The Lieutenant Governor on the island is the personal representative of the Queen. Jersey is not part of the United Kingdom, has an international identity separate from that of the UK, but the UK is constitutionally responsible for the defence of Jersey; the definition of United Kingdom in the British Nationality Act 1981 is interpreted as including the UK and the Islands together. The European Commission have confirmed in a written reply to the European Parliament in 2003 that Jersey is within the Union as a European Territory for whose external relationships the UK is responsible. Jersey is not part of the European Union but has a special relationship with it, notably being treated as within the European Community for the purposes of free trade in goods. British cultural influence on the island is evident in its use of English as the main language and the British pound as its primary currency if some people still speak the Norman language.
Additional cultural commonalities include driving on the left, access to the BBC and ITV regions, a school curriculum following that of England, the popularity of British sports, including cricket. The Channel Islands are mentioned in the Antonine Itinerary as the following: Sarnia, Barsa and Andium, but Jersey cannot be identified because none corresponds directly to the present names; the name Caesarea has been used as the Latin name for Jersey since William Camden's Britannia, is used in titles of associations and institutions today. The Latin name Caesarea was applied to the colony of New Jersey as Nova Caesarea. Andium and Augia were used in antiquity. Scholars variously surmise that Jersey and Jèrri derive from jarð or jarl, or a personal name, Geirr; the ending -ey denotes an island. Jersey history is influenced by its strategic location between the northern coast of France and the southern coast of England. La Cotte de St Brelade is a Palaeolithic site inhabited before rising sea levels transformed Jersey into an island.
Jersey was a centre of Neolithic activity. Evidence of Bronze Age and early Iron Age settlements can be found in many locations around the island. Additional archaeological evidence of Roman influence has been found, in particular at Les Landes, the coastal headland site at Le Pinacle, where remains of a primitive structure are attributed to Gallo-Roman temple worship. Jersey was part of Neustria with the same Gallo-Frankish population as the continental mainland. Jersey, the whole Channel Islands and the Cotentin peninsula came under the control of the duke of Brittany during the Viking invasions, because the king of the Franks was unable to defend them, however they remained in the archbishopric of Rouen. Jersey was invaded by Vikings in the 9th century. In 933 it was annexed to the future Duchy of Normandy, together with the other Channel Islands and Avranchin, by William Longsword, count of Rouen and it became one of the Norman Islands; when William's descendant, William the Conqueror, conquered England in 1066, the Duchy of Normandy and the kingdom of England were governed under one monarch.
The Dukes of Normandy owned considerable estates in the island, Norman families living on their estates established many of the historical Norman-French Jersey family names. King John lost all his territories in mainland Normandy in 1204 to King Philip II Augustus, but retained possession of Jersey and the other Channel Islands. In the Treaty of Paris, the English king formally surrendered his claim to the duchy of Normandy and ducal title, since the islands have been internally self-governing territories of the English crown and latterly the British crown. On 7 October 1406, 1,000 French men at arms led by Pero Niño invaded Jersey, landing at St Aubin's Bay and defeated the 3,000 defenders but failed to capture the island. In the late 16th century, islanders travelled across the North Atlantic to participate in the Newfoundland fisheries. In recognition for help given to him during his exile in Jersey in the 1640s, King Charles II of England gave Vice Admiral Sir George Carteret and governor, a large grant of land in the American colonies in between the Hudson and Delaware rivers, which he promptly named New Jersey.
It is now a state in the Unit