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Norn language

Norn is an extinct North Germanic language, spoken in the Northern Isles off the north coast of mainland Scotland and in Caithness in the far north of the Scottish mainland. After Orkney and Shetland were pledged to Scotland by Norway in 1468–69, it was replaced by Scots. Norn is thought to have become extinct in 1850, after the death of Walter Sutherland, the language's last known speaker. Norse settlement in the islands began in the early 9th century; these settlers are believed to have arrived in substantial numbers and like those who migrated to Iceland and the Faroe Islands it is probable that most came from the west coast of Norway. Shetland toponymy bears some resemblance to that of northwest Norway, while Norn vocabulary implies links with more southerly Norwegian regions. Orkney and Shetland were pledged to James III in 1468 and 1469 and it is with these pledges that the replacement of Norn with Scots is most associated. However, the decline of Norse speech in Orkney began in 1379 when the earldom passed into the hands of the Sinclairs, Scots had superseded Norse as the language of prestige on the island by the early 15th century.

In Shetland the transition began but by the end of the 15th century both island groups were bilingual. Despite this, the process by which Scots overtook Norn as the primary spoken language on the islands was not a swift one, most natives of Orkney and Shetland spoke Norn as a first language until the late 16th and early-to-mid 17th centuries respectively, it is not known when Norn became extinct. Sources from the 17th and 18th centuries speak of Norn as being in a state of decline and indicate that the language remained stronger in Shetland than in Orkney. A source from 1670 states that there are "only three or four parishes" in Orkney where people speak "Noords or rude Danish" and that they do so "chiefly when they are at their own houses". Another from 1701 indicates that there were still a few monoglot "Norse" speakers who were capable of speaking "no other thing," and notes that there were more speakers of the language in Shetland than in Orkney, it was said in 1703 that the people of Shetland spoke a Lowland Scots dialect brought to Shetland from the end of the fifteenth century by settlers from Fife and Lothian, but that "many among them retain the ancient Danish Language".

The last reports of Norn speakers are claimed to be from the 19th century, with some claims of a limited use up until the early 20th century, but it is more that the language was dying out in the late 18th century. The isolated islands of Foula and Unst are variously claimed as the last refuges of the language in Shetland, where there were people "who could repeat sentences in Norn" passages from folk songs or poems, as late as 1893. Walter Sutherland from Skaw in Unst, who died about 1850, has been cited as the last native speaker of the Norn language. However, fragments of vocabulary survived the death of the main language and remain to this day in place-names and terms referring to plants, weather and fishing vocabulary. Norn had been a spoken language in Caithness but had become extinct there by the 15th century, replaced by Scots. Hence, some scholars speak about "Caithness Norn", but others avoid this. Less is known about "Caithness Norn" than about Orkney and Shetland Norn. No written Norn has survived, but what little remains includes a version of the Lord's Prayer and a ballad, "Hildina".

Michael P Barnes, professor of Scandinavian Studies at University College London, has published a study, The Norn Language of Orkney and Shetland. Norn is an Indo-European language belonging to the North Germanic branch of the Germanic languages. Together with Faroese and Norwegian, it belongs to the West Scandinavian group, separating it from the East Scandinavian group consisting of Swedish and Gutnish. While this classification is based on the differences between the North Germanic languages at the time they split, their present-day characteristics justify another classification, dividing them into Insular Scandinavian and Mainland Scandinavian language groups based on mutual intelligibility. Under this system, Norwegian is grouped together with Danish and Swedish because the last millennium has seen all three undergo important changes in grammar and lexis, which have set them apart from Faroese and Icelandic. Norn is considered to have been similar to Faroese, sharing many phonological and grammatical traits, might have been mutually intelligible with it.

Thus, it can be considered an Insular Scandinavian language. Few written texts remain, it is distinct from the present-day dialect of Shetland, Shetland Scots, which evolved from Middle English. The phonology of Norn can never be determined with much precision because of the lack of source material, but the general aspects can be extrapolated from the few written sources that exist. Norn shared many traits with the dialects of southwest Norway; that includes a voicing of /p, t, k/ to after vowels and a conversion of /θ/ and /ð/ to and respectively. Norn grammar had features similar to the other Scandinavian languages. There were three genders and four cases; the two main conjugations of verbs in present and past tense were present. Like all other North Germanic languages, it

Jakey Hollow Natural Area

The Jakey Hollow Natural Area is a natural area in Jakey Hollow in Columbia County, Pennsylvania, in the United States. The natural area has an area of 59 acres. A hiking trail known as the Ward Crawford Trail is in the area and hunting is permitted there. Part of the natural area is old-growth forest; some logging was done in portions of Jakey Hollow. The area was purchased by his brother in the 1950s, they sold it to the Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources in 1990. The Jakey Hollow Natural Area is located in Hemlock Township, Madison Township, Mount Pleasant Township, in Columbia County, Pennsylvania. A small portion of Jakey Hollow is in the northeastern corner of Hemlock Township and the southeastern corner of Madison Township; the vast majority of the hollow is in Mount Pleasant Township, where the entirety of the natural area is located. With an area of 59 acres, the natural area is one of the smallest natural areas in Pennsylvania; the Jakey Hollow Natural Area is located on a small tributary of Little Fishing Creek.

It is 5 miles north of Bloomsburg. A glen is located in the natural area; the area is accessed via Crawford Road. Two cornfields lie next to the Jakey Hollow Natural Area and the area in the vicinity of it is being developed; some of the woods surrounding the natural area is owned. Some timber is cut in these woods. Additionally, a stone quarry is found near the natural area, it is possible that in the future, it could become surrounded by developed land housing developments. Runoff from nearby agricultural lands is found in the natural area; the Jakey Hollow Natural Area is considered to be a Northern Conifer Forest Natural Community. Half of the natural area is old-growth forest; the main tree species in the natural area are second-growth eastern hemlock, a small amount of virgin hemlock, hardwood trees. Additionally, numerous other tree species inhabit the area. There are three oak species: chestnut oak, red oak, white oak. Other tree species include American beech, black birch, black cherry, white pine, white ash.

The white pine population in the natural area consists of dozens of individuals, some of which more than 100 feet high. There is a layer of herbs and shrubs in the Jakey Hollow Natural Area. Three species of ferns inhabit the area, as do plants such as Virginia creeper, Indian cucumber, skunk cabbage, others. Clubmosses inhabit the area in the summer. A number of bird species inhabit the Jakey Hollow Natural Area; these include the cedar waxwing, the ovenbird, the barred owl, several species of thrushes and warblers, others. A large population of bluejays lives in Jakey Hollow. A number of invasive species inhabit the Jakey Hollow Natural Area, including garlic mustard. Large populations of deer over-browse in the area. A pest known as the hemlock wooly adelgid is found there as well; the Jakey Hollow Natural Area was part of a larger forest that covered the region. The hardwood trees in the natural area are 200 years old. Timbering was done in the hollow and former logging grades are still present.

In the 1950s, Ward Crawford and his brother purchased the land that the Jakey Hollow Natural Area is on and protected it. The Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources purchased the land from Ward Crawford in 1990, it remains a protected area. In the 1990s, the natural area was part of the Wyoming State Forest. Hunting is permitted in the Jakey Hollow Natural Area; the trail system of the natural area is not well-established. However, there is an unblazed trail known as the Ward Crawford Trail; this trail starts at the parking lot for the natural area and climbs down into Jakey Hollow, where it crosses the stream at the bottom of the hollow and climbs up the other side, reaching a field. There are footpaths that run parallel to the stream; the paths in the natural area were created by previous visitors. The Ward Crawford Trail takes one hour to complete; the elevation change is 100 feet. Jeff Mitchell describes the trail as easy in his book Hiking the Endless Mountains: Exploring the Wilderness of Northeastern Pennsylvania.

Weiser State Forest Map of natural areas in Pennsylvania

Marian Salzman

Marian Salzman is an American advertising and public relations executive. She is Senior Vice President, Global Communications for Philip Morris International, a tobacco company, she was CEO of Havas PR North America and chaired the Global Collective, the organizing collaborative of all of the PR assets of Havas. She rejoined Euro RSCG in August 2009, having worked for the holding company as executive vice president, chief strategic officer, from January 2001 to October 2004, she is a graduate of Brown University. Salzman’s early career was marked by the development of new research methodologies, from slumber parties for tweenagers, a project for Levi Strauss & Co. in 1991, to the creation of Cyberdialogue in 1992, to leverage instant messaging and AOL chat rooms for social research. According to Adweek magazine, she was the first advertising professional to use online focus groups. 1992: Co-founded Cyberdialogue, the world’s first online market research company, with partners Jay Chiat and Tom Cohen 1993–1995: Director of consumer insights and emerging media at Chiat\Day 1995–1997: Worldwide director of TBWA’s Department of the Future 1997–2000: President, Intelligence Factory, Young & Rubicam 2001–2004: Executive vice president and chief strategy officer at Euro RSCG Worldwide 2005–March 2008: Executive vice president and chief marketing officer at JWT Worldwide March 2008–August 2009: Partner and chief marketing officer at Porter Novelli 2009–present: President CEO of Euro RSCG Worldwide PR North America, now called Havas PR.

The New York Times published a Sunday feature, “Metrosexuals Come Out,” which quoted Salzman regarding meterosexuals. In 2003 the UK Observer apologized for incorrectly attributing the first use of the term to Salzman, gave credit to Mark Simpson for the term. In 2007, she talked about how “sleep is the new sex” for The Economist’s annual predictions and stated that lowering home values would drive consumers away from recreational shopping and toward a “less is more” mind-set. In 2015 she signed an open letter, she relocated to Switzerland for the job with Philip Morris. She is married to Jim Diamond and lived in Stamford, Connecticut. Mariansalzman.com www.us.havaspr.com mariansalzman.wordpress.com www.adweek.com/aw/content_display/news/agency/e3i224997d33ab2d0148fc49a5a9418f090/ www.americanwaymag.com/marian-salzman-new-york-city-jwt-worldwide-salzman-protégé www.guardian.co.uk/media/2007/jan/08/mondaymediasection3 www.guardian.co.uk/books/2003/jun/29/society www.independent.co.uk/life-style/interview-marian-salzman--the-future-is-in-her-head-1044688.html http://www.guardian.co.uk/technology/2007/dec/18/science.business "Marian Salzman: PRWeek Hall of Femme 2017".

Retrieved 2018-09-26

Follett v. Town of McCormick

Follett v. Town of McCormick, 321 U. S. 573, was a case in which the Supreme Court of the United States held that people who earn their living by selling or distributing religious materials should not be required to pay the same licensing fees and taxes as those who sell or distribute non-religious materials. Follett was convicted of violating an ordinance of the town of McCormick, South Carolina which provided:'... the following license on business and professions to be paid by the person or persons carrying on or engaged in such business, occupation or professions within the corporate limits of the Town of McCormick, South Carolina: Agents selling books, per day $1.00, per year $15.00.' Follett was a Jehovah's Witness and had been certified by the Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society as'an ordained minister of Jehovah God to preach the gospel of God's kingdom under Christ Jesus.' He is a resident of McCormick, South Carolina, where he went from house to house distributing certain books. He obtained his living from the money received.

He claimed that he offered the books for a'contribution'. But there was evidence that he'offered to and did sell the books', he refused to obtain one. At his trial, Follett moved for a directed verdict of not guilty at the close of the evidence, claiming that the ordinance restricted freedom of worship in violation of the First Amendment which the Fourteenth Amendment makes applicable to the States; the motion was overruled and appellant was found guilty by the jury in the Mayor's Court. That judgment was affirmed by the Circuit Court of General Sessions for McCormick County and by the Supreme Court of South Carolina; the Supreme Court of South Carolina recognized the principles established in Jones v. Opelika and Murdock v. Pennsylvania but had asserted that this case was different from the Murdock and Opelika decisions, it pointed out that Follett was not an itinerant, but was a resident of the town where the canvassing took place, that the principle of the Murdock decision was applicable only to itinerant preachers.

It stated, that appellant earned his living "by the sale of books," that his "occupation was that of selling books, not that of colporteur," that "the sales proven were more commercial than religious." It concluded that the "license was required for the selling of books, not for the spreading of religion." Justice Douglas delivered the opinion of the Court. The decision held that the municipal ordinance was violative of the freedom of worship guaranteed by the First and Fourteenth Amendments when applied to an evangelist or preacher who distributed religious tracts in his hometown and who made his livelihood from such activity. In his concurring opinion, Justice Frank Murphy addressed concerns, raised by the dissenting justices that the majority decision would " the door to exemption of wealthy religious institutions, like Trinity Church in New York City, from the payment of taxes on property investments from which support is derived for religious activities." Murphy rebutted these arguments by stating that "here is an obvious difference between taxing commercial property and investments undertaken for profit, whatever use is made of the income, laying a tax directly on an activity, religious in purpose and character or on an exercise of the privilege of free speech and free publication."

Works related to Follett v. Town of McCormick at Wikisource Text of Follett v. Town of McCormick, 321 U. S. 573 is available from: CourtListener Findlaw Google Scholar Justia Library of Congress

National Register of Historic Places listings in Matagorda County, Texas

This is a list of the National Register of Historic Places listings in Matagorda County, Texas. This is intended to be a complete list of properties and districts listed on the National Register of Historic Places in Matagorda County, Texas. There are ten individual properties listed on the National Register in the county. Nine individually listed properties are designated Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks while one district contains additional Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks; this National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted February 28, 2020. The locations of National Register properties and districts may be seen in a mapping service provided. National Register of Historic Places listings in Texas Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks in Matagorda County Media related to National Register of Historic Places in Matagorda County, Texas at Wikimedia Commons

Otago Rebels

The Otago Rebels was a New Zealand netball team which represented Otago in the National Bank Cup. Otago Rebels were the first team to win the inaugural Coca-Cola Cup. In 2008, the Rebels were merged with Southern Sting to compete as the Southern Steel in the trans-tasman ANZ Championship. Former players of note for the franchise include Anna Stanley, Victoria Edward, Belinda Colling, Adine Wilson, Stephanie Bond and Anna Harrison. Dana Bond Hannah Broederlow - Now With Central Pulse Danielle Calnan Emily Close Phillipa Duncan - Now With Canterbury Tactix Demelza Fellowes - Now With Megan Graamans Katrina Grant - Now With Central Pulse Frances Jackways Anna Molineaux Camille O’Connor Lizzie Sandom Jodi Te Huna - Now With Southern Steel Anna Thompson - Now With Canterbury Tactix Jessica Tuki - Now With Waikato Bay of Plenty Magic Debbie White - Now With Northern Mystics Coach: Janine Southby 2007- 6th 2006- 7th 2005- 5th 2004- 6th 2003- 4th 2002- 5th 2001- 8th 2000- 5th 1999- 2nd 1998- 1st http://www.netballnz.co.nz/default.aspx?s=nbank_team_rebels