click links in text for more info


The Norns in Norse mythology are female beings who rule the destiny of gods and men. They correspond to other controllers of humans' destiny, such as the Fates, elsewhere in European mythology. In Snorri Sturluson's interpretation of the Völuspá, Urðr, Verðandi and Skuld, the three most important of the Norns, come out from a hall standing at the Well of Urðr or Well of Fate, they draw water from the well and take sand that lies around it, which they pour over the Yggdrasill tree so that its branches will not rot. These three Norns are described as powerful maiden giantesses whose arrival from Jötunheimr ended the golden age of the gods, they may be the same as the maidens of Mögþrasir. Beside these three famous Norns, there are many others who appear at a person's birth in order to determine his or her future. In the pre-Christian Norse societies, Norns were thought to have visited newborn children. There were both malevolent and benevolent Norns: the former caused all the malevolent and tragic events in the world while the latter were kind and protective goddesses.

The origin of the name norn is uncertain, it may derive from a word meaning "to twine" and which would refer to their twining the thread of fate. Bek-Pedersen suggests that the word norn has relation to the Swedish dialect word norna, a verb that means "secretly communicate"; this relates to the perception of norns as shadowy, background figures who only ever reveal their fateful secrets to men as their fates come to pass. The name Urðr means "fate". Wyrd and urðr are etymological cognates, which does not guarantee that wyrd and urðr share the same semantic quality of "fate" over time. Both Urðr and Verðandi are derived from the Old Norse verb verða, "to be", it is asserted that while Urðr derives from the past tense, Verðandi derives from the present tense of verða. Skuld is derived from the Old Norse verb skulu, "need/ought to be/shall be". Due to this, it has been inferred that the three norns are in some way connected with the past and future but it has been disputed that their names imply a temporal distinction and it has been emphasised that the words do not in themselves denote chronological periods in Old Norse.

There is no clear distinction between norns, fylgjas and valkyries, nor with the generic term dísir. Moreover, artistic license permitted such terms to be used for mortal women in Old Norse poetry. To quote Snorri Sturluson's Skáldskaparmál on the various names used for women: Woman is metaphorically called by the names of the Asynjur or the Valkyrs or Norns or women of supernatural kind; these unclear distinctions among norns and other Germanic female deities are discussed in Bek-Pedersen's book Norns in Old Norse Mythology. There are a number of surviving Old Norse sources; the most important sources are the Poetic Edda. The latter contains pagan poetry where the norns are referred to, while the former contains, in addition to pagan poetry, retellings and commentaries by the 12th and 13th century Icelandic chieftain and scholar Snorri Sturluson. A skaldic reference to the norns appears in Hvini's poem in Ynglingatal 24 found in Ynglingasaga 47, where King Halfdan is put to rest by his men at Borró.

This reference brings in the phrase "norna dómr" which means "judgment of the nornir". In most cases, when the norns pass judgment, it means death to those who have been judged - in this case, Halfdan. Along with being associated with being bringers of death, Bek-Pedersen suggests that this phrase brings in a quasi-legal aspect to the nature of the norns; this legal association is employed quite within skaldic and eddic sources. This phrase can be seen as a threat, as death is the final and inevitable decision that the norns can make with regard to human life; the Poetic Edda is valuable in representing older material in poetry from which Snorri tapped information in the Prose Edda. Like Gylfaginning, the Poetic Edda mentions the existence of many lesser norns beside the three main norns. Moreover, it agrees with Gylfaginning by telling that they were of several races and that the dwarven norns were the daughters of Dvalin, it suggests that the three main norns were giantesses. Fáfnismál contains a discussion between the hero Sigurd and the dragon Fafnir, dying from a mortal wound from Sigurd.

The hero asks Fafnir of many things, among them the nature of the norns. Fafnir explains that they are many and from several races: It appears from Völuspá and Vafþrúðnismál that the three main norns were not goddesses but giants, that their arrival ended the early days of bliss for the gods, but that they come for the good of humankind. Völuspá relates that three giants of huge might are reported to have arrived to the gods from Jotunheim: Vafþrúðnismál refers to the norns when it talks of maiden giants who arrive to protect the people of earth as protective spirits: The Völuspá contains the names of the three main Norns referring to them as maidens like Vafþrúðnismál does: The norns visited each newly born child to allot his or her future, in Helgakviða Hundingsbana I, the hero Helgi Hundingsbane has just been born and norns arrive at the homestead: In Helgakviða Hundingsbana II, Helgi Hundingsbane blames the norns for the fact that he had to kill Sigrún's father Högni and brother Bragi in order to wed her: Like Snorri Sturluson stated in Gylfaginning, people's fate depended on the benevolence or the malevolence of particu

Thierry Beschefer

Thierry Beschefer, sometimes given as "Theodore", was a Jesuit missionary and became the superior of the Canadian mission. Thierry Beschefer was born at Châlons-sur-marne, 25 May 1630, he entered the Society of Jesus at Nancy, 24 May 1647, studied philosophy and theology at Pont-à-Mousson, taught humanities and rhetoric for seven years at various colleges in France. He was ordained in 1661, he returned to Pont-à-Mousson to teach rhetoric, classics at Metz. He made his profession as a Jesuit in August 1664; the following year, Beschefer went to Canada. Upon his arrival at Quebec, the Jesuit superiors set him to learn the Huron language, he remained in three years. In July 1666, he was part of a delegation sent by governor Alexandre de Prouville de Tracy to the English at New York, but a sudden outbreak of Indian hostilities compelled them to turn back. In 1670–71, however, he was sent to assist Father Jean Pierron at a mission among the Mohawks; this assignment proved challenging due to the influence of the Dutch and English traders at Albany, who supplied the tribe with liquor.

In 1672, Beschefer returned to Quebec. He became superior of the Canadian missions in 1680, retaining that office until 1686, when he became prefect the College of Quebec. In 1689 he returned to France. In 1691 he had to forego the voyage because of ill health. During his stay in Canada he was spiritual director of the Ursulines at Quebec, their annals describe him as "a man of distinguished merit, a director of great wisdom and experience." He died at 4 February 1711 at the age of eighty. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "Theodore Beschefer". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton. Biography at the Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online

Another Public Enemy

Another Public Enemy is a 2005 South Korean film and the sequel to Public Enemy. The film was the 6th most popular film of 2005. Kang Chul-joong, a prosecutor for the Seoul District attorney's office, is a unique one, he prefers going directly to the crime scene to reading files, his intuition and guts to logic and reason, using weapons of force to sitting back watching his men get stabbed by criminals. And now, once again, his gets one of his gut feelings about a particular case, wastes no time in getting involved in the Myung-sun Foundation case, during which he opening declares war on Han Sang-woo, the Public Enemy. Sol Kyung-gu - Kang Chul-joong Jung Joon-ho - Han Sang-woo Kang Shin-il - Kim Shin-il Park Sang-wook - Kang Suk-shin Park Geun-hyung - Vice President Choi Jung-woo - Representative Kim Uhm Tae-woong - Song Jung-hoon 2005 Grand Bell AwardsNomination - Best Actor - Sol Kyung-gu Nomination - Best Supporting Actor - Kang Shin-il Nomination - Best Original Screenplay - Kim Hee-jae Another Public Enemy on IMDb List of Korean language films Cinema of Korea Contemporary culture of South Korea List of Korea-related topics

Bug a Boo

"Bug a Boo" is a song by American girl group Destiny's Child. It was written by band members Beyoncé Knowles, LeToya Luckett, LaTavia Roberson and Kelly Rowland along with Kandi Burruss and Kevin "She'kspere" Briggs for their second album The Writing's on the Wall, featuring production by the latter; the song uses interpolations of the 1978 song "Child's Anthem" by Toto. The song was released as the album's second single on August 23, 1999, it peaked at number thirty-three on the Billboard Hot 100. Outside the United States, the song peaked within the top ten of the charts in the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. "Bug a Boo" debuted at number 87 on the Billboard Hot 100 on September 25, 1999 and ascended to number 33 before descending down the charts. Following the huge success of "Bills, Bills", "Bug a Boo" was a disappointment in its sales and airplay, it performed better on the R&B charts reaching number 15, but remains one of two Destiny's Child singles not to reach the top 10 on this chart.

The song spent twenty weeks on the Hot 100. At the start of the Refugee Camp Remix version, the opening lyrics refer to the band doing "it right the second time"; the single made it to number 26 on the Australian ARIA Singles Chart. In the Netherlands the song peaked at number 6 on the Mega Single Top 100, it remained in the charts for 15 weeks and it had a lot of airplay on the radio stations. Despite not being a big chart hit, the song's music video was popular receiving lots of airplay from both MTV and BET music networks, it was Destiny's Child first to chart on the popular TRL Top 10 countdown and the last music video to feature former members LaTavia Roberson and LeToya Luckett. The video was directed by Darren Grant in July 1999. In the video the group are walking down a shopping boulevard. Four men driving a red car who seem to be trying to attract their attention approach them but the girls of Destiny's Child don't seem interested as the men are "bugging" them. In another shot the girls trying to escape the men accidentally run into a men’s locker room where they see basketball star Kobe Bryant getting ready for a game.

In the next shot the group are wearing cheerleader outfits doing a routine cheer with Wyclef Jean as bandleader. The marching band in the video were actual members of the UCLA Marching Band. Wyclef Jean is seen wearing the UCLA Drum Major uniform; the final shot shows the group back on the boulevard and fed up with hiding from the unwanted attention from the men in the car they give in and jump in the car and all drive off. In the remix version of the video all the sequences are the same except in the shot where Wyclef is seen as the band leader; the remix starts to play as the band, the cheerleaders, the players start to dance. The next shot shows the girls at a party salsa dancing with male partners; the video finishes with the group back on the boulevard and fed up with hiding from the unwanted attention from the men in the car they give in and jump in the car and all drive off. The original music video is featured on the video compilation The Platinum's on the Wall, whereas the video for the "Refugee Camp Remix" was never released to any disc, but could be found on YouTube in low quality.

Beyoncé's gold two piece outfit from the shoot is on display at the Hard Rock Cafe restaurant in San Francisco, California. US Maxi-CD "Bug a Boo" – 3:31 "Bug a Boo" 1 – 4:02 "Bug a Boo" 2 – 8:08 "Bug a Boo" 2 – 7:14US promo 12" vinyl Side A "Bug a Boo" 2 – 8:08 "Bug a Boo" 1 – 4:02Side B "Bug a Boo" 2 – 7:14 "Bug a Boo" – 3:31 "Bug a Boo" 2 – 5:58UK promo single "Bug a Boo" – 3:31UK Maxi-CD Part 1 CA 668188 2 "Bug a Boo" – 3:31 "So Good" – 3:14 "Bills, Bills" – 4:16 "Bills, Bills" UK Maxi-CD Part 2 CA 668188 5 "Bug a Boo" – 3:31 "Bug a Boo" 1 – 4:02 "Bug a Boo" 2 – 6:59 includes a poster European Maxi-CD COL 667779 5 "Bug a Boo" – 3:31 "Bug a Boo" 2 – 8:08 "Bug a Boo" 2 – 7:14 "Bug a Boo" – 3:55European 2-track single German promo SAMPCS 1510 "Bug a Boo" – 3:31 "Bug a Boo" 1 – 4:02Australian Maxi-CD "Bug a Boo" – 3:31 "Bug a Boo" 2 – 8:09 "Bug a Boo" 2 – 7:14 "Bug a Boo" – 3:13Notes 1 The "Refugee Camp Remix" is a re-recorded hip-hop version of the single. 2 The "Maurice" Remixes contain additional re-recorded vocals by Beyoncé, arranged by Maurice Joshua.

Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics

Aleksey Vysotsky

Aleksej Vladimirovich Vysotsky was a Soviet Union journalist and author, as well as a hero of World War II who attained the rank of Colonel. Alexey Vysotsky was born in Kiev into an educated Jewish family, his father was Volf Shliomovich Vysotsky immortalized as "Velvl" in a song by his nephew Vladimir Vysotsky), from a family of glass blowers. Volf had studied in a commercial school in Lublin from where he moved in 1911 to live in Kiev and study at the Kiev branch of the Odessa commercial institute contemporarily with the Soviet journalist and short story writer Isaac Babel studied with the faculty of law of Kiev University. During Lenin's New Economic Policy he organised a workshop for manufacture of theatrical make-up and a law office. Alexey Vysotsky's mother, Dora Ovseevna Vysotsky died 1970 in Kiev, she was the birth daughter of a deceased teacher at the state Jewish school, finished her coursework to qualify as a physician's assistant and worked as a pharmacist, subsequently as a cosmetician.

In 1926 the family relocated to Moscow. During his school days Vysotsky was friends with Gulya Korolova and Alyosha Pyatakov, his memoirs were included under the pseudonym L. J. Prajs in Elena Ilina's book "Fourth Height". In 1939 Vysotsky studied at the Podolsk artillery school, he was called to active duty in the Red Army that same year as the commander of an artillery platoon of 165th Howitzer Artillery Regiment, which took part in operations of the Soviet-Finnish Winter War. In 1941, after completing school he participated in the German-Soviet War; as a part of 18th Guards Artillery Regiment he participated in defense of Odessa and Sevastopol, as well as military operations on Don River and in the North Caucasus. He was ordered to join the artillery battery of 265th Artillery Regiment of 3rd Ukrainian Front. In the autumn of 1943 he was promoted to Lieutenant Colonel, serving first as Chief of Staff of 124th Howitzer Artillery Brigade of the 20th Heavy Artillery Division reserves at General headquarters and with the 6th Artillery Division of the Reserve Supreme Main Command on the 1st Belorussian Front.

He participated in the liberation of Ukraine and Poland from German forces, as well as the final capture of Berlin. He appeared several times in war reports from the front, as printed in the newspaper Krasnaya Zvezda, he was awarded the Order of the Red Banner three times for extraordinary accomplishments of military valor during combat operations, including for the defense of Odessa in 1941 and the defense of Sevastopol in 1942. After the termination of the German-Soviet War military operations, he remained on active service in Germany. In 1949 he was posted to serve as commanding officer of the Haisyn operations section in Ukraine. In 1951 he was posted to Ukraine where he studied philology at Uzhhorod State University. In 1956 he relocated to Moscow at the Lomonosov Moscow State University, where he finished a degree in journalism, he was demobilized in 1959 with the rank of colonel. Alexey Vysotsky was the author of four books on military subjects, including the collection of stories "И пусть наступит утро" about his military commander and Hero of the Soviet Union, artilleryman N. Bogdanova's actions during the defense of Odessa and Sevastopol.

In 1962 Alexey Vysotsky produced the first professional-quality tape recording of his nephew, Vladimir Vysotsky, at the House of Technology of the Ministry of River Fleets of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic where he worked. Vladimir Vysotsky's work from that period had not received official recognition and thus he had no contract for recording from Melodiya, the monopolist of the Soviet recording industry, so his work was unsanctioned. With this recording and the advent of portable tape-recorders in the Soviet Union, his music became available to the masses in the form of home-made reel-to-reel audio tape recordings. Together they produced the breakthrough record "For uncle", his son, Alexander Vysotsky, was a journalist and held a doctorate of philological sciences, as well as being international class in men's eight competitive rowing, winning a silver prize at the World Cup of 1970 in St. Ketrinse, Canada, his daughter, Irena A. Vysotskaya, is author, his paternal uncle Leon Solomonovich Vysotsky, was a prominent Kiev chemical engineer and inventor, founding the Kiev factory «Himefir».

His half brother on the maternal side was the well-known music administrator and the poet-songwriter Paul L. Leonidov, his nephew Vladimir Vysotsky was a poet, singer, as well as a theater and film actor. Vladimir's wife was the French actress Marina Vlady. H


Willand is a village and civil parish within the Local Government district of Mid Devon, England. It is 2.4 km north of Cullompton. In 1991 the population was 3750 although this has grown considerably; the National Grid reference for the centre of the area is ST037110. Willand is a major part of Lower Culm electoral ward; the ward population at the 2011 Census was 5,808. The parish is surrounded, clockwise from the north, by the parishes of Halberton and Cullompton. Willand has had a settlement since the Iron Age but is first recorded in 1042 as having "belonged to Ethmar", it formed part of the Halberton Hundred. There is one pub, The Halfway House, a country manor, situated next to Diggerland, called the Verbeer Manor, it has Willand School, that has around 300 pupils. From Willand, pupils go to Cullompton Community College, Uffculme School, or to other secondary schools in the area. Willand has a football club, Willand Rovers F. C. who play at The Stan Robinson Stadium on Silver Street. Willand has a Village Hall where a number of social activities take place such as Short Mat Bowls and Coffee Mornings.

Alongside the Village Hall is Willand Tennis Club. The Bristol to Exeter railway line was completed in 1844 and a station, called Tiverton Road, was opened in Willand to serve the nearby town of Tiverton. Both branch lines had closed by 1975, the station closed in 1986 when Tiverton Parkway was opened; the M5 motorway bypasses the village. Adjacent to the railway line there is a large poultry processing factory, part of the 2 Sisters Food Group, which purchased it from Lloyd Maunder in 2008. A survey carried out in 2015–17 found that the location was subject to an annual uplift of 2 cm, the cause of, unknown. Media related to Willand at Wikimedia Commons