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Norodom Sihanouk

Norodom Sihanouk was head of state of Cambodia numerous times. In Cambodia, he is known as Samdech Euv. During his lifetime Cambodia was variously called the French Protectorate of Cambodia, the Kingdom of Cambodia, the Khmer Republic, Democratic Kampuchea, the People's Republic of Kampuchea, again the Kingdom of Cambodia. Sihanouk became king of Cambodia in 1941 upon the death of King Monivong. After the Japanese occupation of Cambodia during the Second World War, he secured Cambodian independence from France, he was succeeded by his father, Suramarit. Sihanouk's political organization Sangkum won the general elections that year and he became prime minister of Cambodia, he governed it under one-party rule, suppressed political dissent, declared himself Head of State in 1960. Neutral in foreign relations, in practice he was closer to the communist bloc; the Cambodian coup of 1970 ousted him and he fled to China and North Korea, there forming a government-in-exile and resistance movement. He encouraged Cambodians to fight the new government and backed the Khmer Rouge during the Cambodian Civil War.

He returned as figurehead head of state after the Khmer Rouge's victory in 1975. His relations with the new government declined and in 1976 he resigned, he was placed under house arrest until Vietnamese forces overthrew the Khmer Rouge in 1979. Sihanouk went into exile again and in 1981 formed FUNCINPEC, a resistance party; the following year, he became president of the Coalition Government of Democratic Kampuchea, a broad coalition of anti-Vietnamese resistance factions which retained Cambodia's seat at the United Nations, making him Cambodia's internationally recognized head of state. In the late 1980s, informal talks were carried out to end hostilities between the Vietnam-supported People's Republic of Kampuchea and the CGDK. In 1990, the Supreme National Council of Cambodia was formed as a transitional body to oversee Cambodia's sovereign matters, with Sihanouk as its president; the 1991 Paris Peace Accords were signed and the United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia was established the following year.

The UNTAC organized the 1993 Cambodian general elections, a coalition government, jointly led by his son Norodom Ranariddh and Hun Sen, was subsequently formed. He was reinstated as Cambodia's king, he abdicated again in 2004 and the Royal Council of the Throne chose his son, Sihamoni, as his successor. Sihanouk died in Beijing in 2012. Between 1941 and 2006, Sihanouk directed 50 films, some of which he acted in; the films described as being of low quality featured nationalistic elements, as did a number of the songs he wrote. Some of his songs were about his wife Queen Monique, the nations neighboring Cambodia, the communist leaders who supported him in his exile. In the 1980s Sihanouk held concerts for diplomats in New York City, he participated in concerts at his palace during his second reign. Norodom Sihanouk was the only child born of the union between Norodom Suramarit and Sisowath Kossamak, his parents, who heeded the Royal Court Astrologer's advice that he risked dying at a young age if he was raised under parental care, placed him under the care of Kossamak's grandmother, Pat.

When Pat died, Kossamak brought Sihanouk to live with Norodom Sutharot. Sutharot delegated parenting responsibilities to Norodom Ket Kanyamom. Sihanouk received his primary education at the François Baudoin school and Nuon Moniram school in Phnom Penh. During this time, he received financial support from his maternal grandfather, Sisowath Monivong, to head an amateur performance troupe and soccer team. In 1936, Sihanouk was sent to Saigon, where he pursued his secondary education at Lycée Chasseloup Laubat, a boarding school; when the reigning king Monivong died on 23 April 1941 the Governor-General of French Indochina, Jean Decoux, chose Sihanouk to succeed him. Sihanouk's appointment as king was formalised the following day by the Cambodian Crown Council, his coronation ceremony took place on 3 May 1941. During the Japanese occupation of Cambodia, he dedicated most of his time to sports and the occasional tour to the countryside. In March 1945 the Japanese military, which had occupied Cambodia since August 1941, dissolved the nominal French colonial administration.

Under pressure from the Japanese, Sihanouk proclaimed Cambodia's independence and assumed the position of prime minister while serving as king at the same time. As prime minister, Sihanouk revoked a decree issued by the last resident superior of Cambodia, Georges Gautier, to romanise the Khmer alphabet. Following the Surrender of Japan in August 1945, nationalist forces loyal to Son Ngoc Thanh launched a coup, which led to Thanh becoming prime minister; when the French returned to Cambodia in October 1945, Thanh was dismissed and replaced by Sihanouk's uncle Sisowath Monireth. Monireth negotiated for greater autonomy in managing Cambodia's internal affairs. A modus vivendi signed in January 1946 granted Cambodia autonomy within the French Union. A joint French-Cambodian commission was set up after that to draft Cambodia's constitution, in April 1946 Sihanouk introduced clauses which provided for an elected parliament on the basis of universal male suffrage as well as press freedom; the first constitution was signed into effect by Sihanouk in May 1947.

Around this time, Sihanouk made two trips to Saumur, where he attended military training at the Armoured Cavalry Branch Training School in 1946, again in 1948. He was made a reserve captain in the French army. In early 1949, Sihanouk traveled to Paris wi


Huizúcar is a municipality in the city of La Libertad in El Salvador. The town of Huizúcar is the head of the Huizúcar district in the city of La Libertad; this town is 23 kilometers away from San Salvador and has an elevation of 640 meters above sea level. The patron saint of the town is Saint Michael the Archangel; the Church of Huizúcar is a colonial style church, built in 1740. Although the builder remains unknown, many believe that the plan of the church was designed by Friar Martín de Jesús; the Church features notable architectural characteristics including the Mudejar style present in the beams and ceilings. It is built from wood, with a skeleton of roofs and large beams resting on thick wooden pillars with bases of molded brick; the facade is composed of a single body, presents a triangular forehead on the roof, covered with molded figures. The facade features a niche with the image of Saint Michael the Archangel, made of masonry and embedded in the wall, its interior is of three simple naves separated by 18 columns.

The walls are 1.4 meters thick, are made of adobes, which are bricks made from clay. The presbytery rectangular and its cover is a dome of coffered Mudejar type. An arch with vegetation design separates the presbytery from the ship; the altarpieces are carved in wood, they conserve vestiges of bread of gold of their Baroque style. It has images, pictorial works, altars in Baroque style; the last time the church was remodeled was in 1974. When the restoration began, the building was in a state of advanced deterioration, it was noticed that its structures and covers had been damaged by humidity and other causes. The wooden structures of the roof, were semi-destroyed; the walls contained long and deep cracks, which had widened as a result of water leakage and tremors. The main facade was obstructed by a constructed piazza and a tower; the tower, placed on the left corner buttress, was destroyed because it had been lifted to serve as a steeple. The primary purpose of the restoration was to liberate the original construction from the piazza and the steeple, which lacked historical value.

Most components of the ceiling, like props, feathers and others were replaced, the coffers of Mudejar style were armed again. The walls were repaired, stuffing the cracks and holes, as well as the buttresses, three of which were reconstructed totally. All the walls were whitened with lime; the foundation of the village came long before the colony. Its autochthonous name means: "Place on the way of the thorns." In the report of Monsignor Pedro Cortez and Larraz of the year 1770, Huizúcar was a small town annex to the rectory of San Jacinto, where 200 families lived. There is data of San Salvador Mayor, Don Manuel de Gálvez Corral that says that in 1740, it had 220 tributary-Indians or heads of household; the Patron Festivity takes place on September 29 in honor of San Miguel Archangel

Summit Series

The Summit Series, or Super Series, known at the time as the Canada–USSR Series, was an eight-game series of ice hockey between the Soviet Union and Canada, held in September 1972. It was the first competition between the Soviet national team and a Canadian team represented by professional players of the National Hockey League, known as Team Canada, it was the first international ice hockey competition for Canada after Canada had withdrawn from international ice hockey competitions in a dispute with the International Ice Hockey Federation. The series was organized with the intention to create a true best-on-best competition in the sport of ice hockey; the Soviets had become the dominant team in international competitions, which disallowed the professional players of Canada. Canada had had a long history of dominance of the sport prior to the Soviets' rise; the first four games of the series were held in the final four in Moscow. The Soviet Union surprised the Canadian team and most of the Canadian hockey media with an opening game victory, 7–3.

Many Canadian sportswriters had predicted an overwhelming victory for Canada in the series. Canada won the next game 4–1; the series resumed two weeks in Moscow. The Soviets won game five to take a three games to one series lead; the Canadians won the final three games in Moscow to win the series four games to three, with one tie. The final game was won in dramatic fashion, with the Canadians overcoming a two-goal Soviet lead after two periods; the Canadians scored three in the third, the final one, scored with 34 seconds left by Paul Henderson. The series was played during the Cold War, intense feelings of nationalism were aroused in fans in both Canada and the Soviet Union and players on the ice; the games introduced several talented Soviet players to North America, such as Hockey Hall of Fame inductees Alexander Yakushev, Valeri Kharlamov and goaltender Vladislav Tretiak. Team Canada, the first NHL and professional all-star team formed for international play, was led by Phil Esposito, who led the series in scoring, as well as contributing in other roles.

The Canadian line of Bobby Clarke, Ron Ellis and Henderson, not expected to start for the team, as none were yet stars, played a large role in the Canadian win with Henderson scoring the game-winning goal in each of games six through eight. The series was filled with controversy, starting with the exclusion of top Canadian player Bobby Hull because he had signed a contract to play in the new World Hockey Association, disputes over officiating, dirty play on the part of both teams, the deliberate injury of Kharlamov by Clarke in game six. Hull had been the second leading goal-scorer in the NHL the previous season, with a knee injury forcing superstar defenceman Bobby Orr, the second leading point scorer in the league the previous season, to sit out, Canada was arguably playing without two of its best three players. From the beginning of the IIHF Ice Hockey World Championships in 1920, Canada would send a senior amateur club team the previous year's Allan Cup champion, to compete as the Canadian entry.

These teams were university players, or unpaid players playing ice hockey while being employed in some other profession full-time. From the 1920s until the 1950s, Canadian amateur club teams won most of the World Championship and Olympic titles; as a career, Canadian players would play instead in the various professional hockey leagues, the best reaching the NHL. Their professional status made them ineligible to play in the World Championships or Olympics under the rules of the time; the last Canadian amateur club to win the world championship was the Trail Smoke Eaters in the 1961 championship. In the earliest days of the Soviet Union, bandy or "Russian hockey" was played, not "Canadian hockey", the Soviets did not compete in the Olympics or World Championships, which played the Canadian game. Post-World War II, a goal of the Central Committee of the Soviet Union was world supremacy in sport; the decision was made to transfer resources to the Canadian game. Starting in the 1940s, the Soviet Union started a Soviet hockey league playing the Canadian game.

The elite sports societies of the Soviet Union, such as CSKA Moscow and Spartak, soon became the elite teams of the hockey league and supplied the players for the national team. Ostensibly amateurs, paid by the government; the players had other titular professions. This preserved a player's amateur status for Olympic and World Championship eligibility and the players would have a career after their hockey playing days ended. Entering international play in 1954, the Soviet national team under the tutelage of Anatoly Tarasov started to dominate the international competitions, won nine consecutive championships in the 1960s. Canada, in response, developed a national team of its own, but Canada's best players became professionals and the national team featured university players. The Canadian team was looked upon as a failure. By 1969, the Government of Canada had formed Hockey Canada, an organization to co-ordinate Canadian international play with its amateur organizations and the NHL. In July 1969, on a trial basis, the inclusion of nine professional players for any event for one

HMS Alarm (1910)

HMS Alarm was a Acorn-class destroyer of the British Royal Navy. She was built by John Brown and Company at their Clydebank shipyard, being built between 1910 and 1911, completing in March 1911. Alarm had oil-fuelled steam turbine machinery, designed to give a speed of 27 knots. Armament consisted of two 12-pounder guns and two 21-inch torpedo tubes. Alarm served through the First World War, both in the North Sea as part of the Grand Fleet and in the Mediterranean Sea, she was sold for scrap in 1921. The British Admiralty ordered 20 Acorn-class destroyers as part of the 1909–1910 shipbuilding programme for the Royal Navy. Three of the class, Alarm and Brisk, were to be built by the Clydebank shipbuilder John Brown and Company. Alarm was laid down on 7 February 1910 and launched on 28 August 1910. Alarm reached a speed of 27.2 kn during sea trials and was completed in March 1911. Alarm was 240 ft 0 in long between perpendiculars and 246 ft 0 in overall, with a beam of 25 ft 3 in and a draught of between 7 ft 4 1⁄2 in and 8 ft 10 in depending on load.

Displacement was 760 long tons 855 long tons full load. The ship's machinery consisted of four Yarrow boilers feeding steam to Parsons steam turbines which drove three propeller shafts; the machinery was rated at 13,500 shaft horsepower giving a design speed of 27 knots. The ship enlisted. Gun armament consisted of two 4-inch BL Mk VIII guns, one on the ship's forecastle and one aft, two 12-pounder QF 12 cwt guns carried in the waist position between the first two funnels. Torpedo armament consisted with two reload torpedoes carried; the torpedo tubes were aft of the funnels, mounted singly with a searchlight position between them. By 1918, a 3-pounder anti aircraft gun was fitted, depth charges were carried. On commissioning, Alarm joined the 2nd Destroyer Flotilla of the Royal Navy's Home Fleet, was joined by her sister ships as they commissioned, she was one of seven destroyers that suffered problems when steaming at full speed off the coast of Ireland during the 1911 Naval Manoeuvres, with serious leaks of water through hull rivets into the ships' oil tanks, requiring that they put into Portland Harbour for repairs.

On 26 January 1912, Alarm was one of seven destroyers and one torpedo boat, ordered to be fitted with anti-submarine sweeps. These were explosive charges; when the cable caught on a submerged submarine, the explosive charge would be drawn down the cable onto the submarine. Alarm was still part of the 2nd Flotilla in August 1914, on the eve of the outbreak of the First World War. On the outbreak of the First World War, the 2nd Destroyer Flotilla, including Alarm joined the newly established Grand Fleet at Scapa Flow. On 16 October 1914, four destroyers of the 2nd Flotilla, Nymphe and Alarm were patrolling at the eastern end of the Pentland Firth between the Orkneys and mainland Scotland. At about 1:15 pm that day, Nymphe spotted a periscope, it was the German submarine U-9. U-9 launched a torpedo which narrowly missed both Nymphe and Alarm, while Nymphe attempted to ram the submarine, U-9 escaped; the 2nd Flotilla remained at Scapa Flow until March 1916, but by April the flotilla, including Alarm, had moved to Devonport naval base in Plymouth.

On 13 November 1916, Alarm was ordered to rendezvous with the transport Idaho, bound for Portland from New York with a load of explosives, but fog delayed Alarm's departure from Devonport, so that Idaho was unescorted when the German submarine U-49 attacked. Idaho's crew abandoned ship, but the destroyer Tigress had heard Idaho's SOS radio signals, arrived in time to drive off U-49 and save Idaho. On 22 March 1917, Tigress were employed in escorting the battleship Duncan. On 24 March 1917, Alarm picked up 11 survivors from the merchant ship Achille Adam, sunk the previous day by the submarine UB-39 when bound for Newhaven from Saint-Valery-sur-Somme. In July 1917, the 2nd Flotilla, including Alarm, moved to Buncrana in the North of Ireland. By December 1917, Alarm had moved to the Mediterranean Fleet. On the night of 22/23 April 1918, Alarm was one of six destroyers patrolling in the Otranto Straits to protect the drifters of the Otranto Barrage from attack by Austro-Hungarian naval forces. Alarm and the French destroyer Cimeterre patrolled the Eastern side of the straits, with Comet and the Australian destroyer Torrens on station at the centre of the straits and Jackal and Hornet at the Western side of the straits, with the three groups of destroyers separate by 10 mi.

At about 21:10 hr, five unknown ships were spotted by Hornet. In response, the unknown ships, which were the Austro-Hungarian destroyers Triglav, Dukla and Csepel, opened fire. Both Hornet and Jackal were damaged in the exchange of fire, but the Austro-Hungarian ships abandoned their raid as the alarm had been raised. Alarm, Cimeterre and Torrens responded to the gunfire, joining up with Jackal chased after the Austro-Hungarian ships, but broke off the pursuit as they approached the enemy coast, owing to the risk from mines. Alarm was still a member of the 5th Destroyer Flotilla at the end of the war on 11 November 1918. Following the end of the war, pre-war destroyers like the Acorns were laid up into reserve. Alarm was laid up at Portsmouth by March 1919, she was sold on 9 May 1921 to Ward for scrapping at their Cornwall yard. Dittmar, F. J

Woonsocket, Rhode Island

Woonsocket, is a city in Providence County, Rhode Island, United States. The population was 41,186 at the 2010 census. Woonsocket lies directly south of the Massachusetts state line and constitutes part of both the Providence metropolitan area and the larger Greater Boston Combined Statistical Area; the city is the corporate headquarters of a pharmacy services provider. It is home to Landmark Medical Center, the Museum of Work and Culture and the American-French Genealogical Society. Before the arrival of European settlers in northern Rhode Island during the 17th century, today's Woonsocket region was inhabited by three Native American tribes—the Nipmucs and Narragansetts. In 1661, the English theologian Roger Williams purchased the area from the "Coweset and Nipmucks", in a letter referred to modern day Woonsocket as "Niswosakit". Other possible derivations to the name include several Nipmuc geographic names from nearby Massachusetts; these include Woonksechocksett, from Worcester County meaning "fox country", Wannashowatuckqut from Worcester County, meaning "at the fork of the river".

Another theory states Woonsocket derives from "thunder mist", in reference to the largest waterfall on the Blackstone River, which lies at the center of the city. Yet another theory proposes that the city was named after Woonsocket Hill in neighboring North Smithfield. Woonsocket Falls Village was founded in the 1820s, its fortunes expanded. With the Blackstone River providing ample water power, the region became a prime location for textile mills. In 1831 Edward Harris built his first textile mill in Woonsocket. Woonsocket as a town was not established until 1867 when three villages in the town of Cumberland, namely Woonsocket Falls and Jenckesville became the town of Woonsocket. In 1871, three additional industrial villages from SmithfieldHamlet and Globe, were added to the town establishing its present boundaries. Woonsocket was incorporated as city in 1888. With the growth of industries came a new influx of immigrants, predominantly Québecois and French-Canadians from other provinces; when the Société Saint-Jean-Baptiste d'Holyoke organized a national cultural and benefit society in 1899, the Union Saint-Jean-Baptiste d’Amérique, with its proximity to several industrial areas having large French-Canadian demographics, was chosen for the organization's headquarters.

By 1913, a survey by the American Association of Foreign Language Newspapers found the city had to have the 6th largest population of French or French-Canadian foreign nationals in the country. In the decades that followed this population grew, by time the local textile industry shuttered during the Great Depression the demographic comprised 75 percent of the population. French-language newspapers were sold; as as 1980, 70% of Woonsocket's population was of French-Canadian descent, though the New England French they had once spoken had declined and vanished from the public dialogue. Throughout the 20th century the city's fortunes flowed with the national trends. During the Great Depression the textile economy of Woonsocket came to an effective standstill however it would revived during World War II, when the city became a major center of fabric manufacturing for the war effort. In the postwar years, the Woonsocket economy diversified as manufacturing declined and other commercial sectors like retail and financial services took hold.

However, in the early 1980s Woonsocket was again plagued by high unemployment rates. Beginning in 1979, Woonsocket became home to Autumnfest, an annual cultural festival that takes place on Columbus Day Weekend, at World War II Veteran's Memorial State Park, it has become one of the city's most popular events. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 8.0 square miles, of which 7.7 square miles is land and 0.3 square miles is water. Woonsocket is drained by the Blackstone River. Adjacent communities include Blackstone and Bellingham, along with Cumberland and North Smithfield, Rhode Island. Woonsocket has a strong humid continental climate with four distinct seasons. Being influenced by both the sea and the interior during winter, diurnal temperature variation is high, with days most being above freezing before severe frosts hit at night. At the 2010 census Woonsocket had a population of 41,186; the population was 71.3% non-Hispanic white, 14.2% Hispanic or Latino, 6.4% African American, 5.4% Asian, 0.4% Native American and 4.3% reporting two or more races.

At the census of 2000, there were 43,224 people, 17,750 households, 10,774 families residing in the city. The population density was 5,608.8 people per square mile. There were 18,757 housing units at an average density of 2,433.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 83.14% White, 4.44% African American, 0.32% Native American, 4.06% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 4.86% from other races, 3.14% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 9.32% of the population. Woonsocket is a part of the Providence metropolitan area, which has an estimated population of 1,622,520. There were 17,750 households out of which 31.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 39.4% were married couples living together, 16.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 39.3% were non-families. Of all households32.7% were made up of individuals and 12.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was

Transport standards organisations

Transport standards organisations is an article transport Standards organisations and groups that are involved in producing and maintaining standards that are relevant to the global transport technology, transport journey planning and transport ticket/retailing industry. Transport systems are inherently distributed systems with complex information requirements. Robust modern standards for transport data are important for the safe and efficient operation of transport systems; these include: Formal standards development organisations. International Electrotechnical Commission Regional Regional Standards bodies coordinate standardisation between geographically or politically connected regions with a need to harmonise products and practices. For example, in Europe, the European Committee for Standardisation or CEN National, e.g. Most Nations have a coordinating body responsible for organizing participation in CEN & ISO activities, for publishing ISO & CEN standards within the country, for coordinating national standardisation activities.

The National SDO in turn will delegate responsibility as appropriate to the relevant trade associations, government departments and other stakeholders for a specific are of technical expertise. For example, in the UK the British Standards Institution or BSI is the National SDO; the SDOs conduct their work through a system of working groups, responsible for different areas of expertise. These evolve over time to accommodate changes in technology. Key current working groups for transport standards are outlined below. CEN Allocates responsibility for different areas of transport standardisation to working groups WG1 - Automatic Fee Collection and Access Control -CEN WG2 - Freight and Fleet Management System - ISO WG3 - Public Transport - ISO WG4 - TTI – Traffic and Traveller Information - ISO WG5 - TC - Traffic Control - ISO WG6 - Parking Management - n/a WG7/8 - Geographic Road Data Base: Road Traffic Data - ISO WG9 - Dedicated Short Range Communications - CEN WG10 - Man-machine Interface - n/a WG11 - Subsystem- Intersystem Interfaces - ISO WG12 - Automatic Vehicle and Equipment Identification - CEN WG13 - System Architecture and Terminology - ISO ISO Technical Committee 204 is responsible for Transport Information and Control Systems.

It has a number of standing Working Groups. Current ISO TC204 Working Groups, Work program & Countries that provide Secretariat are as follows WG1 Architecture - UK WG2 Quality and Reliability Requirements - Japan WG3 TICS Database Technology - Japan WG4 Automatic Vehicle Identification - Norway WG5 Fee and Toll Collection Holland WG7 General Fleet Management and Commercial and Freight - Canada WG8 Public Transport/Emergency - America WG9 Integrated Transport Information and Control - Australia WG10 Traveller Information Systems - UK WG11 Route Guidance and Navigation Systems - Germany WG14 Vehicle/Roadway Warning and Control Systems - Japan WG15 Dedicated Short Range Communications for TICS Applications - Germany WG16 Wide Area Communications/Protocols and Interfaces - AmericaFor an up-to-date schedule of the remit of TC204, its current Working Groups and their points of contact please refer to: The U. S. standards developing organization, tasked with the domestic implementation of ISO TC204 Transport Standards, is the Telecommunications Industry Association.

As well as the formal SDOs, a number of other international bodies undertake work, important for Transport and Transport Information standards International Air Transport Association International Union of Railways European Broadcasting Union - See TPEG World Wide Web Consortium OpenTravel Alliance Open Geospatial Consortium Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards Railway data standardisation body defining railML Object Management Group EuroRoadS Media Oriented Systems Transport European Railway Agency Verband Deutscher Verkehrsunternehmen Department for Transport Ordnance Survey Rail Settlement Plan National Rail Enquiries Integrated Transport Smartcard Organisation UTMC Development Group Real Time Information Group Travel Information Highway Transport for London National Traffic Control Centre Association of Transport Operating Officers Royal National Institute of Blind People Royal National Institute for Deaf People Journey Solutions Oyster card National Transportation Communications for Intelligent Transportation System Protocol or NTCIP Standards organisations Catalogue of standards for travel information and retailing.

March 2007 CC-PR149-D005-0.6 UK Department of Transport