Livestock is defined as domesticated animals raised in an agricultural setting to produce labor and commodities such as meat, milk, fur and wool. The term is sometimes used to refer to those that are bred for consumption, while other times it refers only to farmed ruminants, such as cattle and goats. Horses are considered livestock in the United States; the USDA uses livestock to some uses of the term “red meat”, in which it refers to all the mammal animals kept in this setting to be used as commodities. The USDA mentions pork, veal and lamb are all classified as livestock and all livestock is considered to be red meats. Poultry and fish are not included in the category; the breeding and slaughter of livestock, known as animal husbandry, is a component of modern agriculture, practiced in many cultures since humanity's transition to farming from hunter-gatherer lifestyles. Animal husbandry practices have varied across cultures and time periods. Livestock were not confined by fences or enclosures, but these practices have shifted to intensive animal farming, sometimes referred to as "factory farming".
Now, over 99% of livestock are raised on factory farms. These practices increase yield of the various commercial outputs, but have led to negative impacts on animal welfare and the environment. Livestock production continues to play a major economic and cultural role in numerous rural communities. Livestock as a word was first used between 1650 and 1660, as a merger between the words "live" and "stock". In some periods, "cattle" and "livestock" have been used interchangeably. Today, the modern meaning of cattle is domesticated bovines. United States federal legislation defines the term to make specified agricultural commodities eligible or ineligible for a program or activity. For example, the Livestock Mandatory Reporting Act of 1999 defines livestock only as cattle and sheep, while the 1988 disaster assistance legislation defined the term as "cattle, goats, poultry, equine animals used for food or in the production of food, fish used for food, other animals designated by the Secretary."Deadstock is defined in contradistinction to livestock as "animals that have died before slaughter, sometimes from illness".
It is illegal in many countries, such as Canada, to sell or process meat from dead animals for human consumption. Animal-rearing originated during the cultural transition to settled farming communities from hunter-gatherer lifestyles. Animals are domesticated when their living conditions are controlled by humans. Over time, the collective behaviour and physiology of livestock have changed radically. Many modern farm animals are unsuited to life in the wild; the dog was domesticated early. Goats and sheep were domesticated in multiple events sometime between 11,000 and 5,000 years ago in Southwest Asia. Pigs were domesticated by 8,500 BC in the Near 6,000 BC in China. Domestication of the horse dates to around 4000 BC. Cattle have been domesticated since 10,500 years ago. Chickens and other poultry may have been domesticated around 7000 BC; the term "livestock" is may be defined narrowly or broadly. Broadly, livestock refers to any breed or population of animal kept by humans for a useful, commercial purpose.
This can mean semidomestic animals, or captive wild animals. Semidomesticated refers to animals which are only domesticated or of disputed status; these populations may be in the process of domestication. Traditionally, animal husbandry was part of the subsistence farmer's way of life, producing not only the food needed by the family but the fuel, clothing and draught power. Killing the animal for food was a secondary consideration, wherever possible its products, such as wool, eggs and blood were harvested while the animal was still alive. In the traditional system of transhumance and livestock moved seasonally between fixed summer and winter pastures. Animals can be kept intensively. Extensive systems involve animals roaming at will, or under the supervision of a herdsman for their protection from predators. Ranching in the Western United States involves large herds of cattle grazing over public and private lands. Similar cattle stations are found in South America and other places with large areas of land and low rainfall.
Ranching systems have been used for sheep, ostrich, emu and alpaca. In the uplands of the United Kingdom, sheep are turned out on the fells in spring and graze the abundant mountain grasses untended, being brought to lower altitudes late in the year, with supplementary feeding being provided in winter. In rural locations and poultry can obtain much of their nutrition from scavenging, in African communities, hens may live for months without being fed, still produce one or two eggs a week. At the other extreme, in the more developed parts of the world, animals are intensively managed. In between these two extremes are semi-intensive family run farms where livestock graze outside for much of the year, silage or hay is made to cove
The potato is a starchy, tuberous crop from the perennial nightshade Solanum tuberosum. In many contexts, potato refers to the edible tuber, but it can refer to the plant itself. Common or slang terms include tater and spud. Potatoes were introduced to Europe in the second half of the 16th century by the Spanish. Today they are a staple food in many parts of the world and an integral part of much of the world's food supply; as of 2014, potatoes were the world's fourth-largest food crop after maize and rice. Wild potato species can be found from the United States to southern Chile; the potato was believed to have been domesticated independently in multiple locations, but genetic testing of the wide variety of cultivars and wild species traced a single origin for potatoes. In the area of present-day southern Peru and extreme northwestern Bolivia, from a species in the Solanum brevicaule complex, potatoes were domesticated 7,000–10,000 years ago. In the Andes region of South America, where the species is indigenous, some close relatives of the potato are cultivated.
Following millennia of selective breeding, there are now over 1,000 different types of potatoes. Over 99% of presently cultivated potatoes worldwide descended from varieties that originated in the lowlands of south-central Chile, which have displaced popular varieties from the Andes; the importance of the potato as a food source and culinary ingredient varies by region and is still changing. It remains an essential crop in Europe eastern and central Europe, where per capita production is still the highest in the world, while the most rapid expansion in production over the past few decades has occurred in southern and eastern Asia, with China and India leading the world in overall production as of 2014. Being a nightshade similar to tomatoes, the vegetative and fruiting parts of the potato contain the toxin solanine and are not fit for human consumption. Normal potato tubers that have been grown and stored properly produce glycoalkaloids in amounts small enough to be negligible to human health, but if green sections of the plant are exposed to light, the tuber can accumulate a high enough concentration of glycoalkaloids to affect human health.
The English word potato comes from Spanish patata. The Spanish Royal Academy says the Spanish word is a hybrid of the Taíno batata and the Quechua papa; the name referred to the sweet potato although the two plants are not related. The 16th-century English herbalist John Gerard referred to sweet potatoes as "common potatoes", used the terms "bastard potatoes" and "Virginia potatoes" for the species we now call "potato". In many of the chronicles detailing agriculture and plants, no distinction is made between the two. Potatoes are referred to as "Irish potatoes" or "white potatoes" in the United States, to distinguish them from sweet potatoes; the name spud for a small potato comes from the digging of soil prior to the planting of potatoes. The word has an unknown origin and was used as a term for a short knife or dagger related to the Latin "spad-" a word root meaning "sword", it subsequently transferred over to a variety of digging tools. Around 1845, the name transferred to the tuber itself, the first record of this usage being in New Zealand English.
The origin of the word "spud" has erroneously been attributed to an 18th-century activist group dedicated to keeping the potato out of Britain, calling itself The Society for the Prevention of Unwholesome Diet. It was Mario Pei's 1949 The Story of Language. Pei writes, "the potato, for its part, was in disrepute some centuries ago; some Englishmen who did not fancy potatoes formed a Society for the Prevention of Unwholesome Diet. The initials of the main words in this title gave rise to spud." Like most other pre-20th century acronymic origins, this is false, there is no evidence that a Society for the Prevention of Unwholesome Diet existed. Potato plants are herbaceous perennials that grow about 60 cm high, depending on variety, with the leaves dying back after flowering and tuber formation, they bear white, red, blue, or purple flowers with yellow stamens. In general, the tubers of varieties with white flowers have white skins, while those of varieties with colored flowers tend to have pinkish skins.
Potatoes are cross-pollinated by insects such as bumblebees, which carry pollen from other potato plants, though a substantial amount of self-fertilizing occurs as well. Tubers form in response to decreasing day length, although this tendency has been minimized in commercial varieties. After flowering, potato plants produce small green fruits that resemble green cherry tomatoes, each containing about 300 seeds. Like all parts of the plant except the tubers, the fruit contain the toxic alkaloid solanine and are therefore unsuitable for consumption. All new potato varieties are grown from seeds called "true potato seed", "TPS" or "botanical seed" to distinguish it from seed tubers. New varieties grown from seed can be propagated vegetatively by planting tubers, pieces of tubers cut to include at least one or two eyes, or cuttings, a practice used in greenhouses for the production of healthy seed tubers. Plants propagated from tubers are clones of the parent, whereas those propagated from seed produce a range of different varieties.
There are about 5,000 potato varieties worldwide. Three thousand of them are found in the Andes alone in Peru, Ecuador and Colombia, they belong to eight or nine species, dependin
Lapland referred to as Lappi Province, is the largest and northernmost region of Finland. The municipalities in the region cooperate in a Regional Council. Lapland borders the region of North Ostrobothnia in the south, it borders the Gulf of Bothnia, Norrbotten County in Sweden, Finnmark County and Troms County in Norway, Murmansk Oblast and the Republic of Karelia in Russia. Lapland's cold and wintry climate, coupled with the relative abundance of conifer trees such as pines and spruces means that it has become associated with Christmas in some countries, most notably the United Kingdom, holidays to Lapland are common towards the end of the year. Rovaniemi Airport is the third busiest airport in Finland; the region has been associated with Father Christmas since 1927, when proposed by Finnish radio host Markus Rautio. The area of Lapland region is 100,367 km², which consists of 92,667 km² of dry land, 6,316 km² fresh water and 1,383 km² of sea areas. In the south it borders Northern Ostrobothnia region, in the west Sweden, in the north and west Norway and in the east Russia.
Its borders follow three rivers: Tana and Torne. The largest lake is Lake Inari, 1,102 km². Highest point is on Halti; the areas of Enontekiö and Utsjoki in northern Lapland are known as Fell-Lapland. The bulk and remaining Lapland is known as Forest-Lapland. Lake Inari, the many fens of the region and the Salla-Saariselkä mountains are all part of Forest-Lapland. Fell-Lapland lies in the fells of the Scandinavian Mountains. Where it is not made up of barren ground like blockfields it has a vegetation of birch forests, willow thickets or heath. Common soil types in Forest-Lapland are sand with conifer forest growing on top; these forest show little variation across Lapland. Compared to southern Finland forest tree species grow slower. Understory is made of blueberry, lichens and ling; the landscape of large parts of Lapland is an inselberg plain. It has been suggested the inselberg plains formed in Late Cretaceous or Paleogene time by pediplanation or etchplanation. Relative to southern Finland Lapland stand out for its thick till cover.
The hills and mountains are made up of resistant rocks like granite, gneiss and amphibolite. The ice sheet that covered Finland intermittently during the Quaternary grew out from the Scandinavian Mountains; the central parts of the Fennoscandian ice sheet had cold-based conditions during the times of maximum extent. This mean that in areas like north-east Sweden and northern Finland pre-existing landforms and deposits escaped glacier erosion and are well preserved at present. Northwest to southeast movement of the ice has left a field of aligned drumlins in central Lapland. Ribbed moraines found in the same area reflect a west to east change in movement of the ice. During the last deglaciation ice in Lapland retreated from north-east and southeast so that the lower course of Tornio was the last part of Finland to be deglaciated 10,100 years ago. Present-day periglacial conditions in Lapland are reflected in the existence of numerous palsas, permafrost landforms developed on peat; the bedrock of Lapland belong to the Karelian Domain occupying the bulk of the region, the Kola Domain in the northeast around Lake Inari and the Scandinavian Caledonides in the tip of Lapland's northwestern arm.
With few exceptions rocks are of Proterozoic age. Granites, gneiss and metavolcanics are common rocks while greenstone belts are recurring features. More rare rock associations include mafic and ultramafic layered intrusions and one of the world's oldest ophiolites; the region hosts valuable deposits of gold, chromium and phosphate. The first snowflakes fall to the ground in late August or early September over the higher peaks; the first ground-covering snow arrives in average in late September. Permanent snow cover comes between mid-October and end of November earlier than in southern Finland; the winter is long seven months. The snow cover is thickest in early April. Soon after that the snow cover starts to melt fast; the thickest snow cover was measured in Kilpisjärvi in 19 April 1997 and it was 190 cm. The annual mean temperature varies from a couple of degrees below zero in northwest to a couple of degrees above zero in the southwest. Lapland exhibits a trend of increasing precipitation towards the south, with the dryest part being located at the two arms.
The area of Lapland was split between two counties of the Swedish Realm from 1634 to 1809. The northern and western areas were part of Västerbotten County, while the southern areas were part of Ostrobothnia County; the northern and western areas were transferred in 1809 to Oulu County. Under the royalist constitution of Finland during the first half of 1918, Lapland was to become a Grand Principality and part of the inheritance of the proposed king of Finland. Lapland Province was separated from Oulu Province in 1938. During the Interim Peace and beginning of the Continuation War the government of Finland allowed the Nazi German Army to station itself in Lapland as a part of Operation Barbarossa. After Finland made a separate peace with the Soviet Union in 1944, the Soviet Union demanded that Finland expel the German army from its soil; the result was the Lapland War, during which the whole civilian population of Lapland was evacuated. The Germans used scorched earth tactics in Lapland. Forty t
Lule River is a major river in Sweden, rising in northern Sweden and flowing southeast for 460 km before reaching the Gulf of Bothnia at Luleå. It is the second longest river by watershed area or length in Norrbotten County, but is the largest by average discharge, it has a watershed of 25,240.5 km ². The river is an important source of hydroelectric energy, with major hydroelectric plants at e.g. Porjus and the 977 MW Harsprånget, commissioned in 1952 and expanded in 1983 to become Sweden's largest hydro power station; the river was used extensively for the transportation of timber, with logs floated downstream for processing at Luleå, but this stopped in the early 1980s. Several major rapids exist along the river's length, notably the Stora Falls and those at Porjus and Harsprånget. During the 19th and 20th centuries, the river was designated as a defensive line against an invasion from Imperial Russia and subsequently the Soviet Union. Extensive fortifications exist along the entire length of the river, culminating in Bodens Fortress in and around the city of Boden.
Most of these fortifications and bunkers are no longer in use today. The Greater Lule River arguably begins somewhere near Sårjåsjaure in the mountains west of Gällivare; the water flows to the Virihaure lake, which collects water from Kerkevare and Alkajaure. The Tukejokk joins the Lule as well in Virihaure. Leaving Virihaure to the north, the river reaches the Vastenjaure lake after losing 32m over 2.2 km. It flows via the Vuojatätno to lake Kutjaure and Luoktanjarkajaure, collecting a lot of water from other lakes in Sarek National Park, like Salohaure, from the Swedish-Norwegian border. There are numerous rapids in the river; the best known is Stora Sjöfallet at the end of the Akkajaure lake, where the water falls 39.6 m from Kårtjejaure to Langasjaure. In this lake the Vietasajokk joins the Lule; the Stora Lule träsk is the largest of the lakes in the river. Here it reaches the forest, after the lake is joined by the Muddus River from Muddus National Park. At 75m, near the village of Vuollerim, the river joins with the Lesser Lule River.
The Lule passes the Porsiforsen and Hedens fors. It flows into the Baltic Sea through the Lulefjärden. Other rivers in the watershed of the Lule with a length of more than 100 km are: Black River, Flarkån, Lesser Lule River, Pärl River, Rissajåkkå, Vietasätno, Bodträskån. Article Lule älf from Nordisk Familjebok
Troms (pronounced or Romsa or Tromssa is a county in northern Norway. It borders Finnmark county to the Nordland county in the southwest. Norrbotten Län in Sweden is located to the south and further southeast is a shorter border with Lapland Province in Finland. To the west is the Norwegian Sea; the entire county, established in 1866, is located north of the Arctic Circle. The Troms County Municipality is the governing body for the county, elected by the people of Troms, while the Troms county governor is a representative of the King and Government of Norway; the county had a population of 161,771 in 2014. Until 1919 the county was known as Tromsø amt. On 1 July 2006, the Northern Sami name for the county, was granted official status along with Troms; the county is named after the island Tromsøya. Several theories exist as to the etymology of Troms. One theory holds "Troms -". Several islands and rivers in Norway have the name Tromsa, the names of these are derived from the word straumr which means " stream".
Another theory holds that Tromsøya was called Lille Tromsøya, because of its proximity to the much bigger island today called Kvaløya, that according to this theory was earlier called "Store Tromsøya" due to a characteristic mountain known as Tromma. The mountain's name in Sámi, Rumbbučohkka, is identical in meaning, it is said to have been a sacred mountain for the Sámi in pre-Christian times; the Sámi name of the island, Romsa, is assumed to be a loan from Norse – but according to the phonetical rules of the Sami language the frontal t has disappeared from the name. However, an alternative form – Tromsa – is in informal use. There is a theory that holds the Norwegian name of Tromsø derives from the Sámi name, though this theory lacks an explanation for the meaning of Romsa. A common misunderstanding is that Tromsø's Sámi name is Romssa with a double "s". This, however, is the accusative and genitive form of the noun used when, for example, writing "Tromsø Municipality"; the coat of arms of Troms was made by Hallvard Trætteberg, adopted by royal resolution on 15 January 1960.
The official blazon in Norwegian translates to "On a field Gules a griffin Or." Trætteberg chose to have the griffin as charge because that animal was the symbol of the mighty clan of Bjarne Erlingsson on Bjarkøy in the 13th century. Troms is located in the northern part of the Scandinavian peninsula. Due to the long distance to the more densely populated areas of the continent, this is one of the least polluted areas of Europe. Troms has a rugged and indented coastline facing the Norwegian Sea. However, the large and mountainous islands along the coast provide an excellent sheltered waterway on the inside. Starting in the south, the largest islands are: northeastern part of Hinnøya, Grytøya, Kvaløya, Ringvassøya, Reinøy, Vannøy, Arnøy; some of these islands, most noteworthy Senja, have a rugged outer coast with steep mountains, a more calm eastern shore. There are several large fjords. Starting in the south, the largest fjords are Vågsfjorden, Malangen, Ullsfjord, Kvænangen; the largest lake is Altevatnet in the interior of the county.
There are mountains in all parts of Troms. Several glaciers are located in Kvænangen, including parts of the Øksfjordjøkelen, the last glacier in mainland Norway to drop icebergs directly into the sea; the largest river in Troms is Målselva, the largest waterfall is Målselvfossen at 600 m long and 20 m high. Marble is present in parts of Troms, thus numerous caves, as in Salangen and Skånland. Located at a latitude of nearly 70°N, Troms has short, cool summers, but mild winters along the coast due to the temperate sea. Tromsø averages −4 °C in January with a daily high of −2 °C, while July averages 12 °C with high of 15 °C. Temperatures are below freezing for about 5 months, from early November to the beginning of April, but coastal areas are moderated by the sea: with more than 130 years of official weather recordings, the coldest winter temperature recorded in Tromsø is −20.1 °C in February 1985. The all-time high for Troms is 33.5 °C recorded in Bardufoss July 18, 2018. Thaws can occur in mid-winter.
There is snow in abundance, avalanches are not uncommon in winter. With the prevailing westerlies, lowland areas east of mountain ranges have less precipitation than areas west of the mountains. Skibotn in Storfjord is the location in Norway which has recorded the most days per year with clear skies. Winter temperatures in Målselv and Bardu can get down to −35 °C, while summer days can reach 30 °C in inland valleys and the innermost fjord areas, but 15 to 22 °C is much more common. Along the outer seaboard, a summer day at 15 °C is considered warm; the aurora borealis is a common sight in the whole of Troms
The Pite River is a river in northern Sweden, flowing through the Norrbotten County. It is one of the four major rivers in Norrland that have been left untouched by water power plants, the river has a single dam at Sikfors 15 km upstream from the sea, it starts in the large lakes in eastern Sweden, such as Tjeggelvas and Labbas, in Jokkmokk Municipality, flows to the east coast, discharging in the Gulf of Bothnia, in the Piteå Municipality. It has a length of 400 kilometers, covering an area of 11,200 km², its largest waterfall is Storforsen, which has become the most popular place to visit in Norrbotten. It is located in Älvsbyn Municipality; some of the other large Norrland rivers: Kalix River Torne River Lule River Ume River Skellefte River Angerman River
Arvidsjaur Municipality is a municipality in Norrbotten County in northern Sweden. Its seat is Arvidsjaur. Arvidsjaur Municipality was for a long time only inhabited by the Sami people, they were back a hunting people, living off the abundance of fish and wildlife in the area. Archaeological discoveries suggest that people have been moving through the area for several thousands of years; the name Arvidsjaur itself comes from a Sami word which means "generous water" and was the name of the adjacent lake. In the 14th and 15th century some farmers settled in the area, they acquired furs and skins from the hunters, traded them off to southern regions in vast numbers. The Christianization of Arvidsjaur Municipality was slow, as it was in Norrland as a whole, because of the low population, the harsh climate and the long distances, it was commonly believed that Norrland was inhabited by magicians. Not until 1577 did the first settler, Per Käck, settle in Arvidsjaur; the settlers built the first chapel at the marketplace at the time, in 1560.
The first church was inaugurated in 1604. The Swedish minister and missionary Petrus Læstadius collected old stories and myths in the area in the 19th century, which create the basis for our knowledge from that time. Arvidsjaur Municipality is located about 110 kilometres south of the Arctic Circle, in the center of the northernmost land, Norrland, it is part of the geographic area Lapland, which consists of the northern parts of Sweden and Finland. Sami people are an indigenous minority group who live on breeding reindeers. Arvidsjaur Municipality still contains several Sami villages, as a tribute to the Sami people a reindeer is the basis for the municipal coat of arms. There are three localities in Arvidsjaur Municipality: The municipal seat in bold These are the results of the elections to the Riksdag since the 1972 municipal reform. Norrbotten Party contested the 1994 election but due to the party's small size at a nationwide level SCB did not publish the party's results at a municipal level.
The same applies to the Sweden Democrats between 1988 and 1998. "Turnout" denotes the percentage of eligible voters casting any ballots, whereas "Votes" denotes the number of actual valid ballots cast. Blocs This lists the relative strength of the socialist and centre-right blocs since 1973, but parties not elected to the Riksdag are inserted as "other", including the Sweden Democrats results from 1988 to 2006, but the Christian Democrats pre-1991 and the Greens in 1982, 1985 and 1991; the sources are identical to the table above. The coalition or government mandate marked in bold formed the government after the election. New Democracy got elected in 1991 but are still listed as "other" due to the short lifespan of the party. Arvidsjaur Municipality - Official site Arvidsjaur.eu - Arvidsjaur in Swedish Lapland