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Norrköping

Norrköping is a city in the province of Östergötland in eastern Sweden and the seat of Norrköping Municipality, Östergötland County, about 160 km southwest of the national capital Stockholm. The city has a population of 95,618 inhabitants in 2016, out of a municipal total of 130,050, making it Sweden's tenth largest city and eighth largest municipality; the city is situated by the mouth of the river Motala ström, at Bråviken, an inlet of the Baltic Sea. Water power from the Motala ström and the good harbour were factors that facilitated the rapid growth of this once industrial city, known for its textile industry, it has several nicknames such as: "Sweden's Manchester", "Peking" and "Surbullestan". The city has medieval foundations by settlers around the Motala stream estuary, who used the falls and rapids to power their mills; the stream was full of fish such as salmon. Exact dates are uncertain, it was dedicated to Norway's patron. The first trace of the city's name is from 1283, when Sophia of Denmark donated her rights of salmon fishing to the Skänninge monastery.

The town is estimated to have received city status in the early 14th century, although no written documents exist prior to a document from 1384. This document, signed by Albrekt of Sweden is stored in the city archive today. Köping means there was a market there, while Nörr or Norr means "north". There is a smaller town nearby named Söderköping, or "South market"; the city was the location of several battles in the ensuing centuries. As a consequence, nothing of the medieval Norrköping remains today. During the Northern Seven Years' War, the entire southern part of Norrköping was burnt, it was rebuilt by John III of Sweden. In 1618, a weapon industry was established by supervision of Gustavus Adolphus; the harbour attracted ships due to its proximity to the industries of Finspång. In addition to the weapon industry, a large scale industry of textile was initiated. An important benefactor was the industrial man Louis De Geer. At De Geer's death, Norrköping was Sweden's second largest city; the city again burnt in 1655, again in 1719 during the Russian Pillage of 1719-21 when the Russians burnt it to the ground.

Stones from the Johannisborg castle were used to build new houses, today only a few stones remain. During the 18th century it was rebuilt and several industries soon got a stronghold: In the 1740s, Norrköping boasted three sugar refineries. From this time stems the city churches of Saint Olof and Saint Hedvig, several other old houses. In 1762, the first theater in Sweden outside of Stockholm was established in the city, the Egges Teater. Norrköping's importance again flourished. In 1769 the Swedish Riksdag assembled there. In 1800 King Gustav IV of Sweden was crowned in the Church of Saint Olof. In the 18th and early 19th Centuries, Norrköping was one of the three Swedish cities where Jews were allowed to live; the city again suffered fires in 1822 and 1826. Thereafter wooden houses were banned. In 1841 a ship industry was initiated as a branch of Motala Verkstad in Motala. In 1850 the industry had over 600 employees making it Sweden's largest ship industry at the time. During the remaining 19th century, the industries kept expanding.

The area by the Motala Stream was developed further with the construction of a cotton refinery, a paper mill was constructed in 1854, specializing in newspaper, is still today exporting to customers around the world. The industry, including textile manufacturers expanded into the 20th century. In 1950 a total of 54 factories had 6,600 employees in town. By 1956, however, 18 of them had been closed due to competition from countries abroad with lower wages, such as Italy and Japan. In 1970 only 10 factories and 1,200 employees remained. In that year, the renowned Holmen paper mill, with its 350 years long history, announced closure, another 900 people were let go. To counter the effects, several governmental authorities were relocated to Norrköping from Stockholm. See Braviken Paper Mill; as of 2002, Norrköping is now seeing a revival, as a center of education. The Norrköping symbol represents the "new" Norrköping; the Motala ström river flows through the city. In connection to the latter is the industrial landscape where the old textile industries once were situated.

In the summer, there is a cactus plantation in Carl Johans Park. 25,000 cacti planted there every summer. Kolmårdens Djurpark is a zoo located 30 km north of Norrköping. In connection to the large outdoor zoo, there is Tropicariet, an aquarium, where for example snakes and sharks can be seen; the archipelagos 50 km away from Norrköping are called St Gryt. A campus of Linköping University, its own symphonic orchestra, an airport called Kungsängen with 170,000 traveling, a high-tech industry park called Norrköping Science Park, Petroglyphs from the Nordic Bronze Age. Norrköping had a humid continental climate for the reference period of 1961–1990, but it was borderline four-season oceanic during that period and has since more resembled the latter, with somewhat warmer temperatures year-round. In spite of it being located near the Baltic Sea, Norrköping has a dry climate with precipitation levels averaging 508.2 millimetres between 1961 and 1990. That would in turn be low for a marine climate, but some way above more arid clima

St David's, Cardiff

St David's is one of the principal shopping centres in the city centre of Cardiff, Wales. It is in The Hayes area of the southern city centre. Owing to the extension of St David's 2 in 2009, St David's is the eleventh largest shopping centre in the United Kingdom; the construction of the extension cost a total of £675m and brought Cardiff within the top five shopping destinations in the United Kingdom. The centre consists of original the first phase, St David's Centre, adjoining St David's Hall and the second phase, given the development name of St David's 2; the second phase of the shopping centre, opened on 22 October 2009, when the first 58 of its 88 stores opened for business. In 2008–9, the annual footfall of the centre was 27 million, it is expected to rise to 33 million in 2009–10. 20 million people visited the centre during the first six months after the opening of St David's 2. St David's was crowned the international shopping centre of the year in 2010 by Global Retail Leisure International, beating contenders in Portugal and Singapore.

St David's is patrolled by three paramedics on bicycles between every Friday and Sunday in order to respond to medical emergencies. St David's Shopping Centre was open to the public in January 1981, although it did not open until 24 March 1982; the centre has 4 entrances located on Cathedral Walk, Working Street and Hills Street. The entrance on Hills Street connects to the northern entrance of the second phase of the shopping centre, open at street level and via an enclosed bridge on the first floor, it is joined internally with Queens Arcade. There are 3 thoroughfares within the centre: Cathedral Walk and St David's Way; the centre attracted an average footfall of 39,000,000 per annum and has a core catchment of 2.4 million people. The 12 million tourists that visit the city annually help generate over £7.5 billion in retail spending. There are seventy-five individual shops and stores in the first centre that cater for a broad demographic; the centre is anchored by Boots, Marks & Spencer and Primark.

St David's Hall was built on top of the shopping centre. St David's, much of the southern end of Cardiff city centre's shopping area, was re-developed as part of the St David's 2 development; the second phase was a £675 million extension of the centre, in which a large part of Cardiff's south city centre was demolished. Demolished buildings included Oxford Arcade, St David's Market, St David's Link including the Cardiff Central Library, the NCP Tredegar Street multi-storey car park, the Wales National Ice Rink, the NCP Bridge Street multi-storey car park, Toys "R" Us who relocated to Cardiff International Sports Village; the second phase of St. David's was known as St David's 2 during the construction phase, but both phases were named "St David's" when the second phase was completed; the second phase consists of three main buildings in total: the Central Library building, built on part of the Marriott Hotel car park, the John Lewis department store, built on the former Wales National Ice Rink, the main shopping area, built on the former Oxford Arcade, St David's Link and western side of Bridge Street.

It includes apartments, called Hayes Apartments, above the main shopping centre. The second phase was made up of different sections, they were: St David's Walk, leading to the extension of Debenhams and the Grand Arcade. St David's The original part of St David's. Grand Arcade, connecting St David's Walk in the original centre to John Lewis; the Grand Arcade was split over two floors. The Upper Grand Arcade had other stores; the Lower Grand Arcade Eastside is the restaurant and café quarter of the second phase of the centre. It is split over two levels. Working Street, part of the façade of St David's Hall, was converted into store fronts to better blend with the facade of the Working Street entrance of St David's Centre; the first Welsh branch of the John Lewis department store chain opened in 2009 and is the largest John Lewis store in the UK outside London. The John Lewis department store opened four weeks before the St David's Grand Arcade shopping area was opened. St David's 2 has added an extra 967,500 sq ft of retail space to the city centre, in addition to the 260,000 sq ft John Lewis department store, 9 other large stores, a further 90 smaller shops in a two-tiered shopping mall have been built.

It has created 3,000 car parking spaces, new bars and restaurants plus the new 55,000 sq ft Central Library and 4,500 permanent jobs. The development has included two new arcades: Grand Arcade and Hayes Arcade to reflect Cardiff's historical Victorian arcades; the project, that it set to make Cardiff one of the top five shopping destinations in the United Kingdom, topped out on 27 January 2009. Many of the retailers in the second phase of the centre are new to Cardiff, to Wales, in particular John Lewis, Apple and Victoria's Secret. St David's is now one of the busiest shopping centres in the European Union, exceeding Birmingham's Bull Ring; the former Central Library was located a few hundred yards north of the present building and was knocked down to make way for the St David's 2 development. The new Central Library opened on 14 March 2009. Alliance is a 25 metres -high sculpture in The Hayes; the sculpture consists of a large stainless steel and enamelled metal arrow column and a hoop, which glows in the dark, falls and rises with the tide.

It was paid for by the St David's shopping centre as part of a £1.5m public art scheme in the city centre, was installed in the space between the new shopping centre and Cardiff Central Library. Hayes Apartments is part of St David's regeneration development by St David

New York State Route 145

New York State Route 145 is a state highway in eastern New York in the United States. The highway extends for 46.99 miles from NY 23 in the Greene County town of Cairo to U. S. Route 20 in the Schoharie County town of Sharon. Along the way, NY 145 intersects NY 30 in Interstate 88 east of Cobleskill. NY 145 is a two-lane highway its entire length, with a passing lane on hills leaving Middleburgh in both directions; the route follows parts of the Susquehannah Turnpike from Cairo through west. NY 145 begins at an at-grade interchange with NY 23 in the hamlet of Cairo. NY 145 proceeds northwest through Cairo as a two-lane asphalt residential street, becoming a commercial/residential mix near a large quarry on the southbound side. NY 145 continues northwest for several miles, passing Old State Highway 145 on the southbound side, bending further to the northwest into an intersection with County Route 31 in a small residential neighborhood of Cairo. A short distance to the northwest, NY 145 crosses the town line, leaving Cairo for the town of Durham.

NY 145 through Durham remains a two-lane asphalt road, passing residences on both sides of the road, winding northwest past another quarry. Just north of the quarry, NY 145 becomes a two-lane commercial/industrial roadway, passing an intersection with the terminus of CR 67A. After CR 67A, more residences and industrial buildings begin to appear as the route enters the hamlet of East Durham. In East Durham, NY 145 intersects with CR 20B. NY 145 winds northwest through Durham, passing a large industrial complex before crossing into the fields and residences nearby. At CR 27, NY 145 turns westward bending to the northwest once again. NY 145 through the town of Durham remains a mix of commercial/industrial/residential buildings on each side of the highway, intersecting with CR 22 at the center of the hamlet of Durham. NY 145 continues northwest out of the hamlet of Durham, crossing similar surroundings for a distance, crossing the county line from Greene County into Albany County. Now in the town of Rensselaerville, entering the hamlet of Cooksburg.

In Cooksburg, NY 145 intersects with the western terminus of NY 81 and the eastern terminus of Potter Hollow Road North of Cooksburg, NY 145 winds north over Fox Creek through the town of Rensselaerville. After crossing a short residential stretch to the north, NY 145 intersects with the terminus of CR 352, entering the hamlet of Preston Hollow. In Preston Hollow, the route winds northwest past numerous residences and a local cemetery before bending westward at Preston Hollow Park. NY 145 northwest of Preston Hollow remains a two-lane rural roadway, winding northwest alongside Catskill Creek. A short distance to the northeast, NY 145 crosses the county line once again, this time leaving Albany County for Schoharie County. After crossing the county line into Schoharie County, NY 145 winds northwest through the town of Broome, remaining a two-lane residential/rural roadway. A short distance to the northwest, the route enters a small hamlet centered around an intersection with CR 19A; the route proceeds west out of the hamlet, where it bends to the north.

NY 145 proceeds north through Broome for a distance. It starts to wind north, passing the eastern shore of Vlai Pond near Gates Hill Road. Proceeding alongside Vlai Pond, NY 145 crosses north into the hamlet of Franklinton. After leaving Franklinton, NY 145 intersects with the southern terminus of CR 50. NY 145 continues north through Broome on a parallel with CR 50, soon crossing into the town of Middleburgh. Through Middleburgh, NY 145 remains a two-lane rural road, proceeding north into the village of Middleburgh. Passing south of Middleburgh Cemetery, the route intersects with the terminus of CR 21 and CR 66. Now in downtown Middleburgh, NY 145 proceeds northwest along Main Street, a two-lane commercial street, passing an intersection with the village continuation of CR 36. Several blocks east of CR 36, NY 145 intersects with NY 30. NY 30 and NY 145 become concurrent for the length of a bridge over Schoharie Creek. NY 145, after NY 30 forks to the southeast, proceeds northwest through the town of Middleburgh alongside Schoharie Creek.

Bending northward, NY 145 bends away from Schoharie Creek, passing through numerous farms that separate the road from the creek. After intersecting with CR 57, NY 145 winds northwestward for a distance through Middleburgh, intersecting with CR 41. Continuing the winding route through Middleburgh, NY 145 passes the town line, crossing into the town of Schoharie and an intersection with CR 1A. Just after CR 1A, NY 145 crosses into the town of Cobleskill. Now paralleling I-88 to the south, NY 145 winds west through Cobleskill, intersecting with the northern terminus of CR 41, crossing through the residential hamlet of East Cobleskill. After a bend to the northwest, NY 145 intersects with CR 1 before entering exit 22 of I-88, a diamond interchange. Just north of I-88, NY 145 intersects with NY 7. NY 7 and NY 145 become concurrent, proceeding westward on a parallel of I-88, intersecting with Shad Point Road. NY 7 and NY 145 wind westward for a distance through Cobleskill, passing north of the Cobleskill Golf and Country Club before crossing into the village of Cobleskill.

Now in the village of Cobleskill, NY 7 and NY 145 gain the moniker of East Main Street, crossing over Cobleskill Creek before entering the downtown section of the village. After cros