Kungsträdgården is a park in central Stockholm, Sweden. It is colloquially known as Kungsan; the park's central location and its outdoor cafés makes it one of the most popular hangouts and meeting places in Stockholm. It hosts open-air concerts and events in summer, while offering an ice rink during winters. There is a number of cafés, art galleries and restaurants; the park is divided into four distinct spaces: Square of Charles XII. The park is administered and events in it organized by the Stockholm Chamber of Commerce. A number of Stockholm landmarks are found around the perimeter of Kungsträdgården: South of the park is the quay Strömgatan interconnecting the bridges Strömbron and Norrbro, both of which stretches over to the Stockholm Old Town and the Royal Palace. North of the park is Hamngatan with the department stores PK-huset and Nordiska Kompaniet facing the park. Kungsträdgårdsgatan stretches along the park's eastern side. A series of prominent buildings are lined-up along it: Stockholm Synagogue by Fredrik Wilhelm Scholander, 1867–70.
Jernkontoret by Axel Kumlien, 1875. Palmeska huset by Helgo Zettervall, 1884–86, today the headquarters of Handelsbanken, Skandinaviska Enskilda Banken the Kungsträdgården Stockholm metro station. On the western side are the Royal Swedish Opera with the Opera Bar, Saint James's church, Ivar Kreuger's Matchstick Palace designed by Ivar Tengbom, Sverigehuset designed by Sven Markelius, 1961–69. Though the royal kitchen garden is known to date back to the Middle Ages, it is first mentioned in historical records as konungens kålgård in 1430; the royal property in the area was enlarged through an acquisition in 1454 and further expanded throughout the following century. This utilitarian garden was transformed into an enclosed royal Baroque pleasure garden and accordingly referred to as "King's Garden" throughout the 17th and 18th centuries; the garden was a symmetrical composition centred on a fountain and separated from the waterfront by the Makalös Palace. However, the demolition of the walls began in the early 19th century, for the inauguration of the statue of Charles XIII in 1821, his successor Charles XIV John had most of the garden replaced by a gravelled open space ordered to be named "Square of Charles XIII".
When Makalös was destroyed by fire in 1825 the park was extended south down to the waterfront. Notwithstanding the area became had become a popular spot for bourgeois social life and military drilling, Charles XIV's initiative never was appreciated, in the 1860s the space was subsequently furnished with the tree-lined avenues still giving the park its character and through which the old name prevailed. In addition, the park's showpiece, the tall and elaborate Molin's Fountain, was cast in bronze and given a space in the park; the following century saw several proposals to have the northern section of the park replaced by various buildings, but during WWII a contract determined the area should remain a park and in 1970 it became the property of the city. In the 1970s, construction of the metro station caused much controversy since the plans called for the old elms to be cut down, which led to violent protests and a tree-hugger campaign on May 12-May 13, 1971 with people chaining themselves to the trees, the so-called Battle of the Elms.
These protests not only saved the trees and caused the station entrances to be located east and west of the park, but they marked the end of a period when many old buildings in central Stockholm were demolished. The park had a reputation for rioting youth and drug dealing in the 1980s. Extreme-right demonstrations in the 1990s by the statue of Charles XII altered its reputation, it was redesigned in the late 1990s to it present shape. In 2004, 285 new linden trees were planted to replace the sick elms and new pavilions with cafés were added; the southern third of the park. Called Karl XII:s torg is centred on the statue of Charles XII by Johan Peter Molin, inaugurated for the 150th anniversary of the king's death on November 30, 1868; the square, until forming a section of the levelled park carrying the name of Charles XIII, was subsequently renamed after Charles XII and transformed into more of a park than a square. The park is centred on the statue of Charles XIII, King of Sweden from 1809 until his death in 1818, commissioned by his successor Charles XIV John.
The Neoclassicist composition of Gustaf Göthe, inaugurated in 1821, is escorted by four lions sculpted by Bengt Erland Fogelberg, added in 1824, each of which are holding a ball carrying the Norwegian and Swedish coat of arms alluding the Swedish-Norwegian Union initiated by the king. The anchor under the king's right arm reminds us of his great naval victories during the Russo-Swedish War 1788-1790. Now, Stockholmers were displeased with Charles XIII and therefore referred to the statue as "a gardener without a garden just as a king without honour" and, as Charles XII is surrounded by four backs from mortars, in Swedish called kruka and Charles XIII is flanked by four lions, again popular humour used the opportunity to throw some dirt at the latter by referring to both statues as "a lion among pots and a pot among lions". On the location for the statue of Charles XII was the palace Makalös, owned by the Constable of the Real
Sergels torg is the most central public square in Stockholm, named after 18th-century sculptor Johan Tobias Sergel, whose workshop was once located north of the square. Sergels torg has a dominant west-to-east axis and is divided into three distinct parts: A sunken pedestrian plaza furnished with a triangular-colored floor pattern and a wide flight of stairs leading up to the pedestrian street Drottninggatan, connecting south to Stockholm Old Town and north to Kungsgatan; this plaza is overbuilt by a roundabout centered on a glass obelisk and by the concrete decks of three major streets. North of this traffic junction is a smaller open space overlooked by the high-rise façade of the fifth Hötorget Building from where the avenue Sveavägen extends north; the site south of the square is taken up by the cultural centre Kulturhuset, which harbours the Stockholm City Theatre and hides the Bank of Sweden headquarters facing the square Brunkebergstorg behind. Klarabergsgatan leads west past the department store Åhléns City and Klara Church to Klarabergsviadukten and Kungsholmen.
Hamngatan leads east under Malmskillnadsgatan to Kungsträdgården and Strandvägen. Together with the underground mall east of the pedestrian plaza and the T-Centralen metro station and other continuous underpasses west thereof, Sergels torg forms part of a continuous underground structure a kilometre in length. Since its creation, Sergels torg has been much criticized for giving priority to cars at the cost of pedestrians, it has, among some quarters, become the main target for criticism of the much debated demolition of the central city district of Klara during the 1950s and 1960s. It is not dissimilar to but larger than the public space in front of Centre Georges Pompidou in Paris and much like its French counterpart remains the most popular space in Stockholm for meeting friends, for political demonstrations, for a wide range of events, for drug-dealers; this includes the fountain. Before the creation of Sergels torg, Brunkebergstorg was the most important public space in the area, the hub about which traffic revolved, the place where people would go to work and to find entertainment.
Albert Lilienberg was appointed city-planning superintendent in 1927, a year he produced the first proposal for a public square on the location in his general plan of 1928. In his proposal he envisioned a square whose north-south oriented axis would line-up with Sveavägen intended to be extended south across the square down to the waterfront with widened Hamngatan and Klarabergsgatan joining in from west and east. After this first proposal, the square is featured on every subsequent city plan produced for the area, with alternations in width and length. Notwithstanding the considerable number of revised proposals produced few were preoccupied by architectonic considerations, instead focusing on optimization of traffic flow. In the city plan Helldén produced in 1946, the square, still named Sveaplatsen, was conceived as similar to the present square, but still remained an unarticulated modernistic concept. In this proposal, the square was centred on a rectangular open space furnished with trees and ponds.
During the 1950s, continuously increasing traffic loads made separating pedestrians and car traffic desirable, several studies produced around 1955 focused on a lower level for pedestrians with cars on street-level with various openings to allow light down to the pedestrians. In 1957, a first official proposal presented a square similar to the present; the Chamber of Commerce was critical of the concept, concluding pedestrians on a lower level would produce poor business sites, an analysis which would prove correct. Their own proposal the following year, developed together with various authorities, reserved street-level to pedestrians while cars were confined below ground; this counter-proposal was however produced in only two months, which made it easy for opponents to pin-down its weaknesses. Helldén's proposal failed to impress the city as well, Helldén together with other hand-picked experts was therefore sent on a tour around Europe, including Coventry and London, to find a better solution.
In Stuttgart they could conclude that having pedestrians on a lower level required escalators, in Vienna the pedestrians hall Opernpassage gave them the inspiration to replace the central open space at Sveaplatsen with a round restaurant with glass walls, an aesthetic device intended to give the square an architectonic dignity. This newly introduced centre-piece resulted in a proposal for a fountain with a monument above it. For the shape of this fountain, Helldén consulted his friend, the mathematician and artist Piet Hein, who in less than in minute found a curve with a "continuously varying bending" and named it the superellipse. Before presenting his final proposal in 1960, Helldén added the triangular pattern to the pedestrian plaza and the wide stairs on its western side. A contest for the central monument in 1962 was won by Edvin Öhrström, with the 37 metre tall glass obelisk, named Kristall - vertikal accent i glas och stål; the sculpture completed in 1974 and since haunted by technical problems, never was a
Hötorget is a city square in the center of Stockholm. During the daytime it is the site of a fruit and vegetable market, except on Sundays, when flea markets are arranged. To its east lies the Royal Concert Hall, to its south lies Filmstaden Sergel, one of the largest multiscreen cinemas in inner-city Stockholm, the Hötorgshallen food market halls, to the west lies the Haymarket by Scandic hotel. Southeast of the square are the five high-rise office buildings Hötorgsskraporna. To the north is the Kungshallen food court. Hötorget Metro station is decorated with light blue tiles; the station kept its "vintage" style, in contrast to other more modern stations on the same line, retaining its original construction arrangements and materials such as tiles, illumination, etc. There is an illuminated art installation on the ceiling of the station; the platforms of Hötorget Metro station make a brief appearance in Madonna's "Ray of Light" music video. Hötorget art is within painted art in Sweden a derogatory name for 20th century art where the artist did not follow elite principles for sellable art, such as making multiple copies of artworks, following simple peoples preferences etc.
Hötorget art is art which don't assign a value. Such art was sold on Hötorget by artists to common people. Media related to Hötorget at Wikimedia Commons
Redevelopment of Norrmalm
The redevelopment of Norrmalm was a major revision of the city plan for lower Norrmalm district in Stockholm, principally decided by the Stockholm town council in 1945, realised during the 1950s, 1960s, 1970s. The renewal resulted in most of the old Klara quarters being replaced for the modern city of Stockholm, according to rigorist CBD ideas, while the Stockholm subway was facilitated through the city; as a result of the project, over 750 buildings were demolished to make way for new infrastructure and redevelopment. The renewal of Norrmalm was the largest Swedish urban development project to date and engaged a large part of Sweden's architectural élite; the Norrmalm renewal has been criticised and admired throughout Sweden and internationally, is regarded as one of the larger and most full-of-character of all city renewals in Europe in the aftermath of World War II including the cities that were damaged during the war. Key politicians behind the massive urban renewal project included Hjalmar Mehr.
Californication Manhattanization Brusselization Yngve Larsson. Nedre Norrmalm – Historiskt och ohistoriskt. Stockholm. Mats Persson m fl. CITY Byggnadsinventering 1974 -- 75 -- Historik. Stockholm: Stockholms stadsmuseum. Mats Persson m fl. CITY Byggnadsinventering 1974 -- 75 -- Historik. Stockholm: Stockholms stadsmuseum. Eva Rudberg. Sven Markelius, arkitekt. Stockholm: Arkitektur Förlag. ISBN 91-860-5022-2. Marianne Råberg. Husen på malmarna: En bok om Stockholm. Stockholm: Prisma. ISBN 9151817608. Gösta Selling. Esplanadsystemet och Albert Lindhagen. Stockholm: Stockholmia förlag. ISBN 9789149029530. Anders Sjöbrandt, Björn Sylvén. Stockholm – Staden som försvann. Stockholm: Natur & Kultur. ISBN 91-27-35225-0. Rikard Skårfors. Beslutsfattandets dilemma – Planarbete och opinionsyttringar rörande trafikleder i Stockholm 1945–1975. Uppsala: Ekonomisk-historiska institutionen, Uppsala universitet. Per Olgarsson. Recording and Characterizing the Modern City Centre of Stockholm. Stockholm City Museum
Norrmalm is a borough in central Stockholm, named after the dominating district. Except Norrmalm there are two districts in the borough: Vasastaden. A portion of northern Östermalm is organized in Norrmalm borough; the population as of 2004 is 61,905 on an area of 4.95 km², which gives a density of 12,506.06/km². The most populous district is Vasastaden. Media related to Norrmalm at Wikimedia Commons
Hamngatan is a street in central Stockholm. It goes from Sergels torg down to Nybroplan, past NK department store, Kungsträdgården and Berzelii Park; the Djurgården line travels along this street between Nybroplan and Norrmalmstorg
Klara is a part of lower Norrmalm in the central part of Stockholm. It has its name from Klara Church. Today the name, though not used in daily speech, has become synonymous with the old city that once occupied lower Norrmalm. Arvfurstens palats Sagerska Palatset Klara Church Kulturhuset Sergels torg During the 1950s and 1960s Klara went through an extensive urban renewal project. Over 450 buildings were torn down and most of the existing houses in this area were rebuilt during the early 19th century. Before the demolitions the area was characterized by workshops; the new buildings on the other hand were office buildings. Many writers and journalists have condemned the demolitions. History of Stockholm