Stockholm is the capital of Sweden and the most populous urban area in the Nordic countries. The city stretches across fourteen islands. Just outside the city and along the coast is the island chain of the Stockholm archipelago; the area has been settled since the Stone Age, in the 6th millennium BC, was founded as a city in 1252 by Swedish statesman Birger Jarl. It is the capital of Stockholm County. Stockholm is the cultural, media and economic centre of Sweden; the Stockholm region alone accounts for over a third of the country's GDP, is among the top 10 regions in Europe by GDP per capita. It is an important global city, the main centre for corporate headquarters in the Nordic region; the city is home to some of Europe's top ranking universities, such as the Stockholm School of Economics, Karolinska Institute and Royal Institute of Technology. It hosts the annual Nobel Prize ceremonies and banquet at the Stockholm Concert Hall and Stockholm City Hall. One of the city's most prized museums, the Vasa Museum, is the most visited non-art museum in Scandinavia.
The Stockholm metro, opened in 1950, is well known for the decor of its stations. Sweden's national football arena is located north of the city centre, in Solna. Ericsson Globe, the national indoor arena, is in the southern part of the city; the city was the host of the 1912 Summer Olympics, hosted the equestrian portion of the 1956 Summer Olympics otherwise held in Melbourne, Australia. Stockholm is the seat of the Swedish government and most of its agencies, including the highest courts in the judiciary, the official residencies of the Swedish monarch and the Prime Minister; the government has its seat in the Rosenbad building, the Riksdag is seated in the Parliament House, the Prime Minister's residence is adjacent at Sager House. Stockholm Palace is the official residence and principal workplace of the Swedish monarch, while Drottningholm Palace, a World Heritage Site on the outskirts of Stockholm, serves as the Royal Family's private residence. After the Ice Age, around 8,000 BC, there were many people living in what is today the Stockholm area, but as temperatures dropped, inhabitants moved south.
Thousands of years as the ground thawed, the climate became tolerable and the lands became fertile, people began to migrate back to the North. At the intersection of the Baltic Sea and lake Mälaren is an archipelago site where the Old Town of Stockholm was first built from about 1000 CE by Vikings, they had a positive trade impact on the area because of the trade routes they created. Stockholm's location appears in Norse sagas as Agnafit, in Heimskringla in connection with the legendary king Agne; the earliest written mention of the name Stockholm dates from 1252, by which time the mines in Bergslagen made it an important site in the iron trade. The first part of the name means log in Swedish, although it may be connected to an old German word meaning fortification; the second part of the name means islet, is thought to refer to the islet Helgeandsholmen in central Stockholm. According to Eric Chronicles the city is said to have been founded by Birger Jarl to protect Sweden from sea invasions made by Karelians after the pillage of Sigtuna on Lake Mälaren in the summer of 1187.
Stockholm's core, the present Old Town was built on the central island next to Helgeandsholmen from the mid-13th century onward. The city rose to prominence as a result of the Baltic trade of the Hanseatic League. Stockholm developed strong economic and cultural linkages with Lübeck, Gdańsk, Visby and Riga during this time. Between 1296 and 1478 Stockholm's City Council was made up of 24 members, half of whom were selected from the town's German-speaking burghers; the strategic and economic importance of the city made Stockholm an important factor in relations between the Danish Kings of the Kalmar Union and the national independence movement in the 15th century. The Danish King Christian II was able to enter the city in 1520. On 8 November 1520 a massacre of opposition figures called the Stockholm Bloodbath took place and set off further uprisings that led to the breakup of the Kalmar Union. With the accession of Gustav Vasa in 1523 and the establishment of a royal power, the population of Stockholm began to grow, reaching 10,000 by 1600.
The 17th century saw Sweden grow into a major European power, reflected in the development of the city of Stockholm. From 1610 to 1680 the population multiplied sixfold. In 1634, Stockholm became the official capital of the Swedish empire. Trading rules were created that gave Stockholm an essential monopoly over trade between foreign merchants and other Swedish and Scandinavian territories. In 1697, Tre Kronor was replaced by Stockholm Palace. In 1710, a plague killed about 20,000 of the population. After the end of the Great Northern War the city stagnated. Population growth halted and economic growth slowed; the city was in shock after having lost its place as the capital of a Great power. However, Stockholm maintained its role as the political centre of Sweden and continued to develop culturally under Gustav III. By the second half of the 19th century, Stockholm had regained its leading economic role. New industries emerged and Stockholm was transformed into an important trade and service centre as well as a key gateway point within Sweden.
The population grew during this time through immigration. At the end
The Carolina Hurricanes are a professional ice hockey team based in Raleigh, North Carolina. They are members of the Metropolitan Division of the Eastern Conference of the National Hockey League; the Hurricanes play their home games at the 18,680-seat PNC Arena. The franchise was formed in 1971 as the New England Whalers of the World Hockey Association, joined the NHL in 1979 as part of the NHL–WHA merger, renaming themselves the Hartford Whalers; the team relocated to North Carolina in 1997 and won the 2006 Stanley Cup over the Edmonton Oilers in seven games, giving the state of North Carolina its first major professional sports championship. The New England Whalers were established in November 1971 when the World Hockey Association awarded a franchise to begin play in Boston, Massachusetts. For the first two years of their existence, the club played their home games at the Boston Arena and Boston Garden. With the increasing difficulty of scheduling games at Boston Garden, the owners decided to move the team to Hartford, beginning with the 1974–75 season.
While waiting for the completion of a new arena in Hartford, the Whalers played the first part of the season at The Big E Coliseum in West Springfield, Massachusetts. On January 11, 1975, the team played its first game in front of a sellout crowd at the Hartford Civic Center Coliseum, would maintain its home there through 1997; as one of the most stable WHA teams, the Whalers, along with the Edmonton Oilers, Quebec Nordiques and Winnipeg Jets, were admitted to the NHL when the rival leagues merged in 1979. However, under pressure from the extant NHL team in the New England area, the Boston Bruins, the Whalers were compelled to rename the team the Hartford Whalers; the Whalers were never as successful in the NHL as they had been in the WHA, recording only three winning seasons. They peaked in the mid-to-late 1980s, winning their only playoff series in 1986 over the Nordiques before bowing out in the second round to the Montreal Canadiens, taking the Habs to overtime of Game 7 in the process.
The next year, the club secured the regular-season Adams Division title, only to fall to the Nordiques in six games in the first round of the playoffs. In 1992, the Whalers made the playoffs for the final time, but were bounced in the first round in seven games by the Canadiens. Two years the team hired Jim Rutherford as general manager, a position that he would hold within the franchise for twenty years; the organization retains many Whaler connections among its off-ice personnel. The old goal horn from the Hartford Civic Center remains in use at PNC Arena; the Whalers were plagued for most of their existence by limited marketability. Hartford was the smallest American market in the league and was located on the traditional dividing line between the home territories for New York City and Boston teams, it did not help matters that the Hartford Civic Center was one of the smallest arenas in the league, seating under 16,000 spectators for hockey. The Whalers' off-ice problems were magnified when the start of the 1990s triggered a spike in player salaries.
Despite assurances made when he purchased the team in 1994 that the Whalers would remain in Hartford at least through 1998, in March 1997, owner Peter Karmanos announced that the team would move elsewhere after the 1996–97 season because of the team's inability to negotiate a satisfactory construction and lease package for a new arena in Hartford. On May 6, 1997, Karmanos announced that the Whalers would move to the Research Triangle area of North Carolina and the new Entertainment and Sports Arena in Raleigh. Due to the short time frame for the move, Karmanos himself thought of and decided upon the new name for the club, the Carolina Hurricanes, rather than holding a contest as is sometimes done; that summer, the team dropped the Whalers' colors of blue and silver for a new black-and-red scheme, matching the colors of the North Carolina State University Wolfpack, with whose men's basketball team they would share the arena in Raleigh. The Hurricanes inherited the Whalers' place in the Northeast Division.
For the team, the ESA would not be complete for two more years. The only arena in the Triangle area with an ice plant was 45-year-old Dorton Arena; the Hurricanes were thus forced to play home games in Greensboro, 90 minutes west of Raleigh, for their first two seasons after the move. However, the team would be based in Raleigh and practice in nearby Hillsborough—effectively saddling the Hurricanes with 82 road games for the next two years; this choice was disastrous for the franchise's reputation. With a capacity of over 21,000 people for hockey, the Greensboro Coliseum was the highest-capacity arena in the NHL. However, Triangle-area fans balked at making the 80-mile drive down I-40 to Greensboro. Fans from the Piedmont Triad refused to support a lame-duck team that had displaced the popular Greensboro/Carolina Monarchs minor-league franchise; as a result, while the opening game drew a sellout, most games in Greensboro attracted crowds of 10,000 or fewer. The crowds looked smaller than that in the cavernous environment.
Furthermore, only 29 out of 82 games were televised, radio play-by-play coverage on WPTF was pre-empted by Wolfpack basketball (for whose broadcasts WPTF wa
A charter is the grant of authority or rights, stating that the granter formally recognizes the prerogative of the recipient to exercise the rights specified. It is implicit that the granter retains superiority, that the recipient admits a limited status within the relationship, it is within that sense that charters were granted, that sense is retained in modern usage of the term; the word entered the English language from the Old French charte, via Latin charta, from Greek χάρτης. It has come to be synonymous with a document that sets out a grant of privileges; the term is used for a special case to an institutional charter. A charter school, for example, is one that has different rules and statutes from a state school. Charter is sometimes used as a synonym for "tool" or "lease", as in the "charter" of a bus or boat or plane by an organization, intended for a similar group destination. A charter member of an organization is an original member. Anglo-Saxon charters are documents from the early medieval period in Britain which make a grant of land or record a privilege.
They are written on parchment, in Latin but with sections in the vernacular, describing the bounds of estates, which correspond to modern parish boundaries. The earliest surviving charters were drawn up in the 670s; the British Empire used three main types of colonies as it sought to expand its territory to distant parts of the earth. These three types were royal colonies, proprietary colonies, corporate colonies. A charter colony by definition is a "colony chartered to an individual, trading company, etc. by the British crown." Although charter colonies were not the most prevalent of the three types of colonies in the British Empire, they were by no means insignificant. A congressional charter is a law passed by the United States Congress that states the mission and activities of a group. Congress issued federal charters from 1791 until 1992 under Title 36 of the United States Code. A municipal corporation is the legal term for a local governing body, including cities, towns, charter townships and boroughs.
Municipal incorporation occurs when such municipalities become self-governing entities under the laws of the state or province in which they are located. This event is marked by the award or declaration of a municipal charter. Charters for chivalric orders and other orders, such as the Sovereign Military Order of Malta. In project management, a project charter or project definition is a statement of the scope and participants in a project, it provides a preliminary delineation of roles and responsibilities, outlines the project objectives, identifies the main stakeholders, defines the authority of the project manager. It serves as a reference of authority for the future of the project. In medieval Europe, royal charters were used to create cities; the date that such a charter was granted is considered to be when a city was "founded", regardless of when the locality began to be settled. At one time a royal charter was the only way in which an incorporated body could be formed, but other means are now used instead.
A charter of "Inspeximus" is a royal charter, by which an earlier charter or series of charters relating to a particular foundation was recited and incorporated into a new charter in order to confirm and renew its validity under present authority. Where the original documents are lost, an inspeximus charter may sometimes preserve their texts and lists of witnesses. Articles of Incorporation Atlantic Charter Charter Roll Charter school Chartered company Earth Charter Freedom Charter Fueros General incorporation law Magna Carta Medieval Bulgarian royal charters Papal Bull United Nations Charter
An oceanic climate known as a marine climate or maritime climate, is the Köppen classification of climate typical of west coasts in higher middle latitudes of continents, features mild summers and mild winters, with a narrow annual temperature range and few extremes of temperature, with the exception for transitional areas to continental and highland climates. Oceanic climates are defined as having a monthly mean temperature below 22 °C in the warmest month, above 0 °C in the coldest month, it lacks a dry season, as precipitation is more evenly dispersed throughout the year. It is the predominant climate type across much of Western Europe including the United Kingdom, the Pacific Northwest region of the United States and Canada, portions of central Mexico, southwestern South America, southeastern Australia including Tasmania, New Zealand, as well as isolated locations elsewhere. Oceanic climates are characterised by a narrower annual range of temperatures than in other places at a comparable latitude, do not have the dry summers of Mediterranean climates or the hot summers of humid subtropical.
Oceanic climates are most dominant in Europe, where they spread much farther inland than in other continents. Oceanic climates can have considerable storm activity as they are located in the belt of the stormy westerlies. Many oceanic climates have frequent cloudy or overcast conditions due to the near constant storms and lows tracking over or near them; the annual range of temperatures is smaller than typical climates at these latitudes due to the constant stable marine air masses that pass through oceanic climates, which lack both warm and cool fronts. Locations with oceanic climates tend to feature cloudy conditions with precipitation, though it can experience clear, sunny days. London is an example of an oceanic climate, it experiences constant precipitation throughout the entire year. Despite this, thunderstorms are quite rare since hot and cold air masses meet infrequently in the region. In most areas with an oceanic climate, precipitation comes in the form of rain for the majority of the year.
However, some areas with this climate see some snowfall annually during winter. Most oceanic climate zones, or at least a part of them, experience at least one snowfall per year. In the poleward locations of the oceanic climate zone, snowfall is more commonplace. Overall temperature characteristics of the oceanic climates feature cool temperatures and infrequent extremes of temperature. In the Köppen climate classification, Oceanic climates have a mean temperature of 0 °C or higher in the coldest month, compared to continental climates where the coldest month has a mean temperature of below 0 °C. Summers are cool, with the warmest month having a mean temperature below 22 °C. Poleward of the latter is a zone of the aforementioned subpolar oceanic climate, with long but mild winters and cool and short summers. Examples of this climate include parts of coastal Iceland, Norway, the Scottish Highlands, the mountains of Vancouver Island, Haida Gwaii in Canada, in the Northern Hemisphere and extreme southern Chile and Argentina in the Southern Hemisphere, the Tasmanian Central Highlands, parts of New Zealand.
Oceanic climates are not always found in coastal locations on the aforementioned parallels. The polar jet stream, which moves in a west to east direction across the middle latitudes, advances low pressure systems and fronts. In coastal areas of the higher middle latitudes, the prevailing onshore flow creates the basic structure of most oceanic climates. Oceanic climates are a reflection of the ocean adjacent to them. In the fall and early spring, when the polar jet stream is most active, the frequent passing of marine weather systems creates the frequent fog, cloudy skies, light drizzle associated with oceanic climates. In summer, high pressure pushes the prevailing westerlies north of many oceanic climates creating a drier summer climate; the North Atlantic Gulf Stream, a tropical oceanic current that passes north of the Caribbean and up the East Coast of the United States to North Carolina heads east-northeast to the Azores, is thought to modify the climate of Northwest Europe. As a result of the Gulf Stream, west-coast areas located in high latitudes like Ireland, the UK, Norway have much milder winters than would otherwise be the case.
The lowland attributes of western Europe help drive marine air masses into continental areas, enabling cities such as Dresden and Vienna to have maritime climates in spite of being located well inland from the ocean. Oceanic climates in Europe occur in Northwest Europe, from Ireland and Great Britain eastward to central Europe. Most of France, the Netherlands, Germany, the north coast of Spain, the western Azores off the coast of Portugal, the south of Kosovo and southern portions of Sweden have oceanic climates. Examples of oceanic climates are found in Glasgow, Bergen, Dublin, Bilbao, Donostia-San Sebastian, Bayonne, Züri
Stockholm Public Transport Stockholm Transport and referred to as SL, is the organisation running all of the land based public transport systems in Stockholm County. SL has its origins in AB Stockholms Spårvägar, a city-owned public transit company which started in 1915 by the City of Stockholm with the aim to deprivatize the two separate private tramway networks into one more efficient company. SS would in the late 1920s acquire private motorbus companies; the first part of the Stockholm Metro was opened in 1950. SS was renamed to SL in January 1967 when the metro, local train, bus operations in Stockholm County were merged into a single organisation under the supervision of Stockholm County Council; the different mass transit systems within the County had until been run by different organisations, Statens Järnvägar, private companies and companies owned by the local municipalities. In 1993 SL began to use independent contractors for the operation and maintenance of the different transport systems.
For bus traffic the operators own the buses, but for rail bound traffic the SL own the trains, the contractors operate them. The contractors used by SL are as of 2017 the following: Arriva Bus traffic in Danderyd, Ekerö, Sollentuna, Sundbyberg, Täby, Upplands Väsby, Vaxholm, Västerort and Österåker. Rail traffic on Saltsjöbanan, Nockebybanan and Tvärbanan. Keolis Bus traffic in Stockholm City Centre, Huddinge, Lidingö, Salem, Söderort and Värmdö. MTR Nordic Stockholm metro Stockholm commuter rail Nobina Bus traffic in Haninge, Järfälla, Norrtälje, Nynäshamn, Södertälje, Tyresö and Upplands-Bro. AB Stockholms Spårvägar Spårväg City Lidingöbanan Media related to Storstockholms Lokaltrafik at Wikimedia Commons Official website Tram Travels: Storstockholms Lokaltrafik
Hallstavik is a locality situated in Norrtälje Municipality, Stockholm County, Sweden with 4,476 inhabitants in 2010. The town is famous for the Speedway team Rospiggarna. Hallstavik is a society, in a positive development, where residents leave ideas and run various projects to create jobs and employment, it began in late 2007 when Hallstavik Started with local forces that wanted to turn the crisis into growth. The network is an informal organization of all – Norrtälje Municipality, Business Networks and Organizations - who want to help develop Hallstavik. Today there is an established project organization, Hallstaviks network that coordinates everything that happens in and around Hallstavik where several projects are in progress or have been implemented. Outdoor swimming, completed and inaugurated in 2010 is a prestigious project that contributed to many new visitors. Other projects are meeting places for the youth where they e.g. can play music. The project, Skebo Rivers sportfishing sat out trout to create the conditions for angling.
An example of Hallstavik's outstanding citizens, Minnah Karlsson who came second in the Swedish Idol 2010, Minnah is one of the few Idol-participants world over who has once been voted out, to come back and get to the final. It is a great place for business since it is located close to Stockholm and Uppsala. Holmen Paper is a business area within the Holmen Group and one of the leading manufacturers of wood-containing printing paper in Europe with paper mills in Norrköping and Hallstavik; the Group owns forest and power assets. A feasibility study to take advantage of waste heat from the paper mill in Hallstavik is another of the ongoing projects; the residents can submit ideas and collaborate more a project started called "Creative innovation and initiative in social media". This means that all members can register an idea on a digital idea forum, vote for and leave comments work is advanced in a Subgroup to take it to a project with help of the efficient "Hallstaviks network" project organization for the implementation of the idea.
Media related to Hallstavik at Wikimedia Commons
Suecia Antiqua et Hodierna
Suecia Antiqua et Hodierna is a collection of engravings collected by Erik Dahlbergh during the middle of the 17th century. Suecia Antiqua et Hodierna can be described as a grand vision of Sweden during its period as a great power. Dahlberg's direct source of inspiration was the topographical publications issued by the Swiss publisher Matthäus Merian. In 1661 Dahlberg was granted a royal privilege enabling him to realize his plans, which kept him occupied for a good decade, a work that would not be printed until after his death. In its final state Suecia Antiqua et Hodierna comprised three volumes containing 353 plates. Media related to Suecia antiqua et hodierna at Wikimedia Commons Suecia Antiqua et Hodierna at the Royal Library of Sweden Suecia Antiqua et Hodierna at the World Digital Library