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Norsemen

The Norsemen were the North Germanic peoples of the Early Middle Ages, during which they spoke Old Norse language and practiced Old Norse religion. The language belongs to the North Germanic branch of the Indo-European languages and is the predecessor of the modern Germanic languages of Scandinavia. During the late eighth century, Norsemen embarked on a large-scale expansion in all directions, giving rise to the Viking Age. In English-language scholarship since the 19th century, Norse seafaring traders and warriors have been referred to as Vikings. Though lacking a common ethnonym, the Viking Age Norsemen still had a common identity, which survives among their modern descendants, the Danes, Faroe Islanders and Swedes, who are now referred to as "Scandinavians" rather than Norsemen; the word Norseman first appears in English during the early 19th century: the earliest attestation given in the third edition of the Oxford English Dictionary is from Walter Scott's 1817 Harold the Dauntless. The word was coined using the adjective norse, borrowed into English from Dutch during the 16th century with the sense'Norwegian', which by Scott's time had acquired the sense "of or relating to Scandinavia or its language, esp in ancient or medieval times".

As with modern use of the word viking, the word norseman has no particular basis in medieval usage. The term Norseman does echo terms meaning'Northman', applied to Norse-speakers by the peoples they encountered during the Middle Ages; the Old Frankish word Nortmann was Latinised as Normannus and was used in Latin texts. The Latin word Normannus entered Old French as Normands. From this word came the name of the Normans and of Normandy, settled by Norsemen in the tenth century; the same word entered Hispanic languages and local varieties of Latin with forms beginning not only in n-, but in l-, such as lordomanni. This form may in turn have been borrowed into Arabic: the prominent early Arabic source al-Mas‘ūdī identified the 844 raiders on Seville not only as Rūs but al-lawdh’āna. In modern scholarship, Vikings is a common term for attacking Norsemen in connection with raids and monastic plundering by Norsemen in the British Isles, but it was not used in this sense at the time. In Old Norse and Old English, the word meant'pirate'.

The Norse were known as Ascomanni, ashmen, by the Germans, Lochlanach by the Gaels and Dene by the Anglo-Saxons. The Gaelic terms Finn-Gall, Dubh-Gall and Gall Goidel were used for the people of Norse descent in Ireland and Scotland, who assimilated into the Gaelic culture. Dubliners called them Ostmen, or East-people, the name Oxmanstown comes from one of their settlements; the Slavs, the Arabs and the Byzantines knew them as the Rus' or Rhōs derived from various uses of rōþs-, i.e. "related to rowing", or from the area of Roslagen in east-central Sweden, where most of the Northmen who visited the Slavic lands originated. Archaeologists and historians of today believe that these Scandinavian settlements in the Slavic lands formed the names of the countries of Russia and Belarus; the Slavs and the Byzantines called them Varangians, the Scandinavian bodyguards of the Byzantine emperors were known as the Varangian Guard. In the Old Norse language, the term norrœnir menn was used correspondingly to the modern English name Norsemen, referring to Swedes, Norwegians, Faroe Islanders and others.

Modern Scandinavian languages have a common word for Norsemen: the word nordbo, is used for both ancient and modern people living in the Nordic countries and speaking one of the Scandinavian Germanic languages. The British conception of the Vikings' origins was inaccurate; those who plundered Britain lived in what is today Denmark, the western coast of Sweden and Norway and along the Swedish Baltic coast up to around the 60th latitude and Lake Mälaren. They came from the island of Gotland, Sweden; the border between the Norsemen and more southerly Germanic tribes, the Danevirke, today is located about 50 kilometres south of the Danish–German border. The southernmost living Vikings lived no further north than Newcastle upon Tyne, travelled to Britain more from the east than from the north; the northern part of the Scandinavian Peninsula was unpopulated by the Norse, because this ecology was inhabited by the Sami, the native people of northern Sweden and large areas of Norway and the Kola Peninsula in today's Russia.

The Norse Scandinavians established polities and settlements in what are now Great Britain, Iceland, Belarus, Sicily, Ukraine, Estonia, Lithuania, Poland, Greenland and the Faroe Islands. A Out of convenience, "Scandinavians" is used as a synonym for "North Germanic peoples" though Icelanders and Faroe Islanders do not inhabit Scandinavia today; the term is therefore given a cultural rather than geographical sense

Trumpeter finch

The trumpeter finch is a small passerine bird in the finch family Fringillidae. This bird breeds in the Canary Islands, across north Africa, in the Middle East and into central Asia. There is a small European population in southern Spain. Many birds are resident, but there is post-breeding dispersal, some Asian breeders migrate into Pakistan for the winter. In the summer of 2005 there was a notable irruption of this species into northwestern Europe, with several birds reaching as far as England. Stony desert or semi-desert is favoured for breeding. Four eggs are laid in a nest in a rock crevice; this gregarious terrestrial finch's food is seeds, in the breeding season, insects. The trumpeter finch is a long-winged bird, it has a large head and short thick bill. The summer male has a red bill, grey head and neck, pale brown upper parts; the breast and tail are pink, the last having dark terminal feathers. Winter males and young birds are a washed-out version of the breeding male; the song of this bird is a buzzing nasal trill.

There are four recognised subspecies: B. g. amantum - B. g. zedlitzi - B. g. githagineus B. g. crassirostris The genus name is from Ancient Greek bukanetes, "trumpeter", the specific githagineus is Latin from Githago, the corn cockle. Temminck believed. Trumpeter Finch videos, photos & sounds on the Internet Bird Collection Oiseaux Photos

Stereotypes of groups within the United States

Stereotypes exist of various groups of people as found within US culture. These stereotypes may be disproportionately well known to people worldwide, due to the transmission of US culture and values via the export of US made films and television shows. There has long been an admiration of Native Americans as fitting the archetype of the noble savage within European thought, stemming from a cultural sympathy grounded within the post-Enlightenment theory of primitivism; these positive portrayals of Native Americans as being noble, peaceful people, who lived in harmony with nature and each other continue within modern culture, e.g. the film Dances with Wolves. Over time, as settlers spread west, Native Americans were seen as obstacles and their image became more negative. Native Americans were portrayed in popular media as wild, uncivilized, dangerous people who continuously attack white settlers and stagecoaches and ululate while holding one hand in front of their mouths, they speak invariably in a deep voice and use stop words like "How" and "Ugh".

In drawings, their skin color was depicted as deep red. In westerns and other media portrayals, they are called "Indians". Examples of this stereotypical image of Native Americans can be found in many American westerns until the early 1960s, in cartoons like Peter Pan. In other stereotypes, they smoked peace pipes, wore face paint, danced around totem poles, sent smoke signals, lived in tepees, wore feathered head-dresses, scalped their foes, said'um' instead of'the' or'a'; as colonization continued in the U. S. groups were separated into categories like "Christians" and "civilized" against "heathen" and "savage". Many Whites have viewed Native Americans as devoid of self-control and unable to handle responsibility. Modern Native Americans as they live today are portrayed in popular culture. Native Americans were portrayed as all-bring fierce warrior braves—often appearing in school sports teams' names until such team names fell into disfavor in the 20th century. Many school team names have been revised to reflect current sensibilities, though professional teams like the Kansas City Chiefs, the Atlanta Braves, the Cleveland Indians and the Washington Redskins continue.

Some controversial upper-level Native American team mascots such as Chief Noc-A-Homa and Chief Illiniwek have been discontinued. Native American gaming has been expanding since the 1970s, was formalized in the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act, it has become a modern stereotype that a Native American must either own a casino or be in the family of one who does. In centuries before and during the first half of the 20th century black people were depicted by Whites as dumb, lazy, cannibalistic, uncivilized, un-Christian people; the early British colonists brought these ideas with them to the Americas, their negative stereotypes persisted in the newly formed United States, other former British possessions, once the period of British colonialism ended. White colonists believed that black people were inferior to white people; these thoughts helped to justify black slavery and the institution of many laws that continually condoned inhumane treatment and perpetuated to keep black people in a lower socioeconomic position.

This was true for how whites treated black females labeling them with lewd adjectives. This became known after the infamous Phoenician Queen Jezebel; the British colonists arriving in Africa for the first time in the 1500s were the first to create and spread this stereotype, this stereotype was used to justify rape and forced procreation of black women by white men. Black people were depicted as slaves or servants working in cane fields or carrying large piles of cotton, they were portrayed as devout Christians going to church and singing gospel music. In many vaudeville shows, minstrel acts, cartoons and animated cartoons of this period they were depicted as sad, dimwitted characters with big lips who sing bluesy songs and are good dancers, but get excited when confronted with dice games, chickens or watermelons. A more joyful black image, yet still stereotypical, was provided by eternally happy black characters like Uncle Tom, Uncle Remus and Louis Armstrong's joyous stage persona. Another popular stereotype from this era was the black, scared of ghosts.

Children are pickaninnies like Little Black Sambo and Golliwog. African American Vernacular English speech was often used in comedy, like for instance in the show Amos'n' Andy. Another stereotype was that of the savage. African black people were depicted as primitive, cannibalistic persons who live in tribes, carry spears, believe in witchcraft and worship their wizard. Since the 1960s, the stereotypical image of black people has changed in some media. More positive depictions appeared where black people and African Americans are portrayed as great athletes and superb singers and dancers. In many films and television series since the 1970s, black people are depicted as good-natured, kind and intelligent persons, they are the best friend of the white protagonist. Some critics believed this political correctness led to another stereotypical image where black people are depicted too positively. Spike Lee popularized the term magical negro, deriding the archetype of the "super-duper magical neg