Graffiti are writing or drawings that have been scribbled, scratched, or painted illicitly on a wall or other surface, often within public view. Graffiti range from simple written words to elaborate wall paintings, and they have existed since ancient times, with examples dating back to Ancient Egypt, Ancient Greece, in modern times and marker pens have become the most commonly used graffiti materials. In most countries, marking or painting property without the property owners permission is considered defacement and vandalism, Graffiti may express underlying social and political messages and a whole genre of artistic expression is based upon spray paint graffiti styles. Within hip hop culture, graffiti have evolved alongside hip hop music, b-boying, unrelated to hip-hop graffiti, gangs use their own form of graffiti to mark territory or to serve as an indicator of gang-related activities. Controversies that surround graffiti continue to create disagreement amongst city officials, law enforcement, both graffiti and its occasional singular form graffito are from the Italian word graffiato.
Graffiti is applied in art history to works of art produced by scratching a design into a surface, a related term is sgraffito, which involves scratching through one layer of pigment to reveal another beneath it. This technique was used by potters who would glaze their wares. In ancient times graffiti were carved on walls with a sharp object, the word originates from Greek γράφειν — graphein — meaning to write. The term graffiti referred to the inscriptions, figure drawings, and such, found on the walls of ancient sepulchres or ruins, use of the word has evolved to include any graphics applied to surfaces in a manner that constitutes vandalism. Safaitic dates from the first century BC to the fourth century AD, the first known example of modern style graffiti survives in the ancient Greek city of Ephesus. Local guides say it is an advertisement for prostitution, located near a mosaic and stone walkway, the graffiti shows a handprint that vaguely resembles a heart, along with a footprint and a number.
This is believed to indicate that a brothel was nearby, with the handprint symbolizing payment, the ancient Romans carved graffiti on walls and monuments, examples of which survive in Egypt. Graffiti in the world had different connotations than they carry in todays society concerning content. One inscription gives the address of a woman named Novellia Primigenia of Nuceria, another shows a phallus accompanied by the text, mansueta tene. Etched on the surface of the Mirror Wall, they contain pieces of prose, the majority of these visitors appear to have been from the elite of society, officials and clergy. There were soldiers and even some metalworkers, the topics range from love to satire, curses and lament. Many demonstrate a high level of literacy and a deep appreciation of art. Most of the graffiti refer to the frescoes of semi-nude females found there, one reads, Among the ancient political graffiti examples were Arab satirist poems
United Farm Workers
The United Farm Workers of America, or more commonly just United Farm Workers, is a labor union for farmworkers in the United States. As a result of the commonality in goals and methods, the NFWA and this organization was accepted into the AFL-CIO in 1972 and changed its name to the United Farmworkers Union. Dolores Huerta grew up in Stockton, which was in the San Joaquin Valley, in the early 1950s, she completed a degree at Delta Community College, part of the University of the Pacific. She briefly worked as a school teacher. Huerta saw that her students, many of children of farm workers, were living in poverty without enough food to eat or other basic necessities. To help, she one of the founders of the Stockton chapter of the Community Service Organization. The CSO worked to improve social and economic conditions for farm workers, in 1952, Chávez met Fred Ross who was a community organizer working on behalf of the Community Service Organization. This was a group which was affiliated with the Industrial Areas Foundation which was headed by Saul Alinsky, to further her cause, Huerta created the Agricultural Workers Association in 1960.
In 1962, she co-founded a workers union with César Chávez, the two made a great team. Chávez was the leader and speaker and Huerta was a skilled organizer. Huerta was instrumental in the many successes, including the strikes against California grape growers in the 1960s and 1970s. During the 1950s, César Chávez and Fred Ross developed twenty-two new Community Service Organization chapters in the Mexican American neighborhoods of San Jose, in 1959, Chávez would claim the rank of executive director in the Community Service Organization. During this time, Chávez observed and adopted the notion of having the community become more involved in order to bring about the social changes that the community sought. This would be a tactic in Chávez’s future struggles in fighting for immigrant rights. César Chávez’s ultimate goal in his participation with the Community Service Organization, Saul Alinsky did not share Chávez’s sympathy for the farm workers struggle, claiming that organizing farm workers, was like fighting on a constantly disintegrating bed of sand.
In March 1962 at the Community Service Organization convention, Chávez proposed a project for organizing farm workers which was rejected by the organization’s members. By 1965 the National Farm Workers Association had acquired twelve hundred members through Chávez’s person-to-person recruitment efforts which he learned from Fred Ross just a decade earlier, Out of those twelve hundred, only about two hundred paid dues. Also in 1962, Richard Chavez, the brother of César Chávez, designed the black Aztec eagle insignia that would become the symbol of the NFW, César Chávez chose the red and black colors used by the organization
Bakersfield is a city in California, United States, and the county seat of Kern County. It covers about 142 square miles near the end of the San Joaquin Valley. Bakersfields population is approximately 365,000, making it the ninth-most populous city in California, the Bakersfield–Delano Metropolitan Statistical Area, which includes all of Kern County, had a 2010 census population of 839,631, making it the 62nd largest metropolitan area in the United States. The more built-up urban area that includes Bakersfield and areas immediately around the city, such as East Bakersfield, the city is a significant hub for both agriculture and oil production. Kern County is the most productive oil producing county, and the fourth most productive county in the United States. Industries include natural gas and other energy extraction, mining, petroleum refining, distribution, food processing, the city is the birthplace of the country music genre known as the Bakersfield sound. Archaeological evidence indicates the presence of Native American settlements dating back thousands of years, the Yokuts lived in lodges along the branches of the Kern River Delta and hunted antelope, tule elk, bear and game birds.
In 1776, Spanish missionary Father Francisco Garcés became the first European to explore the area, following the discovery of gold in California in 1848, settlers flooded into the San Joaquin Valley. In 1851, gold was discovered along the Kern River in the southern Sierra Nevada, the Bakersfield area, once a tule-reed-covered marshland, was first known as Kern Island to the handful of pioneers who built log cabins there in 1860. The area was subject to flooding from the Kern River, which occupied what is now the downtown area. In 1862, disastrous floods swept away the original settlement founded in 1860 by the German-born Christian Bohna, among those attracted to the area by the California gold rush was Thomas Baker, a lawyer and former colonel in the militia of Ohio, his home state. Baker moved to the banks of the Kern River in 1863, at what became known as Bakers Field, by 1870, with a population of 600, what is now known as Bakersfield was becoming the principal town in Kern County. In 1873, Bakersfield was officially incorporated as a city, alexander Mills was hired as the city marshal, a man one historian would describe as.
An old man by the time he became Marshal of Bakersfield, but he was a Kentuckian, a handy man with a gun, and not lacking in initiative and resource when the mood moved him. Businessmen and others began to resent Mills, who was cantankerous, wanting to fire him but fearing reprisals, they came up with a scheme to disincorporate, effectively leaving him without an employer. According to local historian Gilbert Gia, the city was failing to collect the taxes it needed for services, in 1876, the city voted to disincorporate. For the next 22 years, a citizens council managed the community, by 1880, the town had a population of 801, and by 1890, it had a population of 2,626. Migration from Texas, Louisiana and Southern California brought new residents, the city reincorporated on January 11,1898
Delano is a city in Kern County, United States. Delano is located 31 miles north-northwest of Bakersfield at an elevation of 315 feet, the population was 62,088 in 2016, up from 38,824 in 2000. It is Kern Countys second largest city after Bakersfield, the area is particularly well known as a center for the growing of table grapes. Delano is home to two California state prisons, North Kern State Prison and Kern Valley State Prison, the Voice of America once operated its largest, most powerful shortwave broadcast facility outside Delano at 35°45′15″N 119°17′7″W. However, the Voice of America ceased broadcasts in October 2007, citing a changing mission, reduced budgets. Delanos two school districts currently operate eight schools, three middle schools, three comprehensive high schools and two alternative high schools. The city has its own department and contracts with the Kern County Fire Department for fire services, EMS services are privately provided by local company. Delano was founded on July 14,1869 as a town, not because the railroad passed through the town but because the railroad coming down from San Francisco.
The name was given by the Southern Pacific Railroad in honor of Columbus Delano. The first post office opened in 1874, the town naturally started with a boom. Great loads of bullion were delivered here from the mines in the mountains, Delano became the northern terminus for the passenger stages that ran south to Bakersfield and Los Angeles. The fare from Bakersfield to Delano was $7.00 a trip, Delano was a major hub of farmworker organization efforts and Chicano movement politics. Filipino immigrants Philip Vera Cruz and Larry Dulay Itliong were instrumental in shaping the direction of farm worker movement in the 1950s, the strikers goal was to improve farmworkers wages and working conditions. The National Farm Workers Association, a largely Hispanic union led by Cesar Chavez, during the strike, the two groups joined forces and formed the United Farm Workers of America. By 1970, the UFW won a contract with major grape growers across California, Delano is known as The Town because of the many towns folk that roam there.
Major farm employers in Delano include Wonderful Citrus, Columbine Vineyards, Munger Farms, Lucich Farms, according to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 14.4 square miles, over 99% of which is land. Delanos climate is characteristic of the San Joaquin Valley, the weather is hot and dry during the summer and cool and damp in winter. Frequent winter ground fog known regionally as tule fog can obscure vision, record temperatures range between 115 °F and 14 °F. Delano is located within a desert climatic zone, receiving 7.51 in of rainfall annually
Supermax is the name used to describe control-unit prisons, or units within prisons, which represent the most secure levels of custody in the prison systems of certain countries. It typically involves up to 23-hour-per-day, single-cell confinement for a period of time. Inmates in supermax housing have minimal contact with staff and other inmates, leena Kurki and Norval Morris have argued there is no absolute definition of a supermax, and that different jurisdictions classify prisons as supermax inconsistently. They identify four general features that tend to characterize supermax prisons, Long-term – Once transferred to a supermax prison, powerful administration – Supermax administrators and Correctional Officers have ample authority to punish and manage inmates, without outside review or prisoner grievance systems. Solitary confinement – Supermax prisons rely heavily on intensive solitary confinement, no activities – Few opportunities are provided for recreation, substance abuse programs, or other activities generally considered healthy and rehabilitative at other prisons.
In supermax, prisoners are allowed out of their cells for only one hour a day. They receive their meals through ports in the doors of their cells, when supermax inmates are allowed to exercise, this may take place in a small, enclosed area where the prisoner will exercise alone. Prisoners are under constant surveillance, usually with closed-circuit television cameras, cell doors are usually opaque, while the cells may be windowless. Conditions are plain, with poured concrete or metal furniture common, cell walls, and sometimes plumbing, may be soundproofed to prevent communication between the inmates. The United States Penitentiary Alcatraz Island, opened in 1934, has considered a prototype. An early form of supermax-style prison unit appeared in Australia in 1975, dubbed the electronic zoo by inmates, Katingal was a super-maximum security prison block with 40 prison cells having electronically operated doors, surveillance cameras, and no windows. It was closed two years over human rights concerns.
Since then, some maximum-security prisons have gone to full lockdown as well, while others have been built, Supermax prisons began to proliferate within the United States after 1984. Prior to 1984 only one prison in the U. S. met supermax standards, by 1999, the United States contained at least 57 supermax facilities, spread across 30–34 states. This prompted Norman Carlson, director of the Federal Bureau of Prisons, in Carlsons view, such a prison was the only way to deal with inmates who show absolutely no concern for human life. The Federal Bureau of Prisons solitary confinement units are known as Special Housing Units. In recent years a number of U. S. states have downgraded their supermax prisons, as has been done with Wallens Ridge State Prison, There is only one supermax prison in the United States federal system, ADX Florence in Florence, Colorado. However, it is best known for housing inmates who have been deemed either too dangerous
A machete is a broad blade used either as an implement like an axe, or in combat like a short sword. The blade is typically 32.5 to 45 centimetres long, in the Spanish language, the word is a diminutive form of the word macho, which was used to refer to sledgehammers. In the English language, an equivalent term is matchet, though it is commonly known. In the English-speaking Caribbean, such as Jamaica, Barbados and Grenada and in Trinidad and Tobago, in various tropical and subtropical countries, the machete is frequently used to cut through rain forest undergrowth and for agricultural purposes. It is common to see people using machetes for other jobs, such as splitting open coconuts, yard work, removing small branches and plants, chopping animals food, because the machete is common in many tropical countries, it is often the weapon of choice for uprisings. For example, the Boricua Popular Army are unofficially called macheteros because of the laborers of sugar cane fields of past Puerto Rico.
Many of the killings in the 1994 Rwandan genocide were performed with machetes, Machetes were a distinctive tool and weapon of the Haitian Tonton Macoute. In 1762, the Kingdom of Great Britain invaded Cuba in the Battle of Havana, and peasant guerrillas led by Pepe Antonio, the machete was the most iconic weapon during the independence wars in that country, although it saw limited battlefield use. Carlos Manuel de Céspedes, owner of the sugar refinery La Demajagua near Manzanillo and he proceeded to lead them, armed with machetes, in revolt against the Spanish government. The machete was a side arm and tool for many ethnic groups in West Africa. Machetes in this role are referenced in Chinua Achebes Things Fall Apart, some countries have a name for the blow of a machete, the Spanish machetazo is sometimes used in English. To strike with the edge is to chop. Throughout the Caribbean, the term refers to a laborers cutting tool. The Brazilian Armys Instruction Center on Jungle Warfare developed a machete with a blade 10 inches in length and a very pronounced clip point.
This machete is issued with a 5-inch Bowie knife and a stone in the scabbard. Quite a lot of slashers have used it as a weapon in horror movies, the panga or tapanga is a variant used in East and Southern Africa. This name may be of Swahili etymology, not to be confused with the Panga fish, the panga blade broadens on the backside and has a length of 16 to 18 inches. The upper inclined portion of the blade may be sharpened, in the Philippines, the bolo is a very similar tool, but with the blade swelling just before the tip to make the knife even more efficient for chopping
The Nebraska Cornhuskers is the name given to the intercollegiate athletic teams of the University of Nebraska–Lincoln. The university is a member of the Big Ten Conference and the Cornhuskers compete in NCAA Division I, early nicknames for the universitys athletic teams included the Hawkeyes, the Antelopes, the Old Gold Knights, the Bugeaters and the Mankilling Mastodons. The name Cornhuskers first appeared in the newspaper as We Have Met The Cornhuskers And They Are Ours referring to a 20–18 upset victory over Iowa in 1893. The term Cornhuskers was referring to Iowa in that instance, the name would be used again, this time to refer to Nebraska by Cy Sherman in The Nebraska State Journal during the 1899 season and would replace all other names by 1900. Sherman tired of referring to the Nebraska teams with such a term as Bugeaters. Iowa had, from time to time, been called the Cornhuskers, the Cornhuskers have two official mascots, Herbie Husker and Lil Red. The Cornhuskers participate in 21 sports sponsored by the Big Ten Conference, in addition the Huskers field varsity teams in two sports not sponsored by the Big Ten, namely rifle and bowling.
The rifle team is a member of the single-sport Great America Rifle Conference, Nebraska joined the Big Ten Conference in 2011. † = Rifle is technically a mens sport, but mens, womens, * = Beach volleyball is a fully sanctioned NCAA sport which had its first national championship in the spring of 2016. Nebraska currently competes as an independent, the Nebraska Cornhuskers field both a male and female cross country team coached by David Harris. They currently run on a course through Pioneers Park in Lincoln, the mens team started in 1938 and the womens team started in 1975 as a result of Title IX. The Nebraska Cornhuskers have never won a Big 12 conference championship, the only mens conference championship was in 1940 Big Six meet. The women have won the conference championship 5 times, the latter three mark one of only three times that a team has won three NCAA Division I-A/FBS national football championships in four seasons. The other two were Notre Dame in 1946,1947 and 1949, and Alabama in 2009,2011 and 2012, the Cornhuskers won three national titles under Osborne, including one in his final season.
Nebraskas home games always open with the Tunnel Walk, which signifies the entry of the team onto the field, when the Cornhuskers play at home in Memorial Stadium, the stadium holds more people than Bellevue. The current attendance record was set on Saturday, September 20,2014 and they currently hold the NCAA record for the most consecutive sold out home games, the sellout streak dates back to November 3,1962. On December 2,2007, athletic director Tom Osborne named Bo Pelini head football coach at Nebraska, Pelini left his previous position as defensive coordinator at LSU after the 2008 National Championship win against Ohio State. Pelini was defensive coordinator at Nebraska in 2003 and was head coach for the 2003 Alamo Bowl game
Stanislaus County, California
Stanislaus County is a county located in the Central Valley of the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 514,453, Stanislaus County comprises the Modesto Metropolitan Statistical Area. The first European to see it was Gabriel Moraga in 1806, estanislao was his baptismal name, the Spanish version of Stanislaus, itself the Latin version of the name of an 11th-century Polish Catholic Saint Stanislaus the Martyr. Between 1843 and 1846, when California was a province of independent Mexico, the grant was never confirmed by the Land Commission. Stanislaus County was formed part of Tuolumne County in 1854. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 1,515 square miles. Stanislaus County has historically been divided socially and economically by the north-flowing San Joaquin River, there are a number or rare and endangered species found in Stanislaus County. The Beaked Clarkia, is listed as a candidate for the Federal Endangered Species List and it has only been found in blue oak-gray pine associations in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada, a habitat which occurs at moderately high elevations.
Colusa Grass, is listed as endangered by the State and it is restricted to vernal pools. StaRT connects with Merced County Transit in Gustine and Turlock, Modesto Area Express operates within Modesto, with limited service to Salida and Ceres. MAX runs special commuter routes connecting with the BART and Altamont Commuter Express rail systems, the cities of Ceres, Oakdale and Turlock run small local bus systems. Both Greyhound and Amtrak have stops in Modesto and Turlock, Amtrak for Turlock actually stops in Denair. Modesto City-County Airport has a number of scheduled passenger flights, other airports around the county include Oakdale Airport, Patterson Airport, and Turlock Airpark. The following table includes the number of reported and the rate per 1,000 persons for each type of offense. The 2010 United States Census reported that Stanislaus County had a population of 514,453. 6% of Stanislaus County is Mexican,0. 6% Puerto Rican,0. 5% Salvadoran,0. 2% Nicaraguan, and 0. 2% Guatemalan. As of the census of 2000, there were 446,997 people,145,146 households, the population density was 299 people per square mile.
There were 150,807 housing units at a density of 101 per square mile. The racial/ethnic makeup of the county was 69. 3% White,2. 6% Black,4. 2% Asian,1. 3% Native American,0. 3% Pacific Islander,16. 8% from other races, and 5. 4% from two or more races
Capital punishment, known as the death penalty, is a government sanctioned practice whereby a person is put to death by the state as a punishment for a crime. The sentence that someone be punished in such a manner is referred to as a death sentence, the term capital in this context alluded to execution by beheading. Fifty-six countries retain capital punishment,103 countries have abolished it de jure for all crimes, six have abolished it for ordinary crimes. Capital punishment is a matter of controversy in various countries and states. In the European Union, Article 2 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union prohibits the use of capital punishment, the Council of Europe, which has 47 member states, prohibits the use of the death penalty by its members. The United Nations General Assembly has adopted, in 2007,2008,2010,2012 and 2014, non-binding resolutions calling for a moratorium on executions. Although most nations have abolished capital punishment, over 60% of the population live in countries where executions take place, such as China, India.
Execution of criminals and political opponents has been used by nearly all societies—both to punish crime, in most countries that practise capital punishment it is reserved for murder, war crimes, treason, defection or as part of military justice. In many countries use the death penalty, drug trafficking is a capital offence. In China, human trafficking and serious cases of corruption are punished by the death penalty, in militaries around the world courts-martial have imposed death sentences for offences such as cowardice, desertion and mutiny. The use of formal execution extends to the beginning of recorded history, most historical records and various primitive tribal practices indicate that the death penalty was a part of their justice system. Communal punishment for wrongdoing generally included compensation by the wrongdoer, corporal punishment, banishment, usually and shunning were enough as a form of justice. The response to crime committed by neighbouring tribes or communities included a formal apology, a blood feud or vendetta occurs when arbitration between families or tribes fails or an arbitration system is non-existent.
This form of justice was common before the emergence of a system based on state or organized religion. It may result from crime, land disputes or a code of honour, acts of retaliation underscore the ability of the social collective to defend itself and demonstrate to enemies that injury to property, rights, or the person will not go unpunished. However, in practice, it is difficult to distinguish between a war of vendetta and one of conquest. Elaborations of tribal arbitration of feuds included peace settlements often done in a religious context, compensation was based on the principle of substitution which might include material compensation, exchange of brides or grooms, or payment of the blood debt. Settlement rules could allow for animal blood to replace human blood, the person offered for execution did not have to be an original perpetrator of the crime because the system was based on tribes, not individuals
Incarceration in the United States
Incarceration in the United States is one of the main forms of punishment, rehabilitation, or both for the commission of felony and other offenses. The United States has the largest prison population in the world, in 2013 in the US, there were 698 people incarcerated per 100,000 population. This is the U. S. incarceration rate for adults or people tried as adults. According to the US Bureau of Justice Statistics,2,220,300 adults were incarcerated in US federal and state prisons, additionally,4,751,400 adults in 2013 were on probation or on parole. In total,6,899,000 adults were under supervision in 2013 – about 2. 8% of adults in the U. S. resident population. In 2014, the number of persons in the adult correctional systems had fallen to 6,851,000 persons. About 1 in 36 adults was under some form of correctional supervision – the lowest rate since 1996, on average the correctional population has declined by 1. 0% since 2007, while this continued to stay true in 2014 the number of incarcerated adults slightly increased in 2014.
In addition, there were 54,148 juveniles in juvenile detention in 2013, although debtors prisons no longer exist in the United States, residents of some U. S. states can still be incarcerated for debt as of 2016. According to a 2014 Human Rights Watch report, tough-on-crime laws adopted since the 1980s, have filled U. S. prisons with mostly nonviolent offenders and this policy failed to rehabilitate prisoners and many were worse on release than before incarceration. Rehabilitation programs for offenders can be more cost effective than prison, according to the Brennan Center for Justice, falling crime rates cannot be ascribed to mass incarceration. According to a 2016 analysis of data by the U. S. Education Department and local spending on incarceration has grown three times as much as spending on education since 1980. In 1841, Dorothea Dix discovered that prison conditions were, in her opinion, prisoners were chained naked, whipped with rods. Others, criminally insane, were caged, or placed in cellars and she insisted on changes throughout the rest of her life.
While focusing on the insane, her comments resulted in changes for other inmates, the BOP houses adult felons convicted of violating District of Columbia laws due to the National Capital Revitalization and Self-Government Improvement Act of 1997. As of 2004, state prisons proportionately house more violent felons, in 2016, almost 90% of prisoners were in state prisons, 10% were in federal prisons. At the beginning of 2008, more than 1 in 100 adults in the United States were in prison or jail, total US incarceration peaked in 2008. Total correctional population peaked in 2007, if all prisoners are counted, in 2008 the US had around 24. 7% of the worlds 9.8 million prisoners
Southern California, often abbreviated as SoCal, is a geographic and cultural region that generally comprises Californias 10 southernmost counties. The region is described as eight counties, based on demographics and economic ties, Los Angeles, Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego, Santa Barbara. The more extensive 10-county definition, which includes Kern and San Luis Obispo counties, is used and is based on historical political divisions. Southern California is an economic center for the state of California. The 8-county and 10-county definitions are not used for the greater Southern California Megaregion, the megaregions area is more expansive, extending east into Las Vegas and south across the Mexican border into Tijuana.5 million people. With over 22 million people, Southern California contains roughly 60 percent of Californias population, located east of Southern California is the Colorado Desert and the Colorado River at the border with Arizona. The Mojave Desert is located at the border with the state of Nevada while towards the south is the Mexico–United States border, within Southern California are two major cities, Los Angeles and San Diego, as well as three of the countrys largest metropolitan areas.
With a population of 3,792,621, Los Angeles is the most populous city in California and the second most populous in the United States. South of Los Angeles and with a population of 1,307,402 is San Diego, the second most populous city in the state and the eighth most populous in the nation. The counties of Los Angeles, San Diego, San Bernardino, and Riverside are the five most populous in the state, the motion picture and music industry are centered in the Los Angeles area in Southern California. Hollywood, a district within Los Angeles, gives its name to the American motion picture industry, headquartered in Southern California are The Walt Disney Company, Sony Pictures, Universal, MGM, Paramount Pictures, 20th Century Fox, and Warner Brothers. Universal, Warner Brothers, and Sony run major record companies, Southern California is home to a large homegrown surf and skateboard culture. Companies such as Vans, Quiksilver, No Fear, RVCA, some of the worlds biggest action sports events, including the X Games, Boost Mobile Pro, and the U. S.
Open of Surfing, are all held in Southern California. Southern California is important to the world of yachting, the annual Transpacific Yacht Race, or Transpac, from Los Angeles to Hawaii, is one of yachtings premier events. The San Diego Yacht Club held the Americas Cup, the most prestigious prize in yachting, from 1988 to 1995, Southern California is home to many sports franchises and sports networks such as Fox Sports Net. Many locals and tourists frequent the Southern California coast for its popular beaches, the desert city of Palm Springs is popular for its resort feel and nearby open spaces. Southern California is not a geographic designation and definitions of what constitutes Southern California vary. Geographically, Californias North-South midway point lies at exactly 37°958.23 latitude, around 11 miles south of San Jose, when the state is divided into two areas, the term Southern California usually refers to the 10 southernmost counties of the state
Sombrero in English refers to a type of wide-brimmed hat popularly worn in Mexico, used to shield from the sun. It usually has a pointed crown, an extra-wide brim. Cowboys generalized the word to mean just about any wide broad-brimmed hat, like the cowboy hats invented later, were designed in response to the demands of the physical environment. The concept of a hat worn by a rider on horseback can be seen as far back as the Mongolian horsemen of the 13th century. In hot, sunny climates hats evolved to have wide brims, the Spanish developed a flat-topped sombrero, which they brought to Mexico. It was modified by the vaquero into the round-crowned Mexican sombrero, other types of hats known as sombrero can be found in South America and Spain, including the sombrero calañés, sombrero cordobés and sombrero de catite, sombrero vueltiao. Many early Texan cowboys adopted the Spanish and Mexican sombrero with its crown and wide. Also called the poblano, these came from Spain. The Mexican variation of the added an even wider brim.
These are the hats worn by musicians and charros. Both types of sombreros usually include a barboquejo or chin strap, in the Western United States, the sombrero had a high conical or cylindrical crown with a saucer-shaped brim, highly embroidered and made of plush felt. Sombreros are present in Philippine history, due to the influence from Spain brought about by the Manila galleon trade, the term has been assimilated into the Tagalog language in the form of sumbrero and now refers to any hat – from actual sombreros to baseball caps. The galaxy Messier 104 is known as the Sombrero Galaxy due to its appearance, in 2016, colleges and other venues criticized students for wearing sombreros, along with other ethnic clothing and traditions, citing cultural appropriation. Boss of the plains Chupalla Ranch Vaquero Western wear Sun hat