The North American B-25 Mitchell is a medium bomber, introduced in 1941 and named in honor of Major General William "Billy" Mitchell, a pioneer of U. S. military aviation. Used by many Allied air forces, the B-25 served in every theater of World War II, after the war ended, many remained in service, operating across four decades. Produced in numerous variants, nearly 10,000 B-25s were built; these included a few limited models such as the F-10 reconnaissance aircraft, the AT-24 crew trainers, the United States Marine Corps' PBJ-1 patrol bomber. The Air Corps issued a specification for a medium bomber in March 1939, capable of carrying a payload of 2,400 lb over 1,200 mi at 300 mph North American Aviation used its NA-40B design to develop the NA-62, which competed for the medium bomber contract. No YB-25 was available for prototype service tests. In September 1939, the Air Corps ordered the NA-62 into production as the B-25, along with the other new Air Corps medium bomber, the Martin B-26 Marauder "off the drawing board".
Early into B-25 production, NAA incorporated a significant redesign to the wing dihedral. The first nine aircraft had a constant-dihedral, meaning the wing had a consistent, upward angle from the fuselage to the wingtip; this design caused stability problems. "Flattening" the outer wing panels by giving them a slight anhedral angle just outboard of the engine nacelles nullified the problem, gave the B-25 its gull wing configuration. Less noticeable changes during this period included an increase in the size of the tail fins and a decrease in their inward tilt at their tops. NAA continued design and development in 1940 and 1941. Both the B-25A and B-25B series entered USAAF service; the B-25B was operational in 1942. Combat requirements led to further developments. Before the year was over, NAA was producing the B-25D series at different plants. In 1942, the manufacturer began design work on the cannon-armed B-25G series; the NA-100 of 1943 and 1944 was an interim armament development at the Kansas City complex known as the B-25D2.
Similar armament upgrades by U. S-based commercial modification centers involved about half of the B-25G series. Further development led to the B-25H, B-25J, B-25J2; the gunship design concept dates to late 1942 and NAA sent a field technical representative to the SWPA. The factory-produced B-25G entered production during the NA-96 order followed by the redesigned B-25H gunship; the B-25J reverted to the bomber role, but it, could be outfitted as a strafer. NAA manufactured the greatest number of aircraft in World War II, the first time a company had produced trainers and fighters simultaneously, it produced B-25s at both its Inglewood main plant and an additional 6,608 aircraft at its Kansas City, plant at Fairfax Airport. After the war, the USAF placed a contract for the TB-25L trainer in 1952; this was a modification program by Hayes of Alabama. Its primary role was reciprocating engine pilot training. A development of the B-25 was the North American XB-28, designed as a high-altitude bomber. Two prototypes were built with the second prototype, the XB-28A, evaluated as a photo-reconnaissance platform, but the aircraft did not enter production.
The majority of B-25s in American service were used in the war against Japan in Asia and the Pacific. The Mitchell fought from the Northern Pacific to the Far East; these areas included the campaigns in the Aleutian Islands, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, New Britain, China and the island hopping campaign in the Central Pacific. The aircraft's potential as a ground-attack aircraft emerged during the Pacific war; the jungle environment reduced the usefulness of medium-level bombing, made low-level attack the best tactic. Using similar mast height level tactics and skip bombing, the B-25 proved itself to be a capable anti-shipping weapon and sank many enemy sea vessels of various types. An ever-increasing number of forward firing guns made the B-25 a formidable strafing aircraft for island warfare; the strafer versions were the B-25C1/D1, the B-25J1 and with the NAA strafer nose, the J2 subseries. In Burma, the B-25 was used to attack Japanese communication links bridges in central Burma.
It helped supply the besieged troops at Imphal in 1944. The China Air Task Force, the Chinese American Composite Wing, the First Air Commando Group, the 341st Bomb Group, the relocated 12th Bomb Group, all operated the B-25 in the China Burma India Theater. Many of these missions involved battle-field isolation and close air support. In the war, as the USAAF acquired bases in other parts of the Pacific, the Mitchell could strike targets in Indochina and Kyushu, increasing the usefulness of the B-25, it was used in some of the shortest raids of the Pacific War, striking from Saipan against Guam and Tinian. The 41st Bomb Group used it against Japanese-occupied islands, bypassed by the main campaign, such as happened in the Marshall Islands; the first B-25s arrived in Egypt and were carrying out independent operations by October 1942. Operations there against Axis airfields and motorized vehicle columns supported the ground actions of the Second Battle of El Alamein. Thereafter, the aircraft took part in the rest of the campaign in North Africa, the invasion of Sicily, the advance up Italy.
In the Strait of Messina to the Aegean Sea, the B-25 conducted sea sweeps as part of the coastal air forces. In Italy, the B-25 was used in the ground attack role, concentrating on attacks against road and rail links in Italy and the Balkans; the B-25 had a longer range than the Douglas A-20 Havoc and Douglas A-26 Invade
Kim Rene Nalley is an American jazz and blues singer with a 3½ octave range Raised in New Haven, Nalley is from a musical family that includes jazz drummer and photographer Reggie Jackson and R&B guitarist-vocalist Earl Whitaker. She attended Educational Center for the Arts in New Haven. Nalley switched to jazz shortly after moving to San Francisco Bay Area in the late 1980s, where she attended University of California, Berkeley, she received from UC Berkeley a B. A. degree in History and sung in the Cal Big Band. "She studied classical music and theatre and, while attending college, she gained important experience singing in local clubs and jam sessions."While performing weekly at the Alta Plaza, director Michael Tilson Thomas discovered Nalley, recorded her in concert, hired her to sing a program of Gershwin tunes with the San Francisco Symphony. She began performing with the Johnny Nocturne Band, charting at No. 12 on the Gavin list and embarking on a national and international touring schedule that included the Mountain Stage.
She performed at the Teatro Zinzanni as Madame Zinzanni. After spending a couple of years living in Switzerland, she returned to San Francisco to own and run the Jazz at Pearl's North Beach night club during 2003–2008. Need My Sugar She Put a Spell on Me: Kim Nalley Sings Nina Simone Ballads for Billie Christmas Time Is Here Blues People With Rhoda Scott Beyond the Sea Official site
Emily Jean Crimson Thatcher was a teacher of pianoforte. Emily Jean Crimson was born in Salt Lake City, Utah, on December 15, 1868, the daughter of George C. Crimson and Mary Louisa Tanner She graduated from the Brigham Young College at Logan and studied music in Boston and New York City. Emily Thatcher was a teacher of pianoforte, she was the librarian at Brigham Young College. She prepared students for the great American conservatories of music, she was a member of the Tabernacle Choir. She was the president of the Utah State Agricultural College Woman's Club, she was a member of the Utah State Agricultural College Women's Faculty League. On February 18, 1892, Emily Jean Crimson married George Washington Thatcher and had one daughter, Patience Thatcher Logan, they lived at Utah. George W. Thatcher was a noted business leader of northern Utah. Born in Salt Lake City on August 9, 1866, he died on August 30, 1950, he was the son of George W. Thatcher, Sr. and Luna Young Thatcher and was a grandson of Brigham Young, early leader of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.
He moved to Logan with his parents in 1870 when his father was called to supervise the construction of the ZCMI building on First North and Main streets. They returned to Salt Lake City in 1871, moving back to Logan in 1877. Thatcher attended the University of Deseret, went with William B. Preston, Sr. to survey Afton and other Star Valley towns. In 1889, he was named director of the Logan fireman's band and in 1893 was elected Cache County, treasurer, he became well known to patrons music, having studied in Boston for four years and New York City three years. His specialties were cello, he was the treasurer of the Thatcher Mill and Elevator Co.. G. Thatcher, in the Thatcher Music Co. and became a leader in the local theater field. He was instrumental in starting the old Thatcher opera house, destroyed by fire in 1912. For many years he was head of the music department at Utah State Agricultural College. Emily Thatcher died on November 22, 1960, is buried in Logan City Cemetery, Utah
Johann David Passavant was a German painter and artist. Passavant was born in 1787 in Germany, his interest in the arts was evident by an early correspondence with the artist Franz Pforr. He moved to Paris in 1809 to further his business interests, he returned to Frankfurt in 1824. His Tour of a German artist in England remains a significant source for art historians, as do his catalogues of old master prints, whose numbering is still followed by some collections. In the year 1839 he became Inspektor of the Städelsches Kunstinstitut in Frankfurt. There he acquired important works in the prints and drawing area, mounted exhibitions, taught. Passavant developed the three principal genres of art writing important for the next two centuries: the scholarly artistic biography, the aesthetic travelogue, the reference survey; as a historian, he followed the romantic tradition. His paintings include Holy Family with Elizabeth and John 1819, Staadtische Galerie im Staadelschen Kunstinstitut, Frankfurt and A Visitation and the Samaritan c.
Thomas M. Price is an American architect, called "Galveston's foremost modern architect" by historian and Rice University faculty member Stephen Fox, an Adjunct Lecturer of the School of Architecture. Price's portfolio of designs encompass a diverse variety of building types. All of the buildings that were built from his designs are located in southeastern United States. Price was born in Blacksburg, Virginia on March 17, 1916. Price attended the Virginia Polytechnic Institute until he received his bachelor's degree in 1938, he received his master's degree from the Harvard Graduate School of Design in 1941. While at Harvard he studied under modern masters like Marcel Breuer and Walter Gropius. Price was active from the 1950s to the late 1970s, designing private residences, motels, schools, a social club, a beach house and commercial buildings, his preference for trimly-detailed buildings with walls treated as planes of glass or solidly paneled surfaces is evident in many of the buildings he designed in Galveston.
These include the Seahorse Motel and the Beachcomber Motel on Seawall Boulevard, the Galveston Artillery Club on Avenue O, the gymnasium of Gladneo Parker Elementary School on 69th Street, his largest project that he worked on in the city, the 10-story Sealy & Smith Professional Building on University Boulevard. Price designed several of the most distinctive modern houses built in Galveston, among them the Caravageli House on Caduceus Place, the Stirling House on South Shore Drive, the Mehos House on Harbor View Drive, the Yen House on Marine Drive, the Kelso Camp on Offatts Bayou. Price was involved in early efforts to preserve Galveston's 19th-century architectural heritage, he was responsible for two pioneer preservation planning studies prepared for the city: Galveston, Texas: Historical District Guide and Historical Development Plan for Galveston, Texas. Outside Galveston, Price designed the Lasher House in the Memorial section of Houston, Texas, renovated and restored by Ray Bailey architects and the Bauer House outside Port Lavaca, Texas.
Including Houston, he designed banks in Alvin, Bay City, Freeport and Webster, Texas in the 1960s. He designed hotels in Asheville, North Carolina, Mississippi, Marathon and San Francisco, California around the same time. Thomas M. Price retired to 320 W. Burbank St. in Fredericksburg, Texas where he designed the Nimitz Museum. He died on November 6, 1998 at the age of 82. Price's house designs are among the most distinctive in Galveston, are listed in the Galveston Architectural Guide
Andrea Zemanová is a Czech freestyle skier, specializing in ski cross and alpine skier. Zemanová competed at the 2014 Winter Olympics for Czech Republic, she placed 20th in the seeding run for the ski cross event. In the first round, she finished third in her heat; as of September 2015, her best showing at the Alpine World Championships is 32nd, in the 2011 Super-G. Her best showing at the Freestyle World Championships is 14th, in the 2015 ski cross. Zemanová made her Freestyle World Cup debut in December 2013; as of September 2015, she has one World Cup podium finish, a silver at Åre in 2014–15. Her best Freestyle World Cup overall finish in ski cross is 11th, in 2014–15. Zemanová made her Alpine World Cup debut in December 2010; as of September 2015, she has yet to finish an Alpine World Cup race