The North American river otter known as the northern river otter or the common otter, is a semiaquatic mammal endemic to the North American continent found in and along its waterways and coasts. An adult North American river otter can weigh between 14 kg; the river otter is insulated by a thick, water-repellent coat of fur. The North American river otter, a member of the subfamily Lutrinae in the weasel family, is versatile in the water and on land, it establishes a burrow close to the water's edge in river, swamp, coastal shoreline, tidal flat, or estuary ecosystems. The den has many tunnel openings, one of which allows the otter to enter and exit the body of water. Female North American river otters give birth in these burrows, producing litters of one to six young. North American river otters, like most predators, prey upon the most accessible species. Fish is a favored food among the otters, but they consume various amphibians, freshwater clams, snails, small turtles and crayfish; the most common fish consumed are perch and catfish.
Instances of North American river otters eating small mammals, such as mice and squirrels, birds have been reported as well. There have been some reports of river otters attacking and drowning dogs; the range of the North American river otter has been reduced by habitat loss, beginning with the European colonization of North America. In some regions, their population is controlled to allow the trapping and harvesting of otters for their pelts. North American river otters are susceptible to the effects of environmental pollution, a factor in the continued decline of their numbers. A number of reintroduction projects have been initiated to help halt the reduction in the overall population; the North American river otter was first described by German naturalist Johann Christian Daniel von Schreber in 1777. The mammal was identified as a species of otter and has a variety of common names, including North American river otter, northern river otter, common otter and river otter. Other documented common names are American otter, Canada otter, Canadian otter, fish otter, land otter, nearctic river otter, Prince of Wales otter.
The North American river otter was first classified in the genus Lutra. The species name was Lutra canadensis; the species epithet canadensis means "of Canada". In a new classification, the species is called Lontra canadensis, where the genus Lontra includes all the New World river otters. Molecular biological techniques have been used to determine when the river otter and the giant otter of South America diverged; these analyses suggest they diverged in the Miocene epoch 23.03 to 5.33 million years ago, "much earlier" than indicated in the fossil record. Fossils of a giant river otter dating back 3.5 Mya have been found in the US Midwest. The earliest known fossil of Lontra canadensis, found in the US Midwest, is from the Irvingtonian stage; the oldest fossil record of an Old World river otter comes from the late Pliocene epoch. The New World river otters originated from the Old World river otters following a migration across the Bering Land Bridge, which existed off and on between 1.8 million and 10,000 years ago.
The otters migrated to North America and southwards again across the Panamanian Land Bridge, which formed 3 Mya. Listed alphabetically L. c. canadensis – L. c. kodiacensis – L. c. lataxina – L. c. mira – L. c. pacifica – L. c. periclyzomae – L. c. sonora – The North American river otter is a stocky animal of 5 to 14 kilograms, with short legs, a muscular neck no smaller than the head, an elongated body, broadest at the hips. They have long bodies, long whiskers that are used to detect prey in dark waters. An average adult male weighs about 11.3 kilograms against the female's average of 8.3 kilograms. Its body length ranges from 66 to 107 centimetres. About one-third of the animal's total length consists of a long, tapered tail. Tail lengths range from 30 to 50 centimetres. Large male North American river otters can exceed a weight of 15 kilograms, it differs from the European otter by its longer neck, narrower visage, the smaller space between the ears and its shorter tail. A broad muzzle is found on the North American river otter's flat head, the ears are round and inconspicuous.
The rhinarium is bare, with an triangular projection. Eyes placed anteriorly. A short, broad rostrum for exhaling and a long, broad cranium define the flat skull; the North American river otter's nostrils and ears close during submersion, keeping water from entering them. Its vibrissae are thick, enhancing sensory perception underwater and on land; the fur of the species is short, with a density of about 57,800 hairs/cm2 in the midback section. The pelage varies from light brown to black; the throat and lips are grayer than the rest of the body. Fur of senescent river otters may become white-tipped, rare albino
The Mabee-Gerrer Museum of Art is a non-profit art museum in Shawnee, Oklahoma, USA. It is located on what was the campus of St. Gregory's University, said campus now being leased to Oklahoma Baptist University; the museum operated independently of St. Gregory's, though that university is now closed, the museum continues to operate.. The museum’s collection includes over 3,500 artworks, spans over 6,000 years of art, represents cultures from around the world including ancient Egyptian, pre-Columbian, Native American and American art; the museum houses the official portrait of Oklahoma's only Egyptian mummies. The museum includes a gift shop that sells educational toys, publications related to their exhibitions and arts and crafts from local artisans; the MGMoA is a member of the Oklahoma Association of Museums and a member agency of Oklahoma City's Allied Arts. The museum hosts the annual festival Arts Trek; the museum is named for Fr. Gregory Gerrer, a Benedictine monk of St. Gregory's Abbey, an art historian and art collector.
During his travels in the United States, Europe and South America, he acquired art and artifacts to exhibit in Oklahoma. In 1919, the collection moved to Benedictine Hall where it was called St. Gregory's Abbey Art Gallery and Museum. G. Patrick Riley visited the museum as a child in the early 1940s, credits these visits as his inspiration to become an artist. Starting in 1962, the Gerrer collection was on long term loan to the Oklahoma Science and Arts Foundation in Oklahoma City. St Gregory's Abbey built a new building as a permanent home for the collection with matching funds from the Mabee Foundation; the Mabee-Gerrer Museum of Art opened in 1979. The building was designed by Chadsey/Architects from Oklahoma; the museum was the exclusive United States venue to show Etruscan Treasures, an exhibit which featured Etruscan and Roman gold work, as well as artifacts from the Vatican Museums. This was the first time that the gold jewelry, from the collection of Prince Fabrizio Alliata di Montereale, was publicly displayed.
The exhibit ran from June 1 through October 31, 2004, was featured in a documentary produced by Oklahoma's Public Television Station. In August 2015, St. Anthony Shawnee Hospital performed CT scans on the two Egyptian mummies in the museum's collection; the mummies visited the same hospital in 1991 for X-rays. The scans showed that Tutu's organs had been individually mummified and placed back inside her stomach and chest cavity before she was wrapped in linen; the museum's collection began with a gift in 1903. While Fr. Gregory Gerrer was traveling in the Holy Land, he was presented with an Egyptian scarab with the hieroglyphic goose symbol on it; the museum houses an artifact collection that includes an ancient Egyptian mummy and sarcophagus, ancient Egyptian animal mummies, Roman glass, ancient Greek pottery, ancient Chinese terracotta figures, European ivory and icons, Venetian armor, Mesoamerican stone carvings, shrunken heads, Spanish colonial paintings, African masks and bronzes. The paintings collection includes work from Guido Reni, Guercino, Bartolomé Esteban Murillo, Jean-Léon Gérôme, William-Adolphe Bouguereau, William Merritt Chase, Albert Bierstadt and Robert Priseman.
The institute's holdings in Spanish Colonial art include retablos, wooden sculptures of saints, paintings. One anonymous painting, Christ of Ixmiquilpan, dates to the early 19th century and captures a miraculous alter scene in Mexico City. A temporary exhibition of Spanish Colonial Art ran from April to June in 2010; the collection was shown at the Arlington Museum of Art in Arlington, Texas in a special exhibition from April 12 to May 26, 2013. Fr. Gregory Gerrer St. Gregory's Abbey St. Gregory's University Benedictine Hall Museum website Mabee-Gerrer Museum information and video TravelOK.com Official travel and tourism website for the State of Oklahoma
The 26th Golden Raspberry Awards, or Razzies, were held on March 4, 2006 at the Ivar Theatre in Hollywood, California to honor the worst films the film industry had to offer in 2005. The nominations for the Golden Raspberry Awards were announced on January 30, 2006; the most nominated film of the year was Son of the Mask with eight nominations, followed by The Dukes of Hazzard with seven, Dirty Love with six, Deuce Bigalow: European Gigolo and Bewitched with five. The only picture to be assigned multiple penalties was Dirty Love, with four; the official GRAF press release announcing the 2005 winners proclaimed Dirty Love "...a little stinker that no one but seem to know existed." 2005 in film 78th Academy Awards 59th British Academy Film Awards 63rd Golden Globe Awards 12th Screen Actors Guild Awards