click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Textile manufacturing

Textile manufacturing is a major industry. It is based on the conversion of fibre into yarn into fabric; these are dyed or printed, fabricated into clothes. Different types of fibres are used to produce yarn. Cotton remains the most important natural fibre. There are many variable processes available at the spinning and fabric-forming stages coupled with the complexities of the finishing and colouration processes to the production of a wide range of products. Cotton is the world's most important natural fibre. In the year 2007, the global yield was 25 million tons from 35 million hectares cultivated in more than 50 countries. There are six stages: Cultivating and Harvesting Preparatory Processes Spinning Weaving or Knitting Finishing Marketing Cotton is grown anywhere with long, hot dry summers with plenty of sunshine and low humidity. Indian cotton, Gossypium arboreum, is finer but the staple is only suitable for hand processing. American cotton, Gossypium hirsutum, produces the longer staple needed for machine production.

Planting is from September to mid-November and the crop is harvested between March and June. The cotton bolls are harvested by stripper harvesters and spindle pickers that remove the entire boll from the plant; the cotton boll is the seed pod of the cotton plant. GinningThe seed cotton goes into a cotton gin; the cotton gin removes the "trash" from the fibre. In a saw gin, circular saws grab the fibre and pull it through a grating, too narrow for the seeds to pass. A roller gin is used with longer staple cotton. Here, a leather roller captures the cotton. A knife blade, set close to the roller, detaches the seeds by drawing them through teeth in circular saws and revolving brushes which clean them away; the ginned cotton fibre, known as lint, is compressed into bales which are about 1.5 m tall and weigh 220 kg. Only 33% of the crop is usable lint. Commercial cotton is priced by quality, that broadly relates to the average length of the staple and the variety of the plant. Longer staple cotton is called Egyptian, medium staple is called American upland, short staple is called Indian.

The cotton seed is pressed into a cooking oil. The husks and meal are processed into animal feed, the stems into paper. Ginning, bale-making and transportation is done in the country of origin. Opening and cleaning Cotton is shipped to mills in large 500 pound bales; when the cotton comes out of a bale, it still contains vegetable matter. The bale is broken open using a machine with large spikes, called an opener. In order to fluff up the cotton and remove the vegetable matter, the cotton is sent through a picker or a similar machine. In a picker, the cotton is beaten with a beater bar, it is fed through various rollers, which serve to remove the vegetable matter. The cotton, aided by fans collects on a screen and gets fed through more rollers till it emerges as a continuous soft fleecy sheet, known as a lap. Blending and ScutchingScutching refers to the process of cleaning cotton of its seeds and other impurities; the first scutching machine was invented in 1797, but did not come into further mainstream use until after 1808 or 1809, when it was introduced and used in Manchester, England.

By 1816, it had become adopted. The scutching machine worked by passing the cotton through a pair of rollers, striking it with iron or steel bars called beater bars or beaters; the beaters, which turn quickly, strike the cotton hard and knock the seeds out. This process is done over a series of parallel bars so as to allow the seeds to fall through. At the same time, air is blown across the bars. Carding In the carding process, the fibres are separated and assembled into a loose strand; the cotton comes off of the picking machine in laps, is taken to carding machines. The carders line up the fibres nicely to make them easier to spin; the carding machine consists of one big roller with smaller ones surrounding it. All of the rollers are covered in small teeth, as the cotton progresses further on the teeth get finer; the cotton leaves the carding machine in the form of a sliver: a large rope of fibres. Note: In a wider sense carding can refer to these four processes: Willowing- loosening the fibres.

Combing is used to remove the shorter fibres, creating a stronger yarn. Drawing the fibres are straightenedSeveral slivers are combined; each sliver will have thin and thick spots, by combining several slivers together a more consistent size can be reached. Since combining several slivers produces a thick rope of cotton fibres, directly after being combined the slivers are separated into rovings; these rovings are what are used in the spinning process. Speaking, for machine processing, a roving is about the width of a pencil. Drawing frame: Draws the strand out Slubbing Frame: adds twist, winds onto bobbins Intermediate Frames: are used to repeat the slubbing process to produce a finer yarn. Roving frames: reduces to a finer thread, gives more twist, makes more regular and in thickness, winds onto a smaller tube. SpinningMost spinning today is done using Break or Open-end spinning, this is a technique where the staples are blown by air into a rotating drum, where they a

Alexander Fulton (Louisiana)

Alexander Fulton was a merchant and local politician from Washington, near Pittsburgh in western Pennsylvania, who in 1805 founded the city of Alexandria, which he named for himself. About 1795, Fulton came to Alexandria, the seat of government of Rapides Parish and the largest city in Central Louisiana, in partnership with land speculator William Miller. Fulton, who held a land grant from the government of Spain, purchased merchandise and built the first store in Rapides Parish and located it beside the Red River. On May 4, 1805, he was appointed coroner of Rapides Parish by territorial Governor William C. C. Claiborne, he became the area postmaster during the Jefferson administration in 1807. In 1805, he laid out the townsite of Alexandria in collaboration with his business partner, Thomas Harris Maddox. In 1793, Fulton married the 15-year-old Mary Henrietta Wells, daughter of Samuel Levi Wells, I, the former Dorcas Huie. Alexander and Mary Fulton had six children: Samuel, William, Benjamin and Courtney Ann Fulton.

Mary Wells Fulton was the aunt of Louisiana Governor James Madison Wells, born near Alexandria in 1808. Governor Wells was a son of Samuel Levi Wells, II. Fulton died in 1818 and is believed to have been interred at Rapides Cemetery in Pineville, the smaller city on the eastern side of the Red River. There is no grave marker, so the exact burial site is not known, his year of death is known because of existing records which show that his estate went through probate in January, 1819. Fulton is honored by the naming of Fulton Street and the Fulton Street Bridge, which links Louisiana Highway 28 across the Red River between Alexandria and Pineville; the founder is further recognized by the naming of the 7-story, 163,000 square foot complex, the Alexander Fulton Hotel and Convention Center, located at 701 Fourth Street in the riverfront district. The complex, newly remodeled by Sharpco Construction LLC and reopened in July 2016 as a full service hotel run by Sharpco Hotels LLC Holiday Inn, is near the historic Bentley Hotel, founded in 1907 by a timber magnate, Joseph Bentley

Hana Jalloul

Hana Jalloul Muro is a Spanish politician and a lecturer in international terrorism. She is a member of the 11th Assembly of Madrid in the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party parliamentary group. Born on 8 April 1978 in Zaragoza, she earned a PhD at the Complutense University of Madrid. She has worked as associate professor for the Charles III University of Madrid in the field of International Terrorism. A member of the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party, she worked as adviser for José Manuel Rodríguez Uribes at the Delegation of the Government of Spain in the Community of Madrid, she was included in the 20th place of the PSOE list for the 2019 Madrilenian regional election. Elected as member of the 11th term of the regional legislature, she was designated as the group's spokesperson at the Committee on Justice and Victims of Terrorism. On January 2020 she was announced as prospective Secretary of State for Migrations

Lee, Massachusetts

Lee is a town in Berkshire County, United States. It is part of the Pittsfield, metropolitan statistical area; the population was 5,943 at the 2010 census. Lee, which includes the villages of South and East Lee, is part of the Berkshires resort area. Lee occupies land, territory of Mahican Indians; the first non-native settlement in the area was known as Dodgetown as early as 1760. Dodgetown was named after its founding settler, Asahel Dodge, who immigrated to the area from Cape Cod. Lee was incorporated in 1777 from parts of Great Washington, it is named after Revolutionary War General Charles Lee. Lee is a former mill town. In the autumn of 1786 during Shays' Rebellion, about 250 followers of Daniel Shays encountered state troops commanded by General John Paterson near East Lee; the Shaysites paraded a fake cannon crafted from a yarn beam, the troops fled. Early industries included agriculture and lime making. Abundant streams and rivers provided water power for mills. Papermaking became the principal industry in 1806 with the construction of the Willow Mill by Samuel Church in South Lee.

The Columbia Mill in central Lee was established in 1827, became the first to supply 100% groundwood newsprint to The New York Times. By 1857, there were 25 paper mills in Lee; the Smith Paper Company discovered how to manufacture paper from wood pulp in 1867, through the 1870s was the country's largest producer of paper. The mills owned by Smith Paper Company were closed in 2008. Today, Lee has only a single papermaking facility; the town's marble is famous for its quality. The first quarry was established in 1852. In 1867 500,000 cubic feet of marble was excavated and shipped on the Housatonic Railroad. Buildings constructed of Lee marble include a wing of the Capitol in Washington, 250 sculptures adorning Philadelphia City Hall, General Grant National Memorial and St. Patrick's Cathedral in New York City; the town's 19th-century prosperity is still evident in its architecture, including its town hall, several churches and private homes. South Lee includes a historic district listed on the National Register.

Lee has become a popular tourist destination, noted both for its New England charm and its bed and breakfast establishments. It is known as the "Gateway to The Berkshires" because it provides one of only two exits on the Massachusetts Turnpike that serve the county, the only one going eastbound. Arlo Guthrie's court appearance before the blind judge and his seeing-eye dog for dumping garbage as described in the song "Alice's Restaurant" took place in the courtroom at the Lee Town Hall. Lee was The Cider House Rules. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 27.0 square miles, of which 26.1 sq mi is land and 0.89 sq mi, or 3.22%, is water. Lee is bordered by Lenox to the northwest, Washington to the northeast, Becket to the east, Tyringham in the southeast, Great Barrington to the southwest, Stockbridge to the west. Lee is 10 miles south of Pittsfield, 42 miles west-northwest of Springfield, 125 miles west of Boston. Lee is in a valley along the Housatonic River.

It is west of October Mountain State Forest, with two sections of the forest in Lee. In the southwest corner of town lies a portion of Beartown State Forest, where Burgoyne Pass crosses the northern end of the mountain. Hop Brook, a marshy brook which flows from Tyringham, flows into the Housatonic in the south; the Appalachian Trail skirts the eastern part of town, passing through Tyringham and Washington. Lee is on Interstate 90, is home to Exit 2, the westernmost full exit on the turnpike as well as the first service area along the Pike. Lee is on U. S. Route 20, the "old Mass Pike", the main route to New York until the interstate. A small section of U. S. Route 7 crosses through the northwest corner of town before meeting Route 20 in Lenox. Massachusetts Route 102's eastern terminus is at Route 20 at the Exit 2 toll plaza. Lee lies along the Housatonic Railroad line, which travels from Pittsfield to Great Barrington and Sheffield, terminating near at New Milford, near Danbury; the line is still the area's primary rail link to New York City's metropolitan area and Albany.

As of 2013 negotiations are underway to restore rail commuter service between the Berkshires and New York City along this route. The town is covered by the Berkshire Regional Transit Authority bus line, which runs between Pittsfield and Great Barrington. Regional bus services make regular daily stops, maintain year-round schedules through Lee. Peter Pan and Bonanza Bus Lines each make scheduled stops at Town Hall. Regional air service can be reached at Pittsfield Municipal Airport; the nearest national and international air services can be reached at Albany International Airport in Albany, New York, about 55 miles away. Bradley International Airport, near Hartford, Connecticut 70 miles from Lee, is a popular option. See also: Lee, Massachusetts As of the census of 2000, there were 5,985 people, 2,442 households, 1,606 families residing in the town. By population, Lee ranks seventh out of the 32 cities and towns in Berkshire County, 227th out of 351 cities and towns in Massachusetts; the population density was 226.7 people per square mile, which ranks sixth in the county and 241st in the Commonw

Resimli Ay

Resimli Ay was an Ottoman-Turkish magazine published in Istanbul between 1924 and 1938. Seven volumes with a total of 72 issues were edited; the magazine was founded by the journalist couple Zekeriya and Sabiha Sertel who studied in the US and wanted to contribute to improving the political and economic living conditions - of Turkish women - and to the intellectual education of the Turkish population. The magazine was thus a publication organ for the socialist and avant-garde requirements of the 1920s. In addition to Sabiha and Zekeriya Sertel, the latter general director of the new republic and co-founder of the Istanbul daily Cumhuriyet, influential intellectuals such as Sabahattin Ali and Suat Derviş, as well as the Marxist-influenced poet Nazim Hikmet were among the authors. Zekeriya Sertel's critical attitude towards the Turkish state within the framework of the republican movement led to his arrest in May 1925, which resulted in the takeover of the financial and editorial management as well as the production of the magazine by his wife Sabiha Sertel.

In 1926 the journal was censored by state and was published under the new title Sevimli Ay for the following two years. Between 1927 and 1938 the publication of the journal continued under its original title Resimli Ay - from now on in Latin scripture - with some interruptions. At the beginning the magazine was published monthly, it contained around forty large-format pages per issue and costed 25 Kurus which made it five times more expensive than an average daily newspaper. Despite its high price, Resimli Ay became a popular publication among the Turkish population and dealt with social issues in the form of editorials, opinion surveys, reader's letters, short stories and poems as well as self-help articles. In addition to dealing with contrasting aspects such as child poverty and factory work versus nightclubs and dance trends, the role of the modern Turkish woman played a major role. Glamorous illustrations in the style of Vanity Fair or Vogue were intended to draw a cosmopolitan picture of women in public sphere and reflected the urban elite of Istanbul.

Thus the first edition under the title "Bügünkü Türk Kadınlar" was dedicated to the cosmopolitan woman of post-war period in Istanbul