The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Morris County, New Jersey
Morris County is a county located in the U. S. state of New Jersey, about 25 mi west of New York City. According to the 2010 United States Census, the population was 492,276, up from the 470,212 at the 2000 Census, As of the 2017 Census estimate, the county's population was 499,693, making it the state's 10th-most populous county, marking a 1.5% increase from 2010. The county is part of the New York Metropolitan Area, its county seat is Morristown; the most populous place was Parsippany-Troy Hills Township, with 53,238 residents at the time of the 2010 Census, while Rockaway Township covered 45.55 square miles, the largest total area of any municipality. In 2015, the county had a per capita personal income of $86,582, the highest in New Jersey and ranked 24th of 3,113 counties in the United States. Morris County, as of the 2000 Census, was the sixth-wealthiest county in the United States by median household income at $77,340, sixth in median family income at $89,773 and ranked tenth by per capita income at $36,964.
The Bureau of Economic Analysis ranked the county as having the 16th-highest per capita income of all 3,113 counties in the United States as of 2009. The county ranked third in the New York Metropolitan area in terms of median income. Morris County was named after Colonel Lewis Morris, governor of New Jersey in 1738/9, the year the county was named; the Wisconsin Glacier covered the northern section of Morris County from about 23,000 B. C. to 13,000 B. C. After the Wisconsin Glacier melted around 13,000 B. C. Paleo Indians moved into the area from the south in search of small game as well as plants; the area was first tundra with grasses growing. Rabbits and fox moved into the area from the south; the area of Morris County was inhabited by the Lenape Native Americans prior to the arrival of European settlers around the year 1000. They came from the Mississippi River area, they lived along the rivers and hunted game, collected plants and nuts. Henry Hudson explored the Hudson River area in 1609, which the Dutch did surveys of the area.
From 1611 to 1614, the Dutch established the colony of New Netherland, which claimed territory between the 40th and 45th parallel north, a zone which included northern New Jersey. Dutch forts were established along the Hudson River beginning in 1613; as the years went by, more forts were established to trade with Native Americans. The Native Americans traded furs and food with the Dutch for various goods. In return the Dutch gave the Native Americans metal pots, guns and blankets. Trading with the Native Americans occurred until 1643 when a series of wars broke out between the Dutch and Native Americans. There were hostile relations between the Dutch and Native Americans between 1643 and 1660; this prevented colonization by the Dutch of the Morris County region, technically included in their claimed "New Netherland." On August 27, 1664, three English ships approached Fort Amsterdam and the fort was surrendered to the English. The English now controlled New Netherland and Morris County was now under control of the colony of New York.
Relations with the Native Americans improved for a while. There was a war with the Dutch ten years later; the Dutch re-took control of New Amsterdam but after a year returned it to the English. Relations with the Native Americans and English improved for a while. European settlements began in the early 18th century. Native Americans were still in the area at that time. Land was purchased from the Native Americans for various things such as blankets, rum, knives and gunpowder; the Native Americans' concept of selling land was different than that of the Europeans. Colonization moved inland; the first settlement in the area today known as Morris County occurred in Pompton Plains by the Dutch in 1695. From 1710 to 1730, various iron mines and forges were established; the first was in Whippany in 1710 and in Succasunna in 1713. By 1750, nearly all Native Americans had left New Jersey; this was due to land purchases from the Native Americans, diseases that the Native Americans contracted from Europeans, due to starvation from the Little Ice Age, during which Native American corn crops failed and rivers froze, preventing fishing.
Snow storms made them difficult to find. Nut crops such as oak, beech, walnut and butternut failed some years due to late frosts in spring. Due to all the events that happened, Native Americans went to eastern Canada and others went to the Ohio Valley; the Walking Purchase in September 1737, prevented Native Americans from going to eastern Pennsylvania. At that time, European settlement grew swiftly as there was now land to be settled. Morris County was part of Burlington County, established in 1694, it became part of Hunterdon County, which separated from Burlington County in 1714. Morris County was created on March 1739, from portions of Hunterdon County; the county was named for the Governor of the Province of Colonel Lewis Morris. In years Sussex County and, after the revolution, Warren County were carved out of what had been the original area of Morris County under English rule; the county was the site of the winter camp of the Continental Army after the Battles of Trenton and Princeton during the winter of 1777, as well as another winter camp at Jockey Hollow during an cold winter of 17
North Branch, New Jersey
North Branch is an unincorporated community and hamlet located within Branchburg Township, in Somerset County, New Jersey, United States. A portion of North Branch is located in Bridgewater Township; the hamlet of North Branch, located on both sides of the North Branch of the Raritan River, brings the ambiance of a small village and charm to the area. The North Branch Volunteer Fire Company provides fire protection to western Bridgewater Township and northern Branchburg Township; the company's 30 volunteers cover 12 square miles and 15,000 residents. The Branchburg portion of the area is home to the Midland School, a school serving students with developmental disabilities from a number of public school districts. In 2005, the Bridgewater-Raritan Regional School District opened Milltown School, an elementary school located on the east bank of the North Branch river. Raritan Valley Community College is located north of the intersection of old Route 28 and Lamington Road on a 240-acre site acquired in 1968.
Rutgers University has a partnership with Raritan Valley Community College. This program allows students who have an associate degree to complete a bachelor's degree through the off campus Rutgers location at Raritan Valley Community College's North Branch campus. People who were born in, residents of, or otherwise associated with North Branch include: Raymond Bateman, who represented Somerset County in the New Jersey Senate in the 1960s and 1970s and was the Republican candidate for Governor of New Jersey in 1977. North Branch Reformed Church The North Branch Historic District on the western side of the North Branch was added to the National Register of Historic Places on April 16, 2012. North Branch Historic District Branchburg Township official web site Branchburg Public Schools Bridgewater-Raritan school district site Branchburg Rescue Squad North Branch Volunteer Fire Company Rutgers at Raritan Valley Community College
New Jersey is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States. It is located on a peninsula, bordered on the north and east by the state of New York along the extent of the length of New York City on its western edge. New Jersey is the fourth-smallest state by area but the 11th-most populous, with 9 million residents as of 2017, the most densely populated of the 50 U. S. states. New Jersey lies within the combined statistical areas of New York City and Philadelphia. New Jersey was the second-wealthiest U. S. state by median household income as of 2017. New Jersey was inhabited by Native Americans for more than 2,800 years, with historical tribes such as the Lenape along the coast. In the early 17th century, the Dutch and the Swedes founded the first European settlements in the state; the English seized control of the region, naming it the Province of New Jersey after the largest of the Channel Islands and granting it as a colony to Sir George Carteret and John Berkeley, 1st Baron Berkeley of Stratton.
New Jersey was the site of several decisive battles during the American Revolutionary War in the 18th century. In the 19th century, factories in cities, Paterson, Trenton, Jersey City, Elizabeth helped to drive the Industrial Revolution. New Jersey's geographic location at the center of the Northeast megalopolis, between Boston and New York City to the northeast, Philadelphia and Washington, D. C. to the southwest, fueled its rapid growth through the process of suburbanization in the second half of the 20th century. In the first decades of the 21st century, this suburbanization began reverting with the consolidation of New Jersey's culturally diverse populace toward more urban settings within the state, with towns home to commuter rail stations outpacing the population growth of more automobile-oriented suburbs since 2008. Around 180 million years ago, during the Jurassic Period, New Jersey bordered North Africa; the pressure of the collision between North America and Africa gave rise to the Appalachian Mountains.
Around 18,000 years ago, the Ice Age resulted in glaciers. As the glaciers retreated, they left behind Lake Passaic, as well as many rivers and gorges. New Jersey was settled by Native Americans, with the Lenni-Lenape being dominant at the time of contact. Scheyichbi is the Lenape name for the land, now New Jersey; the Lenape were several autonomous groups that practiced maize agriculture in order to supplement their hunting and gathering in the region surrounding the Delaware River, the lower Hudson River, western Long Island Sound. The Lenape society was divided into matrilinear clans; these clans were organized into three distinct phratries identified by their animal sign: Turtle and Wolf. They first encountered the Dutch in the early 17th century, their primary relationship with the Europeans was through fur trade; the Dutch became the first Europeans to lay claim to lands in New Jersey. The Dutch colony of New Netherland consisted of parts of modern Middle Atlantic states. Although the European principle of land ownership was not recognized by the Lenape, Dutch West India Company policy required its colonists to purchase the land that they settled.
The first to do so was Michiel Pauw who established a patronship called Pavonia in 1630 along the North River which became the Bergen. Peter Minuit's purchase of lands along the Delaware River established the colony of New Sweden; the entire region became a territory of England on June 24, 1664, after an English fleet under the command of Colonel Richard Nicolls sailed into what is now New York Harbor and took control of Fort Amsterdam, annexing the entire province. During the English Civil War, the Channel Island of Jersey remained loyal to the British Crown and gave sanctuary to the King, it was from the Royal Square in Saint Helier that Charles II of England was proclaimed King in 1649, following the execution of his father, Charles I. The North American lands were divided by Charles II, who gave his brother, the Duke of York, the region between New England and Maryland as a proprietary colony. James granted the land between the Hudson River and the Delaware River to two friends who had remained loyal through the English Civil War: Sir George Carteret and Lord Berkeley of Stratton.
The area was named the Province of New Jersey. Since the state's inception, New Jersey has been characterized by religious diversity. New England Congregationalists settled alongside Scots Presbyterians and Dutch Reformed migrants. While the majority of residents lived in towns with individual landholdings of 100 acres, a few rich proprietors owned vast estates. English Quakers and Anglicans owned large landholdings. Unlike Plymouth Colony and other colonies, New Jersey was populated by a secondary wave of immigrants who came from other colonies instead of those who migrated directly from Europe. New Jersey remained agrarian and rural throughout the colonial era, commercial farming developed sporadically; some townships, such as Burlington on the Delaware River and Perth Amboy, emerged as important ports for shipping to New York City and Philadelphia. The colony's fertile lands and tolerant religious policy drew more settlers, New Jersey's population had increased to 120,000 by 1775. Settlement for the first 10 years of English rule took place along Hackensack River and Arthur Kill –
The Watchung Mountains are a group of three long low ridges of volcanic origin, between 400 and 500 feet high, lying parallel to each other in northern New Jersey in the United States. The Watchung Mountains are known for their numerous scenic vistas overlooking New York City and New Jersey skylines, as well as their isolated ecosystems containing rare plants, endangered wildlife, rich minerals, globally imperiled trap rock glade communities; the ridges traditionally contained the westward spread of urbanization, forming a significant geologic barrier beyond the piedmont west of the Hudson River. Treaties moved the boundary to the top of the mountain, to include the springs; the Watchungs are geologically similar to the Palisades along the Hudson river. In many places, the mountains have become sinuous islands of natural landscape within the suburban sprawl covering much of contemporary northeastern New Jersey. Parks and numerous historical sites dot the valleys and slopes of the mountains, providing recreational and cultural activities to one of the most densely populated regions of the nation.
The two most prominent ridges, known as First Watchung Mountain and Second Watchung Mountain, stretch for over forty miles from Somerville in the southwest through Morris County, Union County, Essex County, Passaic County to Mahwah in the northeast. The less prominent and discontinuous ridge formed by Long Hill, Riker Hill, Hook Mountain, Packanack Mountain is sometimes referred to as Third Watchung Mountain and lies on the northwestern side of Second Watchung Mountain; the entireties of First Watchung Mountain and Second Watchung Mountain are erroneously referred to as Orange Mountain and Preakness Mountain. The names ‘Orange’ and ‘Preakness’ have only been applied to specific sections of these ridges; the confusion appears to have arisen from the fact that First Watchung Mountain is said to be composed of Orange Mountain basalt, while Second Watchung Mountain is composed of Preakness Mountain basalt. The names applied to the basalts are geologic type localities, to say, the type of rock found at Orange Mountain is exclusive to all of First Watchung Mountain, while the type of rock found at Preakness Mountain is exclusive to all of Second Watchung Mountain.
Like First and Second Watchung Mountain, Third Watchung Mountain is sometimes confused with its type locality, as its entire length is erroneously referred to as Hook Mountain on some occasions. In addition to the three main ridges of the Watchungs, a smaller fourth ridge exists south of Morristown and west of Third Watchung Mountain. While attaining elevations over 400 ft above sea level, the ridge lacks topographic prominence, only rising to about 100 ft above the surrounding terrain. Only one portion of the ridge is named, a southern section underlying Harding Township known as Lees Hill. All of the ridges lie to the east of the higher Appalachian Mountains, which in northern New Jersey are referred to as the New York - New Jersey Highlands. Together with the Appalachian Mountains to the west, the Watchungs pen in an area occupied by the prehistoric Glacial Lake Passaic; the Great Swamp, a large portion of, designated as the Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge, is a remnant of this lake, presently retained by Third Watchung Mountain.
Although the Watchungs are described in terms of their east-west ridge arrangement, they are divided into smaller mountain ranges, as well as various named ridges. Following is a list describing the notable ranges and ridges of the Watchungs from north to south. Campgaw Mountain is the northernmost ridge of the Watchungs, formed by a combination of First and Second Watchung Mountain, its northern terminus is the Ramapo Mountains, near the New York border. A shallow gap separates its southern end from Goffle Hill. Preakness Mountain comprises part of the northern extent of Second Watchung Mountain between the Passaic River and Campgaw Mountain. Along with Packanack Mountain to the west, Preakness Mountain forms the Preakness Range; the three highest peaks of the Watchungs are located in this range. Goffle Hill, part of First Watchung Mountain, flanks the eastern side of Preakness Mountain, its northern end is broken by a shallow gap separating it from Campgaw Mountain, while its southern end is divided from Garret Mountain by the Passaic River in Paterson.
Third Watchung Mountain begins with part of the Preakness Range. The Pompton River separates the south end of Pakanack from the beginning of Towakhow Mountain or Hook Mountain, which runs west-northwest and turns south to form a curve encircling the Great Piece Meadows along the Passaic River, ending near Pine Brook. To the south, the Rockaway and Passaic Rivers flow east through a gap in the range, which resumes south of Beaufort, New Jersey as Riker Hill; the Passaic flows west through another gap north of Chatham, below which Long Hill stretches southwest and west to Millington, where the Passaic drains the Great Swamp and cuts through the range. Third Watchung extends a short distance west of Millington to Liberty Corner, with a spur, Cedar Hill, jutting northeast at Lyons; the Newark Mountains are a historical range, encompassing the ridges of First and Second Watchung Mountain south of the Passaic River. First Watchung Mountain in this range begins in the north as Garret Mountain
The Raritan River is a major river of central New Jersey in the United States. Its watershed drains much of the mountainous area of the central part of the state, emptying into the Raritan Bay on the Atlantic Ocean. Geologists assert that the lower Raritan provided the course of the mouth of the Hudson River 6,000 years ago. Following the end of the last ice age, the Narrows had not yet been formed and the Hudson flowed along the Watchung Mountains to present-day Bound Brook followed the course of the Raritan eastward into Lower New York Bay; the river forms at the confluence of the North and South Branches just west of Somerville at the border of Bridgewater and Hillsborough Townships. It flows for 16 mi before slowing in tidewater at New Brunswick, its estuary extends 14 mi more entering the western end of Raritan Bay at South Amboy; the river has served an important water transportation route since the Pre-Columbian era. The name Raritan is applied to the Raritan people, an Algonquian tribe that inhabited Staten Island, near the river's mouth.
In colonial days, the river allowed the development of early industry around New Brunswick, as well as the transportation of agricultural materials from central New Jersey. During the American Revolutionary War, the river provided a means for troop conveyance; the construction of the Delaware and Raritan Canal along the right bank of the river provided a critical link between New York City and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania on the Delaware River. Comprehensive measures have been taken to increase the water quality; these actions have benefited the fish population which include largemouth bass, smallmouth bass, catfish, chain pickerel, american eels and yellow perch. Pike can be found in relative abundance in some portions of the river like Califon. An occasional Musky has been taken out of the Raritan as well; the tidal portions of the river host migratory salt water species such as striped bass, winter flounder and bluefish. Efforts to restore anadromous fish populations have been made, done by removing many of the obsolete dams and the constructing dam bypass infrastructure.
This will result in restoring shad, striped bass, sturgeon populations in the river. Many nesting birds and water fowl make their homes along the length of the river. Crustaceans such as blue claw crab, fiddler crabs and green crabs are found in the tidal sections of the river. Crayfish can be found farther upstream; the river is used for recreational boating, including use by the rowing team of Rutgers University in New Brunswick. The river is featured in the title of Rutgers' alma mater, On the Banks of the Old Raritan, its flooding is mentioned in the song; the musical 1776 mentions troops bathing in the Raritan River. Near its mouth, the river is spanned by a New Jersey Transit railroad bridge which carries the North Jersey Coast Line. S. Route 9; the Raritan River is an important source of drinking water for the central portion of New Jersey. Two water purification plants, operated by New Jersey American Water, are located where the Raritan River and its largest tributary meet just east of Manville, New Jersey.
At times of drought and low water flow rates, the flow rate in the Raritan River is enhanced by planned discharges from the Round Valley Reservoir and Spruce Run Reservoir, both of which are located close to the South Branch of the Raritan River in Hunterdon County, New Jersey, are connected to the river via outflow pipes/channels. The water levels are boosted so downstream water purification facilities will have adequate water supplies in times of drought; the Raritan River has persistent flooding problems when excessive rain from storms affects the river basin. The flooding problems affect the town of Bound Brook, built on a natural flood plain at the junction of several tributaries, Manville, which has a large neighborhood known as Lost Valley that lies on the floodplain between the Raritan River and its largest tributary river, known as the Millstone River. Other towns in the Raritan River basin experience flooding to a lesser degree. Record flooding in the aftermath of Hurricane Floyd in September 1999 flood crest, 14 ft above flood stage) caused renewed interest in a flood control project called the Green Brook Flood Control Project, designed to protect Bound Brook from a 150-year flood.
In August 2011, record flooding occurred once again. This problem was exacerbated by well-above average rainfall that fell in the weeks before the storm hit, spurred completion of the Army Corps of Engineers flood control project; as of 2015, the current status of this project is: The R2 levee system is functionally complete – The R2 Levee System is designed to provide Bound Brook with protection from a 150-year flood level. The levee is built to the height of the raised Talmage Avenue Bridge. Closure gates along Raritan are functionally complete – The gate closures across the New Jersey Transit railroad tracks on the western side of Bound Brook and at the South Main Street railroad underpass that leads to Queens Bridge have been completed and are used to keep flood waters out of Bound Brook; the new Talmadge Avenue Bridge that connects Bound Brook and Bridgewater, New Jersey is functionally complete. The replaceme
South Branch Raritan River
The South Branch Raritan River is a 50-mile-long tributary of the Raritan River in central New Jersey in the United States. The source of the South Branch is the outflow from Budd Lake, a glacial remnant located a few miles northeast of Hackettstown; the river flows out of Morris County, down the middle of Hunterdon County, along the western edge of Somerset County. At its end, it forms the border between Branchburg and Hillsborough Townships and, upon reaching the border of Bridgewater Township, joins the North Branch Raritan River to form the Raritan River, which flows eastward from that point; this area where the branches converge was called "Tucca-Ramma-Hacking" by the Lenape meaning the flowing together of water. It was called "Two Bridges" by the early European settlers, after a set of bridges built in 1733 that met at a small island on the North Branch. Today the area is referred to as "The Confluence". In the 1970s, the state discussed plans for a Raritan Confluence Reservoir, which have been shelved due to acquisition costs.
The river’s local grassroots organization is the South Branch Watershed Association. Their mission is to “Protect the Water Resources of the South Branch of the Raritan River and its Watershed”. Established in 1959, the South Branch Watershed Association is one of the oldest and largest watershed associations in New Jersey, covering 276 square miles, 3 counties and 25 municipalities; the group offers homeowner well testing, environmental education, river monitoring, annual river cleanup and stream restoration. Interestingly, both North and South branches of the Raritan run nearly parallel southwards and west of one another, but receive their names from the direction each one flows from at their confluence; the unincorporated village of South Branch is located in Hillsborough Township. Allerton Creek Assicong Creek Beaver Brook Bushkill Brook Capoolong Creek Cramers Creek Drakes Brook Electric Brook Holland Brook Little Brook Minneaconing Creek Neshanic River Pleasant Run Prescott Brook Spruce Run Brook Sidney Brook Stony Brook Turkey Brook List of rivers of New Jersey U.
S. Geological Survey: NJ stream gaging stations South Branch Watershed Association