North Carolina is a state in the southeastern region of the United States. It borders South Carolina and Georgia to the south, Tennessee to the west, Virginia to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the east. North Carolina is the 28th-most extensive and the 9th-most populous of the U. S. states. The state is divided into 100 counties; the capital is Raleigh, which along with Durham and Chapel Hill is home to the largest research park in the United States. The most populous municipality is Charlotte, the second-largest banking center in the United States after New York City; the state has a wide range of elevations, from sea level on the coast to 6,684 feet at Mount Mitchell, the highest point in North America east of the Mississippi River. The climate of the coastal plains is influenced by the Atlantic Ocean. Most of the state falls in the humid subtropical climate zone. More than 300 miles from the coast, the western, mountainous part of the state has a subtropical highland climate. Woodland-culture Native Americans were in the area around 1000 BCE.
During this time, important buildings were constructed as flat-topped buildings. By 1550, many groups of American Indians lived in present-day North Carolina, including Chowanoke, Pamlico, Coree, Cape Fear Indians, Waxhaw and Catawba. Juan Pardo explored the area in 1566–1567, establishing Fort San Juan in 1567 at the site of the Native American community of Joara, a Mississippian culture regional chiefdom in the western interior, near the present-day city of Morganton; the fort lasted only 18 months. A expedition by Philip Amadas and Arthur Barlowe followed in 1584, at the direction of Sir Walter Raleigh. In June 1718, the pirate Blackbeard ran his flagship, the Queen Anne's Revenge, aground at Beaufort Inlet, North Carolina, in present-day Carteret County. After the grounding her crew and supplies were transferred to smaller ships. In November, after appealing to the governor of North Carolina, who promised safe-haven and a pardon, Blackbeard was killed in an ambush by troops from Virginia.
In 1996 Intersal, Inc. a private firm, discovered the remains of a vessel to be the Queen Anne's Revenge, added to the US National Register of Historic Places. North Carolina became one of the English Thirteen Colonies and with the territory of South Carolina was known as the Province of North-Carolina; the northern and southern parts of the original province separated in 1729. Settled by small farmers, sometimes having a few slaves, who were oriented toward subsistence agriculture, the colony lacked cities or towns. Pirates menaced the coastal settlements. Growth was strong in the middle of the 18th century, as the economy attracted Scots-Irish, Quaker and German immigrants. A majority of the colonists supported the American Revolution, a smaller number of Loyalists than in some other colonies such as Georgia, South Carolina, New York. During colonial times, Edenton served as the state capital beginning in 1722, New Bern was selected as the capital in 1766. Construction of Tryon Palace, which served as the residence and offices of the provincial governor William Tryon, began in 1767 and was completed in 1771.
In 1788 Raleigh was chosen as the site of the new capital, as its central location protected it from coastal attacks. Established in 1792 as both county seat and state capital, the city was named after Sir Walter Raleigh, sponsor of Roanoke, the "lost colony" on Roanoke Island; the population of the colony more than quadrupled from 52,000 in 1740 to 270,000 in 1780 from high immigration from Virginia and Pennsylvania plus immigrants from abroad. North Carolina made the smallest per-capita contribution to the war of any state, as only 7,800 men joined the Continental Army under General George Washington. There was some military action in 1780–81. Many Carolinian frontiersmen had moved west over the mountains, into the Washington District, but in 1789, following the Revolution, the state was persuaded to relinquish its claim to the western lands, it ceded them to the national government so that the Northwest Territory could be organized and managed nationally. After 1800, cotton and tobacco became important export crops.
The eastern half of the state the Tidewater region, developed a slave society based on a plantation system and slave labor. Many free people of color migrated to the frontier along with their European-American neighbors, where the social system was looser. By 1810, nearly 3 percent of the free population consisted of free people of color, who numbered more than 10,000; the western areas were dominated by white families Scots-Irish, who operated small subsistence farms. In the early national period, the state became a center of Jeffersonian and Jacksonian democracy, with a strong Whig presence in the West. After Nat Turner's slave uprising in 1831, North Carolina and other southern states reduced the rights of free blacks. In 1835 the legislature withdrew their right to vote. On May 20, 1861, North Carolina was the last of the Confederate states to declare secession from the Union, 13 days after the Tennessee legislature voted for secession; some 125,000 North Carolinians served in the military.
The GEO Group, Inc. is a Florida-based company specializing in privatized corrections and mental health treatment, stress control. It maintains facilities in North America, South Africa, the United Kingdom. In 2015, the GEO Group's contracts with the U. S. federal government for operating prisons generated about 45% of its revenues. GEO Group facilities include prisons of all three security levels, immigration detention centers, minimum-security detention centers, mental-health and residential-treatment facilities, it owns numerous facilities and, in other cases, operates state or federal facilities under contract. The company has been the subject of civil suits in the United States by prisoners and families of prisoners for injuries due to riots and poor treatment at prisons and immigrant detention facilities which it has operated. In addition, due to settlement of a class-action suit in 2012 for its management of Walnut Grove Youth Correctional Facility in Mississippi, the GEO Group lost its contract for this and two other Mississippi prisons.
Related federal investigations of kickback and bribery schemes associated with nearly $1 billion in Mississippi state contracts for prisons and related services have resulted in the criminal prosecution of several public officials in the state. In February 2017, the state attorney general announced a civil suit for damages, to recover monies from contracts completed in the period of corruption. In August 2016, the U. S. Department of Justice announced its intention to phase out contracts with operated prisons; the U. S. Department of Homeland Security said it was reviewing its contracts with private firms, which operate several immigrant detention facilities. In the spring of 2017, officials of the Donald Trump administration said they would be reviewing this policy. Wackenhut Corrections Corporation was formed as a division of the Wackenhut Corporation in 1984, it was incorporated as a Wackenhut subsidiary in 1988. In July 1994, WCC became a separately traded public company. In 2003, WCC management raised funds to repurchase all common stock held by G4S, changing its name to the GEO Group, Inc.
In 2005, the GEO Group acquired Correctional Services Corporation for US$62 million in cash, assumed $124 million of that company's debt. GEO sold CSC's juvenile services division in 2005 to James Slattery, CSC's former CEO, for $3.75 million. Slattery renamed this business as Slattery's Youth Services International. On August 12, 2010, the GEO Group acquired Cornell Companies Cornell Corrections, for $730 million in stock and cash. In February 2011, GEO announced the $415M acquisition of BI Incorporated, provider of electronic offender-tracking equipment and services, founded in 1978 and based in Boulder, Colorado. At the time, BI was the exclusive U. S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement provider of Intensive Supervision and Appearance Program monitoring and supervision services. In summer 2018, with the federal government's immigration actions on the national radar, the GEO Group subsidiary received media attention for the half billion dollars in contracts it has received from ICE since 2004.
GEO announced the closing of its $360 million cash purchase of Community Education Centers on April 4, 2017. CEC owned and/or managed more than 12,000 beds in the U. S; this included over 7,000 community re-entry beds. It provided in-prison treatment services at over 30 government-operated facilities; as of 2017, GEO Group shares are held by institutional investors. In 2010, the company was reported to operate more than a dozen facilities in the state of Texas, nearly three dozen in the rest of the United States. In addition to prison facilities operated under contract with U. S. states, the GEO Group owns and operates the Broward Transitional Center in Pompano Beach, the Aurora Detention Facility and the Northwest Detention Center in Tacoma, all under contract with U. S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement; as of the fiscal year ended December 31, 2012, GEO managed 96 facilities worldwide totaling about 73,000 beds, including 65,949 active beds and 6,056 idle beds. The company had an average facility occupancy rate of 95.7% for 2012.
Other GEO Group facilities include the Reeves County Detention Complex, a three-part complex in Texas described as the largest private prison in the world. It houses more than 3700 inmates immigrants held for low-level crimes before being deported after serving their sentences. Riots here by prisoners in 2008 and 2009 because of poor conditions resulted in more than $21 million in damages. Internationally, in 2010, GEO operated a total of another 10 facilities in Australia, South Africa, Cuba; as of 2016, subsidiary GEO Group Australia operated four prisons, with a fifth facility expected to open in late 2017. In the U. K. GEO Group are associated with several contracts; the organisation runs the Dungavel Immigration Removal Centre, expanded in 2013 to hold 249 detainees and female. In 2004 the Children's Commissioner for Scotland described conditions at the facility as "morally upsetting" and threatened to report the UK and Scottish governments to the United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child..
In London, it runs the Harmondsworth migrant detention centre. This facility can hold up to 661 detainees. GEO Group is contracted to the deportation of migrants. GEO Group operation of the Migrant Operations Center at Guantanamo Bay, which began in 2006, ended in 2012. GEO conducts its business through four business se
Roy Asberry Cooper III is an American politician and attorney serving as the 75th Governor of North Carolina since January 1, 2017. A member of the Democratic Party, Cooper had served as the elected Attorney General of North Carolina since 2001. Prior to that, he served in the General Assembly in both the North Carolina House of Representatives and the North Carolina Senate, he narrowly defeated Republican incumbent Pat McCrory for the governorship in the 2016 election. On December 5, McCrory conceded the election, making Cooper the first challenger since 1850 to defeat a sitting North Carolina Governor. Cooper took office on January 1, 2017; the Republican-dominated legislature passed bills in a special session before he took office to reduce his power. The legislature has overridden several of his vetoes of legislation. Cooper was born in Nash County, North Carolina, the son of Beverly Thorne Batchelor, a school teacher, Roy Asberry Cooper Jr, he was worked in tobacco fields during the summer as a teenager.
He received the Morehead Scholarship at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill for his undergraduate studies. He was elected as the president of the university's Young Democrats, he earned a Juris Doctor degree from the University of North Carolina School of Law. After practicing law with his family's law firm for a number of years, Cooper was elected to the North Carolina House of Representatives in 1986, he was appointed to the North Carolina Senate in 1991 to fill a remaining term of a seat, vacated. In 1997, he was elected as Democratic Majority Leader of the state Senate, he continued to practice law as the managing partner of the law firm Fields & Cooper in Rocky Mount and Nashville, North Carolina. Cooper was elected North Carolina Attorney General in November 2000 and took office on January 6, 2001. Cooper was mentioned as a possible Democratic candidate for North Carolina governor in 2008, but he decided to run for re-election as Attorney General instead, he was re-elected, garnering more votes than any other statewide candidate in the 2008 Attorney General election.
Both state and national Democrats attempted to recruit him to run against Republican US Senator Richard Burr in 2010, but he declined. In 2012 politicians suggested him as a possible candidate for Governor of North Carolina after incumbent Governor Bev Perdue announced her retirement, but Cooper declined to run, his political consultant announced in 2011 that Cooper would seek a fourth term in 2012. He was unopposed in both the general election. In the November 2012 elections, Cooper received 2,828,941 votes. In January 2007, when Durham District Attorney Mike Nifong asked to be recused from dealing with the Duke lacrosse case, Attorney General Cooper's office assumed responsibility for the case. On April 11, 2007, Cooper dismissed the case against the Duke lacrosse team players, declaring them "innocent" and victims of a "tragic rush to accuse". Two days following the 2007 Virginia Tech shooting he created the Campus Safety Task Force to analyze school shootings and make policy recommendations to help the government prevent and respond to them.
The committee delivered its report to him in January 2008. Following the release of the task force's findings, Cooper assisted members of the North Carolina General Assembly in passing a law which required court clerks to record involuntary commitments in a national gun permit database. Following a decision in 2010 by a three-judge panel to exonerate Gregor Taylor, who had served nearly seventeen years for the first-degree murder of Jaquetta Thomas, Cooper ordered an audit after it was learned that officials at the North Carolina State Bureau of Investigation forensic lab had withheld information; this suppression of evidence had contributed to Taylor's conviction for murder. The audit was released in 2010. In addition, they did not keep up with the latest tests; the two investigators, Chris Swecker and Micheal Fox, cited 230 cases that were tainted by these actions. Three persons convicted in such cases had been executed. A massive state effort was undertaken to follow up on their cases. Cooper argued his first case before the United States Supreme Court, J. D. B. v. North Carolina, in 2011, a case related to Miranda rights in juvenile cases.
The Court ruled 5–4 against North Carolina. Cooper ran for Governor of North Carolina in the 2016 election against incumbent Republican Pat McCrory. In March 2016, the Republican-dominated North Carolina General Assembly passed the Public Facilities Privacy & Security Act. Numerous corporations began boycotting the state in protest of the law, cancelling job investment and expansion plans; as a result of the economic damage caused by the law, McCrory's approval rating fell in the months preceding the election. The election was close. After an extended legal battle, McCrory conceded the election to Cooper on December 5. Out of 4.7 million total ballots, Cooper won by a margin 10,227 votes. He garnered a majority of the votes in Mecklenburg, Guilford, Cumberland and Buncombe counties, but lost to McCrory in the other 93. Dismayed by Cooper's win, the Republican-controlled General Assembly passed special legislation before he was inaugurated to reduce the power of the governor's office. In what The New York Times described as a "surprise special session", Republican legislators moved to strip away Cooper's powers bef
Law enforcement agency
A law enforcement agency, in North American English, is a government agency responsible for the enforcement of the laws. Outside North America, such organizations are called police services. In North America, some of these services are called police, others are known as sheriff's offices/departments, while investigative police services in the United States are called bureaus, for example the Federal Bureau of Investigation. LEAs which have their ability to apply their powers restricted in some way are said to operate within a jurisdiction. LEAs will have some form of geographic restriction on their ability to apply their powers; the LEA might be able to apply its powers within a country, for example the United States of America's Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Explosives or its Drug Enforcement Administration, within a division of a country, for example the Australian state Queensland Police, or across a collection of countries, for example international organizations such as Interpol, or the European Union's Europol.
LEAs which operate across a collection of countries tend to assist in law enforcement activities, rather than directly enforcing laws, by facilitating the sharing of information necessary for law enforcement between LEAs within those countries, for example Europol has no executive powers. Sometimes a LEA’s jurisdiction is determined by the complexity or seriousness of the non compliance with a law; some countries determine the jurisdiction in these circumstances by means of policy and resource allocation between agencies, for example in Australia, the Australian Federal Police take on complex serious matters referred to it by an agency and the agency will undertake its own investigations of less serious or complex matters by consensus, while other countries have laws which decide the jurisdiction, for example in the United States of America some matters are required by law to be referred to other agencies if they are of a certain level of seriousness or complexity, for example cross state boundary kidnapping in the United States is escalated to the Federal Bureau of Investigation.
Differentiation of jurisdiction based on the seriousness and complexity of the non compliance either by law or by policy and consensus can coexist in countries. A LEA which has a wide range of powers but whose ability is restricted geographically to an area, only part of a country, is referred to as local police or territorial police. Other LEAs have a jurisdiction defined by the type of laws they assist in enforcing. For example, Interpol does not work with political, religious, or racial matters. A LEA’s jurisdiction also includes the governing bodies they support, the LEA itself. Jurisdictionally, there can be an important difference between international LEAs and multinational LEAs though both are referred to as "international" in official documents. An international law enforcement agency has jurisdiction and or operates in multiple countries and across State borders, for example Interpol. A multinational law enforcement agency will operate in only one country, or one division of a country, but is made up of personnel from several countries, for example the European Union Police Mission in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
International LEAs are also multinational, for example Interpol, but multinational LEAs are not international. Within a country, the jurisdiction of law enforcement agencies can be organized and structured in a number of ways to provide law enforcement throughout the country. A law enforcement agency’s jurisdiction can be for the whole country or for a division or sub-division within the country. LEA jurisdiction for a division within a country can be at more than one level, for example at the division level, state, province, or territory level, for example at the sub division level, county, shire, or municipality or metropolitan area level. In Australia for example, each state has its own LEAs. In the United States for example each state and county or city has its own LEAs; as a result, because both Australia and the United States are federations and have federal LEAs, Australia has two levels of law enforcement and the United States has multiple levels of law enforcement, Tribal, County, Town, special Jurisdiction and others.
A LEA’s jurisdiction will be geographically divided into operations areas for administrative and logistical efficiency reasons. An operations area is called a command or an office. While the operations area of a LEA is sometimes referred to as a jurisdiction, any LEA operations area still has legal jurisdiction in all geographic areas the LEA operates, but by policy and consensus the operations area does not operate in other geographical operations areas of the LEA. For example, the United Kingdom’s Metropolitan Police is divided into 32 Borough Operational Command Units, based on the London boroughs, the New York City Police Department is divided into 77 precincts. Sometimes the one legal jurisdiction is covered by more than one LEA, again for administrative and logistical efficiency reasons, or arising from policy, or historical reasons. For example, the area of jurisdiction of English and Welsh law is covered by a number of LEAs called constabularies, each of which has legal jurisdiction over the whole area covered by English and Welsh law, but they do not operate out of their areas without formal liaison between them.
The primary difference between separate agencies and operational areas within the one legal jurisdiction is the degree of flexibility to move resources between versus within agencies. When multiple LEAs cover the one legal jurisdiction, each agency still organizes itself into operations
CoreCivic the Corrections Corporation of America, is a company that owns and manages private prisons and detention centers and operates others on a concession basis. Co-founded in 1983 in Nashville, Tennessee by Thomas W. Beasley, a Republican Party chairman, Robert Crants, T. Don Hutto, it received initial investments from the Tennessee Valley Authority, Vanderbilt University, Jack C. Massey, the founder of Hospital Corporation of America; as of 2016, the company is the second largest private corrections company in the United States. CoreCivic manages more than 65 state and federal correctional and detention facilities with a capacity of more than 90,000 beds in 19 states and the District of Columbia; the company's revenue in 2012 exceeded $1.7 billion. By 2015, its contracts with federal correctional and detention authorities generated up to 51% of its revenues, it operated 22 federal facilities with the capacity for 25,851 prisoners. By 2016, Corrections Corporation of America along with GEO Group were running "more than 170 prisons and detention centres".
CCA's revenues in 2015 were $1.79bn. CCA has been the subject of much controversy over the years related to apparent attempts to save money, such as hiring inadequate staff, extensive lobbying, lack of proper cooperation with legal entities to avoid repercussions. CCA rebranded itself as CoreCivic amid the ongoing scrutiny of the private prison industry. Corrections Corporation of America was founded in Nashville, Tennessee, on January 28, 1983, by Thomas W. Beasley, Doctor Robert Crants and T. Don Hutto. Beasley served as the chairman of the Tennessee Republican Party. A founding member of its board of directors was Maurice Sigler, the former chairman of the United States Board of Parole; the initial investment came from Jack C. Massey, co-founder of the Hospital Corporation of America. An early investor prior to the IPO was Vanderbilt University, where Beasley had completed his law degree. Additionally, the Tennessee Valley Authority was another early financial backer. According to a 2013 CCA video and Beasley were the chief founders.
Hutto had years of experience in corrections and was president-elect of the American Correctional Association. The two men met with representatives of the Federal Bureau of Prisons and Immigration and Naturalization Service, which operated under U. S. Department of Justice from 1933 to 2003, to discuss a potential joint venture for a facility to detain illegal aliens in Texas. CCA was awarded a contract in late 1983 by the U. S. Department of Justice for the Bureau of Immigration and Customs Enforcement; this was the "first contract to design, build and operate a secure correctional facility." This is considered to have marked the beginning of the private prison industry. CCA had to have the facilities ready by early January 1984, ninety days from the signing of the contract. Hutto and Beasley flew to Houston and after several days, negotiated a deal with the owner of Olympic Motel—a "pair of nondescript two-story buildings" on "I-45 North between Tidwell and Parker"—to hire their family and friends to staff the re-purposed motel for four months as a detention facility.
On Super Bowl Sunday at the end of January, Hutto processed the first 87 undocumented aliens at this facility, CCA received its first payment. The company opened its first facility, the Houston Processing Center, in 1984; the Houston Detention Center was built to house individuals awaiting a decision on immigration cases or repatriation. In 1984, CCA took over the operations of the Tall Trees non-secure juvenile facility, for the Juvenile Court of Memphis and Shelby County. Two years CCA built the 200-bed Shelby Training Center in Memphis to house juvenile male offenders. In 1989, it opened the New Mexico Women's Correctional Facility in New Mexico. In the 1980s, CCA officials met with representatives of the Mitterrand administration in France, they did not win any contracts there for CCA prisons. In 1990, CCA opened the first medium-security operated prison, the state-owned Winn Correctional Center, in Winn Parish, Louisiana, it opened the Leavenworth Detention Center, operated for the U. S. Marshals Service, in 1992.
This 256-bed facility was the first maximum-security private prison under direct contract to a federal agency. CCA entered the United Kingdom in 1992, when it entered a partnership with Mowlem and Sir Robert McAlpine to form UK Detention Services, it opened the 650-bed Blackenhurst prison in England. The stockholders are corporate entities and it is classified as a real estate investment trust, or REIT. Research published in Social Justice by scholars at Rutgers University showed that in 2007, the company had "114 institutional stockholders that together amount to 28,736,071 shares of stock." The scholars added, "The largest number of shares of CCA stock is held by RS Investments, WesleyCapital MGMT and Capital Research and MGMT."In 2010, the ACLU filed a lawsuit on behalf of inmates at the Idaho Correctional Center, claiming that understaffing contributed to the high levels of violence there. In 2014, the Federal Bureau of Investigation began an investigation into CCA management of the ICC to ascertain whether any Federal statutes were violated because of the understaffing of the facility and what was found to be falsification of staffing records.
In 2016, the Obama administration provided the CCA a $1 billion no-bid contract to detain asylum seekers from Central America. CCA was renamed CoreCivic i
The Chicago Tribune is a daily newspaper based in Chicago, United States, owned by Tribune Publishing. Founded in 1847, self-styled as the "World's Greatest Newspaper", it remains the most-read daily newspaper of the Chicago metropolitan area and the Great Lakes region, it is the eighth-largest newspaper in the United States by circulation. Traditionally published as a broadsheet, on January 13, 2009, the Tribune announced it would continue publishing as a broadsheet for home delivery, but would publish in tabloid format for newsstand, news box, commuter station sales; this change, proved to be unpopular with readers and in August 2011, the Tribune discontinued the tabloid edition, returning to its traditional broadsheet edition through all distribution channels. The Tribune's masthead is notable for displaying the American flag, in reference to the paper's motto, "An American Paper for Americans"; the motto is no longer displayed on the masthead. The Tribune was founded by James Kelly, John E. Wheeler, Joseph K. C.
Forrest, publishing the first edition on June 10, 1847. Numerous changes in ownership and editorship took place over the next eight years; the Tribune was not politically affiliated, but tended to support either the Whig or Free Soil parties against the Democrats in elections. By late 1853, it was running xenophobic editorials that criticized foreigners and Roman Catholics. About this time it became a strong proponent of temperance; however nativist its editorials may have been, it was not until February 10, 1855 that the Tribune formally affiliated itself with the nativist American or Know Nothing party, whose candidate Levi Boone was elected Mayor of Chicago the following month. By about 1854, part-owner Capt. J. D. Webster General Webster and chief of staff at the Battle of Shiloh, Dr. Charles H. Ray of Galena, through Horace Greeley, convinced Joseph Medill of Cleveland's Leader to become managing editor. Ray became editor-in-chief, Medill became the managing editor, Alfred Cowles, Sr. brother of Edwin Cowles was the bookkeeper.
Each purchased one third of the Tribune. Under their leadership, the Tribune distanced itself from the Know Nothings, became the main Chicago organ of the Republican Party. However, the paper continued to print anti-Catholic and anti-Irish editorials, in the wake of the massive Famine immigration from Ireland; the Tribune absorbed three other Chicago publications under the new editors: the Free West in 1855, the Democratic Press of William Bross in 1858, the Chicago Democrat in 1861, whose editor, John Wentworth, left his position when elected as Mayor of Chicago. Between 1858 and 1860, the paper was known as the Chicago Tribune. On October 25, 1860, it became the Chicago Daily Tribune. Before and during the American Civil War, the new editors supported Abraham Lincoln, whom Medill helped secure the presidency in 1860, pushed an abolitionist agenda; the paper remained a force in Republican politics for years afterwards. In 1861, the Tribune published new lyrics by William W. Patton for the song "John Brown's Body".
These rivaled the lyrics published two months by Julia Ward Howe. Medill served as mayor of Chicago for one term after the Great Chicago Fire of 1871. Under the 20th-century editorship of Colonel Robert R. McCormick, who took control in the 1920s, the paper was isolationist and aligned with the Old Right in its coverage of political news and social trends, it used the motto "The American Paper for Americans". Through the 1930s to the 1950s, it excoriated the Democrats and the New Deal of Franklin D. Roosevelt, was resolutely disdainful of the British and French, enthusiastic for Chiang Kai-shek and Sen. Joseph McCarthy; when McCormick assumed the position of co-editor in 1910, the Tribune was the third-best-selling paper among Chicago's eight dailies, with a circulation of only 188,000. The young cousins added features such as advice columns and homegrown comic strips such as Little Orphan Annie and Moon Mullins, they promoted political "crusades", with their first success coming with the ouster of the Republican political boss of Illinois, Sen. William Lorimer.
At the same time, the Tribune competed with the Hearst paper, the Chicago Examiner, in a circulation war. By 1914, the cousins succeeded in forcing out Managing Editor William Keeley. By 1918, the Examiner was forced to merge with the Chicago Herald. In 1919, Patterson left the Tribune and moved to New York to launch his own newspaper, the New York Daily News. In a renewed circulation war with Hearst's Herald-Examiner, McCormick and Hearst ran rival lotteries in 1922; the Tribune won the battle. In 1922, the Chicago Tribune hosted an international design competition for its new headquarters, the Tribune Tower; the competition worked brilliantly as a publicity stunt, more than 260 entries were received. The winner was a neo-Gothic design by New York architects John Mead Howells and Raymond Hood; the newspaper sponsored a pioneering attempt at Arctic aviation in 1929, an attempted round-trip to Europe across Greenland and Iceland in a Sikorsky amphibious aircraft. But, the aircraft was destroyed by ice on July 15, 1929, near Ungava Bay at the tip of Labrador, Canada.
The crew were rescued by the Canadian science ship CSS Acadia. The Tribune's reputation for innovation extended to radio—it bought an early station, WDAP, in 1924 and renamed it WGN, the station call letters standing for the paper's self-description as the "Worl
Raleigh, North Carolina
Raleigh is the capital of the state of North Carolina and the seat of Wake County in the United States. Raleigh is the second-largest city in the state, after Charlotte. Raleigh is known as the "City of Oaks" for its many oak trees, which line the streets in the heart of the city; the city covers a land area of 142.8 square miles. The U. S. Census Bureau estimated the city's population as 479,332 as of July 1, 2018, it is one of the fastest-growing cities in the country. The city of Raleigh is named after Sir Walter Raleigh, who established the lost Roanoke Colony in present-day Dare County. Raleigh is home to North Carolina State University and is part of Research Triangle Park, together with Durham and Chapel Hill; the "Triangle" nickname originated after the 1959 creation of the Research Triangle Park, located in Durham and Wake counties, among the three cities and their universities. The Research Triangle region encompasses the U. S. Census Bureau's Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill Combined Statistical Area, which had an estimated population of 2,037,430 in 2013.
The Raleigh metropolitan statistical area had an estimated population of 1,214,516 in 2013. Most of Raleigh is located within Wake County, with a small portion extending into Durham County; the towns of Cary, Garner, Wake Forest, Holly Springs, Fuquay-Varina, Wendell and Rolesville are some of Raleigh's primary nearby suburbs and satellite towns. Raleigh is an early example in the United States of a planned city. Following the American Revolutionary War when the US gained independence, this was chosen as the site of the state capital in 1788 and incorporated in 1792 as such; the city was laid out in a grid pattern with the North Carolina State Capitol in Union Square at the center. During the American Civil War, the city was spared from any significant battle, it fell to the Union in the closing days of the war, struggled with the economic hardships in the postwar period related to the reconstitution of labor markets, over-reliance on agriculture, the social unrest of the Reconstruction Era. Following the establishment of the Research Triangle Park in 1959, several tens of thousands of jobs were created in the fields of science and technology, it became one of the fastest-growing communities in the United States by the early 21st century.
Bath, the oldest town in North Carolina, was the first nominal capital of the colony from 1705 until 1722, when Edenton took over the role. The colony had no permanent institutions of government until the new capital New Bern was established in 1743. In December 1770, Joel Lane petitioned the North Carolina General Assembly to create a new county. On January 5, 1771, the bill creating Wake County was passed in the General Assembly; the county was formed from portions of Cumberland and Johnston counties. The county was named for the wife of Governor William Tryon; the first county seat was Bloomsbury. New Bern, a port town on the Neuse River 35 miles from the Atlantic Ocean, was the largest city and the capital of North Carolina during the American Revolution; when the British Army laid siege to the city, that site could no longer be used. Raleigh was chosen as the site of the new capital in 1788, as its central location protected it from attacks from the coast, it was established in 1792 as both county seat and state capital.
The city was named for sponsor of Roanoke, the "lost colony" on Roanoke Island. The city's location was chosen, in part, for being within 11 mi of Isaac Hunter's Tavern, a popular tavern frequented by the state legislators. No known city or town existed on the chosen city site. Raleigh is one of the few cities in the United States, planned and built to serve as a state capital, its original boundaries were formed by the downtown streets of North, East and South. The plan, a grid with two main axes meeting at a central square and an additional square in each corner, was based on Thomas Holme's 1682 plan for Philadelphia; the North Carolina General Assembly first met in Raleigh in December 1794, granted the city a charter, with a board of seven appointed commissioners and an "Intendant of Police" to govern it. In 1799, the N. C. Minerva and Raleigh Advertiser was the first newspaper published in Raleigh. John Haywood was the first Intendant of Police. In 1808, Andrew Johnson, the nation's future 17th President, was born at Casso's Inn in Raleigh.
The city's first water supply network was completed in 1818, although due to system failures, the project was abandoned. In 1819 Raleigh's first volunteer fire company was founded, followed in 1821 by a full-time fire company. In 1817, the Episcopal Diocese of North Carolina was headquartered in Raleigh. In 1831, a fire destroyed the North Carolina State House. Two years reconstruction began with quarried gneiss being delivered by the first railroad in the state. Raleigh celebrated the completions of the new State Capitol and new Raleigh & Gaston Railroad Company in 1840. In 1853, the first State Fair was held near Raleigh; the first institution of higher learning in Raleigh, Peace College, was established in 1857. Raleigh's Historic Oakwood contains many houses from the 19th century that are still in good condition. North Carolina seceded from the Union. After the Civil War began, Governor Zebulon Baird Vance ordered the construction of breastworks around the city as protection from