David Paton (architect)
David Paton was a Scottish architect and builder, who temporarily worked in the United States in the 1830s and was important in his role of supervising the completion of the North Carolina State Capitol. He returned to the United States in 1849 to teach architecture and remained for the rest of his life, he was born in Edinburgh the third child of twelve to John Paton and Elenor Roper Paton. His father was the builder of much of Edinburgh's Second New Town, he attended Edinburgh University before training as an builder. In 1825 he appears to have travelled to Paris in France as several of his drawings from this period survive. On 23 January 1829 he married Mary Nichol in Edinburgh, they had Eleanor Murray Paton. However the marriage was short-lived as his wife died early in 1833. In November 1829 he went to London; when he returned his family lived at his father's huge house within the central north “palace-block” pavilion, at 66 Great King Street, in Edinburgh's Second New Town. This house was built by his father, who had constructed most of Great King Street, this huge house was in lieu of payment.
In July 1833, following the death of his wife, he travelled to the United States, arriving, as was the norm, in New York City. It is that he left his young daughter at the family home with his parents. On arrival in New York he sought employment, found such in the offices of Ithiel Town and Alexander Jackson Davis, jointly known as Town & Davis. Due to his great experience with the construction of fine-jointed, stone-built Neo-Classical buildings they employed him and sent him as overseeing job architect to their new commission on the construction of North Carolina State Capitol. Town and Davis had taken over this prestigious commission following their submission of plans to the state regarding the project; the project was on site, following a design by William Nichols, but Town & Davis managed to usurp Nichols to obtain the commission. Paton reached Raleigh on 16 September 1834, to oversee the construction, at which stage the outer walls were complete. Paton offended Town by making many alterations to the design without Town's authority.
Town & Davis withdrew from the project and in March 1835 the commissioners appointed Paton as the architect in his own, independent capacity. The project was massive, Paton had control of up to 330 construction workers at any given time. Paton made many adaptions to the interior plan-form and roof, many adopting Scottish building techniques, such as the cantilevered “pen-checked” stone stairs, he borrowed some ideas from his time with John Soane in the form of top-lit corridors and use of balconies. He created an open-gallery beneath the dome, to form an amazingly dramatic full-height space viewing up to the underside of the dome; the interior was more functional than planned but at the same time more spatially sophisticated and dramatic. The dome itself was executed in simple coffers, reminiscent of its Greek inspiration. In 1835 he is recorded as having met William Bell, a Scottish architect far from home, in a quarry at East Chester near New York and developed a friendship, he suggested Bell for a commission for the state arsenal at Fayetteville, North Carolina which stood Bell employment for three decades.
On 2 August 1837 Paton married for the second time: Diana Bertie Gaskin Farrow of Washington, North Carolina. They had seven daughters. On 23 May 1840 Paton was dismissed by the commissioners of the Capitol just prior to its completion. At the time of its opening ceremony he was en route to New York with his family; this would have been a unsatisfactory climax to 6 years of work. Paton's dismissal was over unpaid bills for his services. Despite years of making claims, the sums owed were never paid to Paton. In 1841 Paton returned to Scotland setting up office at 32 Dundas Street in Edinburgh. In 1845 he relocated in the north of the city. During this period he once again lived with his father at 66 Great King Street in the centre of the Second New Town. In 1847 he applied to replace Thomas Brown as City Superintendent of Works for Edinburgh, he failed in this bid and the job went to Brown's former assistant, David Cousin. His return to Scotland did not prove fruitful, he did not inherit as much on his wealthy father's death as he had anticipated.
In 1849 he returned to the United States. Thereafter he appears to have been employed teaching architecture and building practice in Brooklyn until disabled by a stroke in 1875. In 1878 he declined a commission to design the governor's mansion in North Carolina and the job instead passed to Samuel Sloan, he died on 25 March 1882 in New York. He is buried in Cypress Hills National Cemetery. See 4-8 St Vincent Street, Edinburgh 4-14 Gloucester Place, Edinburgh (possibly guided by Thomas Bonnar Summerfield House, Edinburgh 1-3 York Place, Edinburgh 2-18 St Stephen Street/23,24 North West Circus Place, Edinburgh 59-73 Cumberland Street, Edinburgh 25-29 Dundas street, Edinburgh North Carolina State Capitol overseeing the design of Ithiel Town plus adapting many elements of the design to a more refined Neo-Classical form The Caldwell Institute in Greensboro, North Carolina – pro bono Alterations to University of North Carolina buildings at Chapel Hill
Sports in North Carolina
Athletes and sports teams from North Carolina compete at every level of competition in the United States including NASCAR, the NBA, the NFL, the NHL, leagues operated by the United Soccer League organization, MLL, along with several colleges and universities in various conferences across an array of divisions. North Carolina is a state known for minor league sports. There are a number of indoor football, indoor soccer, minor league basketball, minor league ice hockey teams throughout the state. Though it has never been home to a Major League Baseball club, North Carolina is home to numerous minor league and collegiate summer league teams. Many colleges with athletic programs field baseball teams; the first successful major professional sports team to be created in North Carolina were the Charlotte Hornets of the National Basketball Association, which began play in the 1988–89 season. In 2004, the NBA added the Charlotte Bobcats franchise, two years after the city lost the Hornets to New Orleans.
The Charlotte team plays its home games at the Spectrum Center. The Bobcats assumed the Hornets nickname after the conclusion of the 2013–14 season. By agreement between the NBA, Pelicans, the history and records of the 1988–2002 Hornets were assumed by the current Hornets franchise. Prior to that, the Carolina Cougars of the American Basketball Association played in various North Carolina cites. Former Charlotte Bobcats coach Larry Brown started his coaching career as head coach of the Cougars. North Carolina's first professional basketball team was the American Basketball Association's Carolina Cougars; the Cougars played in North Carolina between 1969 and 1974 and split their games between the Greensboro Coliseum, the original Charlotte Coliseum and Raleigh's Dorton Arena. Following the Cougars' move to St. Louis it would be fourteen years before professional basketball would return to the Old North State when Charlotte was awarded the NBA's 24th franchise, the Charlotte Hornets; the Hornets played at the Charlotte Coliseum before moving to New Orleans following a bitter dispute between team ownership and the city over funding for a new arena.
Two years after the Hornets decamped the Queen City was named as the home of the expansion Charlotte Bobcats who would play two seasons at the Coliseum before taking up residence at a new venue now known as Spectrum Center in Uptown. After the 2012–13 NBA season, New Orleans changed their franchise name to the New Orleans Pelicans; the franchise rights to the Hornets name and logo, plus the history of the original Charlotte Hornets, were given back to the city of Charlotte after the 2013–14 NBA season, at the same time the Charlotte Bobcats became the Charlotte Hornets. North Carolina Tar Heels legend Michael Jordan is the majority owner of the Hornets. In 2016, Greensboro was awarded with the Greensboro Swarm. Despite having hosted three professional teams, North Carolina is best known as a hotbed of college basketball and is home to some of the most successful and most popular teams in the nation in both the men's and women's game. North Carolina is home to what some consider the best rivalry in American sports, North Carolina vs. Duke.
Chapel Hill and Durham are only 8 miles apart. This rivalry reaches its climax in basketball but spills over to other sports. North Carolina State and Wake Forest are considered major rivals of the Blue Devils and Tar Heels, for more on the four-way rivalry see Tobacco Road. Other major college teams in the state include the Appalachian State Mountaineers, Charlotte 49ers, Davidson Wildcats, East Carolina Pirates, UNC Asheville Bulldogs, UNC Greensboro Spartans, UNC Wilmington Seahawks. Although North Carolina did not have a major-league professional sports franchise until the 1980s, the state has long been known as a hotbed of college basketball. Since the formation of the Atlantic Coast Conference in 1953, the conference's North Carolina member schools have excelled in conference play; the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Duke University, North Carolina State University are all located within 25 miles of one another, creating fierce rivalries. Wake Forest University, another ACC member, was located in the town of Wake Forest within the Raleigh–Durham area, until its 1956 move to Winston-Salem, less than 100 miles to the west of these schools.
UNC has won six NCAA national championships in one in women's basketball. Duke has won five NCAA men's championships, NC State has won two; the Duke-UNC basketball rivalry has been called one of the best rivalries in sports and the two schools are contenders for the national title. In addition to the ACC schools, the University of North Carolina at Charlotte went to the NCAA's Final Four in 1977, Davidson College near Charlotte went to the NCAA's "Elite Eight" in 1968, 1969, 2008. North Carolina schools have won multiple NCAA Division II basketball national championships. In 1967, Winston-Salem State University, led by future NBA star Earl Monroe and coached by the legendary Clarence "Big House" Gaines, was the first school in the state to win the Division II championship. In 1989, North Carolina Central University, now a Division I member, brought the title to the state a second time, and in 2007, Barton College in Wilson returned the title to the state a third time. Although basketball remains the dominant college sport
Raleigh, North Carolina
Raleigh is the capital of the state of North Carolina and the seat of Wake County in the United States. Raleigh is the second-largest city in the state, after Charlotte. Raleigh is known as the "City of Oaks" for its many oak trees, which line the streets in the heart of the city; the city covers a land area of 142.8 square miles. The U. S. Census Bureau estimated the city's population as 479,332 as of July 1, 2018, it is one of the fastest-growing cities in the country. The city of Raleigh is named after Sir Walter Raleigh, who established the lost Roanoke Colony in present-day Dare County. Raleigh is home to North Carolina State University and is part of Research Triangle Park, together with Durham and Chapel Hill; the "Triangle" nickname originated after the 1959 creation of the Research Triangle Park, located in Durham and Wake counties, among the three cities and their universities. The Research Triangle region encompasses the U. S. Census Bureau's Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill Combined Statistical Area, which had an estimated population of 2,037,430 in 2013.
The Raleigh metropolitan statistical area had an estimated population of 1,214,516 in 2013. Most of Raleigh is located within Wake County, with a small portion extending into Durham County; the towns of Cary, Garner, Wake Forest, Holly Springs, Fuquay-Varina, Wendell and Rolesville are some of Raleigh's primary nearby suburbs and satellite towns. Raleigh is an early example in the United States of a planned city. Following the American Revolutionary War when the US gained independence, this was chosen as the site of the state capital in 1788 and incorporated in 1792 as such; the city was laid out in a grid pattern with the North Carolina State Capitol in Union Square at the center. During the American Civil War, the city was spared from any significant battle, it fell to the Union in the closing days of the war, struggled with the economic hardships in the postwar period related to the reconstitution of labor markets, over-reliance on agriculture, the social unrest of the Reconstruction Era. Following the establishment of the Research Triangle Park in 1959, several tens of thousands of jobs were created in the fields of science and technology, it became one of the fastest-growing communities in the United States by the early 21st century.
Bath, the oldest town in North Carolina, was the first nominal capital of the colony from 1705 until 1722, when Edenton took over the role. The colony had no permanent institutions of government until the new capital New Bern was established in 1743. In December 1770, Joel Lane petitioned the North Carolina General Assembly to create a new county. On January 5, 1771, the bill creating Wake County was passed in the General Assembly; the county was formed from portions of Cumberland and Johnston counties. The county was named for the wife of Governor William Tryon; the first county seat was Bloomsbury. New Bern, a port town on the Neuse River 35 miles from the Atlantic Ocean, was the largest city and the capital of North Carolina during the American Revolution; when the British Army laid siege to the city, that site could no longer be used. Raleigh was chosen as the site of the new capital in 1788, as its central location protected it from attacks from the coast, it was established in 1792 as both county seat and state capital.
The city was named for sponsor of Roanoke, the "lost colony" on Roanoke Island. The city's location was chosen, in part, for being within 11 mi of Isaac Hunter's Tavern, a popular tavern frequented by the state legislators. No known city or town existed on the chosen city site. Raleigh is one of the few cities in the United States, planned and built to serve as a state capital, its original boundaries were formed by the downtown streets of North, East and South. The plan, a grid with two main axes meeting at a central square and an additional square in each corner, was based on Thomas Holme's 1682 plan for Philadelphia; the North Carolina General Assembly first met in Raleigh in December 1794, granted the city a charter, with a board of seven appointed commissioners and an "Intendant of Police" to govern it. In 1799, the N. C. Minerva and Raleigh Advertiser was the first newspaper published in Raleigh. John Haywood was the first Intendant of Police. In 1808, Andrew Johnson, the nation's future 17th President, was born at Casso's Inn in Raleigh.
The city's first water supply network was completed in 1818, although due to system failures, the project was abandoned. In 1819 Raleigh's first volunteer fire company was founded, followed in 1821 by a full-time fire company. In 1817, the Episcopal Diocese of North Carolina was headquartered in Raleigh. In 1831, a fire destroyed the North Carolina State House. Two years reconstruction began with quarried gneiss being delivered by the first railroad in the state. Raleigh celebrated the completions of the new State Capitol and new Raleigh & Gaston Railroad Company in 1840. In 1853, the first State Fair was held near Raleigh; the first institution of higher learning in Raleigh, Peace College, was established in 1857. Raleigh's Historic Oakwood contains many houses from the 19th century that are still in good condition. North Carolina seceded from the Union. After the Civil War began, Governor Zebulon Baird Vance ordered the construction of breastworks around the city as protection from
Geography of North Carolina
The geography of North Carolina falls into three divisions — the Appalachian Mountains in the west, the central Piedmont Plateau, the eastern Atlantic Coastal Plain. North Carolina is 503 miles long by 150 miles wide; the physical characteristics of the state can be pictured as a surface spread out upon a vast declivity, sloping down from the summits of the Smoky Mountains, an altitude of near seven thousand feet, to the ocean level. The mountains of North Carolina may be conveniently classed as four separate chains: The Great Smoky Mountains - called the "Smokies"; the Blue Ridge Mountains - North Carolina's largest mountain range, the Blue Ridge run across the state in a tortuous course and shoot out in spurs of great elevation over the surrounding terrain. The Black Mountains, a subrange of the Blue Ridge, are the highest mountains in the Eastern United States, culminate in Mount Mitchell at 6,684 feet above sea level; the Brushy Mountains - A much smaller and lower mountain range, the Brushy Mountains are located within the state's borders.
Called the "Brushies", they divide, for the greater part of their courses, the waters of the Catawba River and Yadkin River. The Brushy Mountains begin at Hibriten Mountain in Caldwell County and terminate in Pilot Mountain and the Sauratown Mountains in Stokes County; the highest point in the Brushy Mountains is Pores Knob at 2,680 feet above sea level. The Uwharrie Mountains - Named after a Native American tribe which once lived in the region; the Uwharries are North Carolina's easternmost mountain range. The Uwharries begin in Montgomery County, North Carolina and terminate in the hills of Person County, North Carolina; the highest point in the Uwharries is High Rock Mountain, only 1,119 feet above sea level. However, the Uwharries still rise several hundred feet above the surrounding terrain, which averages only 500 feet above sea level; each of these mountain ranges is marked by distinct characteristics. The Smoky Mountain chain is more continuous, more elevated, more regular in its direction and height, rises uniformly from 5,000 to 6,621 feet.
The Blue Ridge is composed of many fragments scarcely connected into a regular chain. Its higher summits range from 5,000 to nearly 6,700 feet; the eastern slopes of the Blue Ridge rise from 1,500 to 4,500 feet above the terrain to the east. The Brushy Mountain range presents, throughout the greater part of its course, a remarkable uniformity in direction and elevation, many of its peaks rising above 2,000 feet, a few rising above 2,500 feet; the last, the Uwharrie range, sometimes presents a succession of elevated ridges a number of bold and isolated knobs, which appear higher than they are, due to the relative flatness of the surrounding terrain. The piedmont section consists of the tallest peaks east of the Rocky Mountains; the tallest of the Appalachian Mountains is Mount Mitchell. Mount Mitchell is the tallest point east of the Mississippi River; the section enclosed within these limits is in shape somewhat like an ellipse. Its length is about 180 miles, it is a high plateau, from the plane of which several high mountains rise, including the Roan, the Grandfather, the Black.
Between the mountains are scenic fertile valleys, plentifully watered by streams. The mountains lie within the Appalachian-Blue Ridge forests ecoregion and are forested, they feature thick underbrush, except a few which have prairies on their summits, called balds. The Piedmont plateau forms the central third of the state; the Piedmont is a hilly region and is the most urbanized and densely populated section, containing the state's largest cities. Due to rapid urbanization over the last 30 years, a significant part of the rural area in this region has been transformed into suburbs. In particular, the cities of Charlotte and Raleigh have become major urban centers, with large and growing populations. Elevations in the Piedmont vary from 300 to 1,100 ft above sea level. Isolated mountain ranges are scattered here on the Western side, but few of them reach over 1,200 feet; the Piedmont has many forests. The Piedmont borders the Coastal Plain at the Fall Line. An important resource throughout the Piedmont is tobacco.
The original inhabitants of the Piedmont were the Catawba Indians. Europeans started settling in this region around the 1700s; the Coastal Plain is the largest geographic area of the state, covers 45% of North Carolina. The Coastal Plain begins along the fall line, a line of hills which stretch from the Sandhills region along the South Carolina border, through Fayetteville Raleigh, through Henderson, North Carolina near the Virginia border; the fall line marks. The hills of the fall line drop 150–350 ft in an eastward direction. East of the fall line, the coastal plain is flat, with sandy soils ideal for growing to
Climate of North Carolina
North Carolina's climate varies from the Atlantic coast in the east to the Appalachian Mountain range in the west. The mountains act as a "shield", blocking low temperatures and storms from the Midwest from entering the Piedmont of North Carolina. Most of the state has a humid subtropical climate, except in the higher elevations of the Appalachians which have a subtropical highland climate; the USDA hardiness zones for the state range from zone 5a in the mountains to zone 8b along the coast. For most areas in the state, the temperatures in July during the daytime are 90 °F. In January the average temperatures range near 50 °F. There is an average of forty-five inches of rain a year. July storms account for much of this precipitation; as much as 15% of the rainfall during the warm season in the Carolinas can be attributed to tropical cyclones. Mountains see some snow in the fall and winter. Moist winds from the southwest drop an average of 80 inches of precipitation on the western side of the mountains, while the northeast-facing slopes average less than half that amount.
Snow in North Carolina is seen on a regular basis in the mountains. North Carolina averages 5 inches of snow a year. However, this varies across the state. Along the coast, most areas register less than 2 inches per year while the state capital, Raleigh averages 7.5 inches. Farther west in the Piedmont-Triad, the average grows to 9 inches; the Charlotte area averages 6.5 inches. The mountains in the west act as a barrier, preventing most snowstorms from entering the Piedmont; when snow does make it past the mountains, it is light and is on the ground for more than two or three days. However, several storms have dropped 18 inches or more of snow within warm areas; the 1993 Storm of the Century that lasted from March 11 to March 15 affected locales from Canada to Central America, brought a significant amount of snow to North Carolina. Newfound Gap received more than 36 inches of snow with drifts more than 5 feet, while Mount Mitchell measured over 4 feet of snow with drifts to 14 feet. Most of the northwestern part of the state received somewhere between 2 feet an 3 feet of snow.
Another significant snowfall hit the Raleigh area in January 2000 when more than 20 inches of snow fell. There was a heavy snowfall totaling 18 inches that hit the Wilmington area on December 22-23, 1989; this storm affected only the Southeastern US coast, as far south as Savannah, GA, with little to no snow measured west of I-95. Most big snows that impact areas east of the mountains come from extratropical cyclones which approach from the south across Georgia and South Carolina and move off the coast of North or South Carolina; these storms throw Gulf or Atlantic moisture over cold Arctic air at ground level propelled southward from Arctic high pressure over the Northeastern or New England states. If the storms track sufficiently far to the east, snow will be limited to the eastern part of the state. If the cyclones travel close to the coast, warm air will get pulled into eastern North Carolina due to increasing flow off the milder Atlantic Ocean, bringing a rain/snow line well inland with heavy snow restricted to the Piedmont and mountains, as with the January 22, 1987 storm.
If the storm tracks inland into eastern North Carolina, the rain/snow line ranges between Raleigh and Greensboro. Located along the Atlantic Coast, North Carolina is no stranger to hurricanes. Many hurricanes that come up from the Caribbean Sea make it up the coast of eastern America, passing by North Carolina. On October 15, 1954, Hurricane Hazel struck North Carolina, at that time it was a category 4 hurricane within the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale. Hazel caused significant damage due to its strong winds. A weather station at Oak Island reported maximum sustained winds of 140 miles per hour, while in Raleigh winds of 90 miles per hour were measured; the hurricane caused significant destruction. One person at Long Beach claimed that "of the 357 buildings that existed in the town, 352 were destroyed and the other five damaged". Hazel was described as "the most destructive storm in the history of North Carolina" in a 1989 report. In 1996, Hurricane Fran made landfall in North Carolina; as a category 3 hurricane, Fran caused a great deal of damage through winds.
Fran's maximum sustained wind speeds were 115 miles per hour, while North Carolina's coast saw surges of 8 feet to 12 feet above sea level. The amount of damage caused by Fran ranged from $1.275 to $2 billion in North Carolina. Heavy rains accompany tropical cyclones and their remnants which move northeast from the Gulf of Mexico coastline, as well as inland from the western subtropical Atlantic ocean. Over the past 30 years, the wettest tropical cyclone to strike the coastal plain was Hurricane Floyd of September 1999, which dropped over 24 inches of rainfall north of Southport. Unlike Hazel and Fran, the main force of destruction was from precipitation. Before Hurricane Floyd reached North Carolina, the state had received large amounts of rain from Hurricane Dennis less than two weeks before Floyd; this saturated much of the Eastern North Carolina soil and allowed heavy rains from Hurricane Floyd to turn into floods. Over 35 people died from Floyd. In th
William Nichols (architect)
William Nichols, Sr. was an English-born architect who emigrated to the United States and became most famous for his early Neoclassical-style buildings in the American South. He is best known for designing early statehouses for North Carolina and Mississippi. William Nichols was born in 1780 in Bath, a center for English Palladian and Adam-style architecture in the 18th century, he was brought up in a family of builders. Nichols emigrated to North Carolina in 1800 settling in the New Bern area, he married Mary Rew in 1805 and had taken his first apprentice by 1806. His earliest commissions in the area remain unclear, although several buildings have been suggested as candidates, he applied for American citizenship in 1813, in 1815, following the death of his first wife, married Sarah Simons. In 1818 Nichols was employed as state architect of North Carolina; this made him responsible for repairs and improvements to existing ones. His most important commission during this time, was a complete remodeling of the old North Carolina State House, which he completed in 1822.
Incorporating Palladian and early Greek Revival elements, it included a new central rotunda surmounted by a dome. The Senate chamber and House of Commons both included galleries supported by Ionic columns. Admired at the time, it drew the praise of fellow architect Ithiel Town. Another of his jobs was the 1825 remodeling of the Governor's Palace at the end of Fayetteville Street in Raleigh, which included the addition of a monumental Ionic portico, it was abandoned following the Civil War and demolished. Nichols was involved in numerous private projects during this time, as well as projects at the University of North Carolina. Nichols relocated to Alabama in 1827, after receiving a commission from the legislature there to become the new state architect and build a state capitol building in the new capital of Tuscaloosa; the new capitol building was cruciform in plan, the second and third floors resting upon a high rusticated stone basement. The main eastern facade featured a gabled pseudo-portico with Ionic columns.
The ground level contained main entrances, with identical north and south one-story porticoes supported by Doric columns, each column carved from a single shaft of sandstone. A dome surmounted the central rotunda and was topped by a lantern that admitted light into the space. While working on the Alabama statehouse, Nichols designed the original campus for the newly established University of Alabama. Influenced by Thomas Jefferson's plan at the University of Virginia, the campus featured a 70-foot wide, 70-foot high domed rotunda building that served as the library and nucleus of the campus; this building and all but one of Nichols' structures were burned to the ground by the Union Army on April 4, 1865. In 1833, with a letter of recommendation from his friend, Alabama Governor John Gayle, Nichols applied for the post of state architect for Mississippi. Although he didn't receive the job at the time, he was summoned to Jackson in 1835 to fill the post and assume construction of the new Mississippi capitol.
The configuration and ornament on the new building reflected his earlier statehouses in North Carolina and Alabama, on a grander scale. Nichols went on to design the Mississippi Governor's Mansion, completed in 1842, the Lyceum at the University of Mississippi, completed in 1848, he died on December 12, 1853, was interred in the Odd Fellows Cemetery in Lexington, Mississippi. The Old Mississippi State Capitol is the only one of Nichols' three statehouses to survive; the North Carolina State House burned in 1831 during roof repairs. However and his son, William Nichols, Jr. did contribute to the design of the new North Carolina State Capitol, completed in 1840 following additional design work by Ithiel Town, Alexander Jackson Davis, David Paton. The capital of Alabama moved to Montgomery in 1845, it fulfilled that role until it too burned on August 1923 during renovations. Nichols' Mississippi capitol building was used until 1903, when the state government moved several blocks away to a new capitol designed by Theodore C.
Link. Unused, it was converted to state offices. Between 1959 and 1961 it was renovated for use as a state historical museum and served that purpose until 2005 when Hurricane Katrina damaged the building. After being restored from 2006 to 2009, it reopened as the Old Capitol Museum, focusing on the history of the building, Mississippi government during the time that the Old Capitol served as the capitol building and preservation. Hayes Plantation House in Edenton, North Carolina. Gerrard Hall at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill in Chapel Hill, North Carolina. Old West at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill in Chapel Hill, North Carolina. Eagle Lodge in Hillsborough, North Carolina. Mordecai House in Raleigh, North Carolina Gorgas House at the University of Alabama in Tuscaloosa, Alabama; the only Nichols-designed building to survive the destruction of the campus. Christ Episcopal Church in Tuscaloosa, Alabama. Thornhill near Forkland, Alabama. Rosemount near Forkland, Alabama.
Old Mississippi State Capitol in Jackson, Mississippi. Mississippi Governor's Mansion in Mississippi. Lyceum at the University of Mississippi in Oxford, Mississippi. North Carolina State House in Raleigh, North Carolina. Guilford County Courthouse in Greensboro, North
Freemasonry or Masonry consists of fraternal organisations that trace their origins to the local fraternities of stonemasons, which from the end of the fourteenth century regulated the qualifications of stonemasons and their interaction with authorities and clients. The degrees of Freemasonry retain the three grades of medieval craft guilds, those of Apprentice, Journeyman or fellow, Master Mason; the candidate of these three degrees is progressively taught the meanings of the symbols of Freemasonry, entrusted with grips and words to signify to other members that he has been so initiated. The initiations are part allegorical morality part lecture; the three degrees are offered by Craft Freemasonry. Members of these organisations are known as Masons. There are additional degrees, which vary with locality and jurisdiction, are administered by their own bodies; the basic, local organisational unit of Freemasonry is the Lodge. The Lodges are supervised and governed at the regional level by a Grand Lodge or Grand Orient.
There is no worldwide Grand Lodge that supervises all of Freemasonry. Modern Freemasonry broadly consists of two main recognition groups. Regular Freemasonry insists that a volume of scripture is open in a working lodge, that every member profess belief in a Supreme Being, that no women are admitted, that the discussion of religion and politics is banned. Continental Freemasonry is now the general term for the jurisdictions which have removed some, or all, of these restrictions; the Masonic lodge is the basic organisational unit of Freemasonry. The Lodge meets to conduct the usual formal business of any small organisation. In addition to business, the meeting may perform a ceremony to confer a Masonic degree or receive a lecture, on some aspect of Masonic history or ritual. At the conclusion of the meeting, the Lodge might adjourn for a formal dinner, or festive board, sometimes involving toasting and song; the bulk of Masonic ritual consists of degree ceremonies. Candidates for Freemasonry are progressively initiated into Freemasonry, first in the degree of Entered Apprentice.
Some time in a separate ceremony, they will be passed to the degree of Fellowcraft, they will be raised to the degree of Master Mason. In all of these ceremonies, the candidate is entrusted with passwords and grips peculiar to his new rank. Another ceremony is officers of the Lodge. In some jurisdictions Installed Master is valued as a separate rank, with its own secrets to distinguish its members. In other jurisdictions, the grade is not recognised, no inner ceremony conveys new secrets during the installation of a new Master of the Lodge. Most Lodges have some sort of social calendar, allowing Masons and their partners to meet in a less ritualised environment. Coupled with these events is the obligation placed on every Mason to contribute to charity; this occurs at both Grand Lodge level. Masonic charities contribute to many fields, such as disaster relief; these private local Lodges form the backbone of Freemasonry, a Freemason will have been initiated into one of these. There exist specialist Lodges where Masons meet to celebrate events, such as sport or Masonic research.
The rank of Master Mason entitles a Freemason to explore Masonry further through other degrees, administered separately from the Craft, or "Blue Lodge" degrees described here, but having a similar format to their meetings. There is little consistency in Freemasonry; because each Masonic jurisdiction is independent, each sets its own procedures. The wording of the ritual, the number of officers present, the layout of the meeting room, etc. varies from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. The officers of the Lodge are appointed annually; every Masonic Lodge has two Wardens, a secretary and a treasurer. There is a Tyler, or outer guard, always present outside the door of a working Lodge. Other offices vary between jurisdictions; each Masonic Lodge exists and operates according to a set of ancient principles known as the Landmarks of Freemasonry. These principles have thus far eluded any universally accepted definition. Candidates for Freemasonry will have met most active members of the Lodge they are joining before they are initiated.
The process varies between jurisdictions, but the candidate will have been introduced by a friend at a Lodge social function, or at some form of open evening in the Lodge. In modern times, interested people track down a local Lodge through the Internet; the onus is on candidates to ask to join. Once the initial inquiry is made, an interview follows to determine the candidate's suitability. If the candidate decides to proceed from here, the Lodge ballots on the application before he can be accepted; the absolute minimum requirement of any body of Freemasons is that the candidate must be free, considered to be of good character. There is an age requirement, varying between Grand Lodges, capable of being overridden by a dispensation from the Grand Lodge; the underlying assumption is that the candidate should